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Full text of "Black's picturesque tourist and road-book of England and Wales"

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(KtlUAJL lU UUVfc-K, <;AWIt.KPUKT. ULAL. KAW50AI t it WARQArt.) 




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TO TOURISTS. 



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BLACK'S GUIDE-BOOKS. 

IN PORTABLE FOOLSCAP OCTAVO VOLUMES, STRONGLY BOUND 
IN GREEN CLOTJI. 

*' Without the pretension of a tutor^ dictating what he shall admire^ the 
traveller mil find these hooks very pleasing^ intelligent, and instructive com- 
panions^ giving him the exact knowledge he requires at the exact time that he 
needs it ; and very useful, not only to the professed tourist, but to any person 
who has at any time occasion to journey from his residence in any direction, and 
who desires to know something more than the mere names of the places he visits." 
—Britannia. 

*• We have looked carefully through the volumes. They are admirnhly ' got 
up ;* the descriptions are accurate, and remarkably clear and comprehensive. We 
have seldom examined books better ' edited.* .... Altogether, this series of 
works is of immense value to tourists." — Art Journal. 

" They should find a comer in the portmanteau of every person about to under- 
take a journey of pleasure or business either in England ami Wales, or Scotland." 
—John Bull. 

ENGLAND AND WALES; Containing a General 
Travelling Map, with the Koads and Railways distinctly laid 
down ; besides sections of the more important Districts on 
an enlarged scale, and Engraved Charts of Roads, Railroads, 
and Interesting Localities. Xew Edition. Price lOs. 6d. 

" A carefully executed work, prettily illustrated, with useful maps." — 
Atheneeum. 

" Forty-Eight new Routes, Twelve engraved Charts, and upwards of lOO 
pages of letterpress have been added to what in its olden state was the 
cheapest, the best, and the handiest book of its \i\XiA."— Spectator. 

" A decided improvement upon the old Road Book."— Jb/m Bull. 

SCOTLAND ; Containing an accurate Travelling Map ; 
25 Engraved Charts of Roads, Railroads, and Interesting 
Localities, including Plans of Edinburgh and Glasgow ; 
numerous Views of the Scenerv on Wood and Steel ; and a 
copious Index. Tenth Edition, corrected and improved, 
with all the principal Hotels and Inns. Price 8s. 6d. 

•* A comprehensive, intelligent, and well-arranged Guide-Book. We 
liave been famished with an incidental proof of the remarkable accuracy 
of the Charts and Descriptions, in the personal testimony of a pedestrian, 
who has traversed a considerable space, book in hand." — Spectator. 

" As nearly as possible what a Guide Book ought to be — sensible, con- 
cise in its information, with that touch of poetry which is no less indis- 
pensable in such a haunted land than details of distances and historical 
facts, but which requires sound taste in its introduction." — Athenmim. 




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MUtt'i ^uttre It^aoltiS. 



' ENGLISH LAKES, Including an Essay on the Geo- 

I logj of the District by John Phillips, F.R.S., G.L., Professor 

of Geology in King's College, London. AVitli a minutely ac- 
curate Map, by AV. Hughes ; Charts of the Lakes, Views of 

; the Scenery, and an ample Itinerary of all the Routes, with 

the Distances accurately laid down. Fifth Edition. In a 
neat pocket volume. Price 5s. 

'* Tliis Guide to the Lakes has been compiled upon the same elaborate 

I plan Cos the Picturesque Tourist of Scotlandj, governed by the same 

1 resolution to spare no eo?t or trouble to achieve a successful result. It 

needs no higlier commendation. It is a Picturesque Guide in every sense 

— its descriptions are charmingly written— its intelligence is ample and 

minute -and its illustrations are admirable specimens of art." — Atlas. 

I ENGLISH LAKES— (Cheap Edition)— with Map, 

Charts, and Views. Price Is. 

i WALES (North and Sonth) AND MONMOUTH- 

; SHIRE ; containing minutely Engraved Travelling Maps, 

Engraved Charts of the Railways, and of the Course of 
the River Wye, very numerous views of the Scenery on 
Wood and Steel, and a copious Itinerary. Price 5s. 

HIGHLANDS AND ISLANDS OF SCOTLAND, 

(by Messrs. Anderson of Inverness) Including Orkney and 
Zetland; Descriptive of their Scenery, Statistics, Antiquities, 
and Natural History ; with Historical and Traditional Notices ; 
Maps, Views, Tables of Distances, Notices of Inns, and other 
information for the use of Tourists. TJn'rd Edition, greatly 
impi'oved. Price 10s. 6d. 

" Most copiously and praiseworthily minxxic." —A tkeneeum. 

" We do not know two individuals better adapted to the task of 
writing a Guide Book to the Highlands and Islands of Scotland than tlie 
editors of the work before us."— Literary Gazette. 

SCOTLAND— (Cheap Edition)— Containing an Ac- 
curate Travelling Map and Itinerary, with Descriptive 
Notices of all the remarkable objects along the several roads, 
with Four Engraved Charts of those Localities which possess 
peculiar Historical or Picturesque interest. Seventh Edition, 
corrected and improved. Price 3s. 6d. 

•* A work most carefully and elaborately compiled, containing the 
irreatest possible amount of in formation in the smallest possible space."— 
ffcotsman. 



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BLACKS 
PICTURESQUE TOURIST 

OF 

ENGLAND AND WALES. 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



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BLACK'S 
PICTURESQUE TOURIST 



AND 



ROAD AND RAILWAY GUIDE BOOK 



THROUGH 



ENGLAND AND WALES. 



•,^ w WITH 

UJSM A 0£N£RAL TBAVELUNG MAP ; 

C^HfT>F ROADS, RAILROADS, AND INTERESTING LOCALITIES ; 
^MGRAVED VIEWS OF PICTURESQUE SCENERY ; AND 
*'r A COMPREHENSIVE GENERAL INDEX, EMBRACING 

\e" m ^ A UST OP HOTELS AND INNS. 

<S^-J^. THIRD EDlTIOIt 

.asmrLT ENLARGED AND IMPROVED. 



EDINBURGH: 
ADAH AND CHARLES BLACK, NORTH BRIDGE, 

BOOKSELLERS AND PUBLISHERS TO THE QUEEN 



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PEEFACE 



THE THIRD EDITION. 



Upon the improvement of the present Edition much lahour and 
expense have been bestowed. Besides the most thorough revi- 
fflon and correction of the entire contents, and numerous minor 
additions to the matter of the former Two Editions, there have 
been added to the present six new routes, including among 
others, the Great Northern line of Railway, accompanied by a 
new and elaborately engraved map, which, along with the other 
engraved charts, present an accurate and comprehensive view 
of the extended railway communication throughout the country. 
To make this Edition as far as possible complete, without unne- 
cessarily swelling its dimensions, a copious list of London sights, 
with the ways and means of admission, has been included, em- 
bracing every object worthy of the tourist's attention. And 
thus London, all notice of which has hitherto been excluded 
fix)m the work on account of the space it would necessarily 
have occupied, is treated in such a way as in a great mea- 
Boie to supply that deficiency, and to make the book as perfect 
as the rapid and increasing changes of the present day make 
it possible to attain to. With these additions, the Publishers 
beUeve that the work contains a larger amount of well condensed 
information, and a more liberal accompaniment of engraved 

a. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



VI PREFACE. 

maps and charts than have ever hitherto been compressed within 
a volume so moderate in price and so convenient in size. 

The Index, besides forming a key to the contents, presents 
a list of the principal hotels and inns throughout England, under 
the names of the respective Towns, a method of imparting this 
information which will be more convenient for reference than 
any that could have been adopted. 

[ EDnTBUBGH, l8t July 1853. 




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PREFACE 

TO 

THE FIBST EDITION. 



The plan and execution of the " Picturesque TouriBt of Scot- 
land" having met with very general approval, the proprietors 
of that vohime have been encouraged to undertake a wc»rk of a 
abnilar description for England. Accuracy, conciseness, and a 
just discrimination of the importance of the several objects de- 
scribed, being the qualifications most valued in a Quide-Book, it 
has been the aim of the Editor to devote his most anxious 
attrition to the attainment of these requisites; and it is believed 
that the present work will be found to contain a larger amount 
oi well-digested information^ than h9& ever been presented in any 
volume of such convenient size. 

To have given all the roads of England within the limits 
of such a volume as the present was obviously impossible. Only 
the main roads have therefore been described, although the 
distances between places on the various tours by the cross-roads 
are very generally given. By reference to the maps and charts, 
the routes by the cross-roads will readily be ascertained, and by 
turning to the index, the reader will be directed to the pages 
where all the places of any importance are described. 

The names, position, and distances of the various places 
liave been copied &om the maps oi the Ordnance Survey ; and 
the same valuable authority has been the basis of the several 
charts and district-maps with which the volume is illustrated. 



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VI PREFACE. 

The names of the proprietors of the various mansions de- 
scribed have been carefully compared with Burke's Peerage, 
Baronetage, and History of the Landed Commoners. In conse- 
quence of the frequent changes in the possession of the smaller 
mansions and villas, it has been deemed better to omit the names 
of the occupants of these, than to give information which a 
short period of time might render inaccurrate. 

The memorable incidents mentioned in connection with the 
various localities have been carefully selected from the best 
county histories and other topographical works of authority. 
The population is given according to the census of 1851. 

In describing the scenery most worthy of the attention of 
strangers, the Editor has endeavoured to give a plain and in- 
telligible account of what he considered worthy of notice, with- 
out aspiring to picturesque or eloquent delineation. He has 
thus been enabled to incorporate with the topographical and de- 
scriptive matter, a considerable portion of literary, historical, 
and traditionary illustration, which may prove at once interest- 
ing and instructive to the reader. 

The expense of travelling, and the gratuities paid to servants 
at hotels, are subjects so materially influenced by the habits of 
the traveller, and the style of the establishment at which he 
sojourns, that it is difficult to afford precise information in regard 
to them. At the same time, the Publishers have reason to 
believe that a few particulars on those heads will be generally 
acceptable to tourists, and they have accordingly embodied in 
the following note, the result of the inquiries which they have 
made upon the subject. 



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TRAVELLING EXPENSES. 



Thb expense necessarily attendant upon travelling, must be admitted to be a 
eonsiderable drawback from its pleasures. Still the evil is inevitable ; and it 
may be satisfoctorj to tourists to be enabled to estimate the price to be paid 
for their enjoyment 

The following scale shows the average charge for the several items which en> 
ter into the traveller^ bilL The prices in the finA division of the scale are 
rarely exceeded in any of the Inns in the smaller towns, while, in some villages, 
charges even more moderate may sometimes be met with. The prices in the 
^xtmd division show the charges in Hotels of the highest class in the principal 
cities, &C. 



Break&jBt, Is. 6d. to2& 

Dinner, 2s. to 3s. 

Tea, Is.. 6d. to 2s. « 

Supper, Is. 6d. to 28. 

Port or Sherry, per bottle, 5s. to 68. . 
Porter or Ale, per bottle, 6d. to Is. .... 

Brandy, per gill. Is. 6d. 

Whisky, per gilL 9d. 

Bed, la 6d. to 8s. 



2s. to 8s. 
88. to 4s. 
2s. to 88. 
According to what is ordered. 

68. 

Is. 

28. 

Is. 

3s. 6d. to 4s. 



%• If the l^tsveUer require! his table to be Aimished beyond the onUnary scale of cwmfbrt. 
he miMt be piepaied fiv a proportionate increaie of charge. 

The payment of the gratuities to servants at Inns is a source of great annoy- 
ance to travellers. It would very laigely contribute to the tourist's comfort, 
were the charges under this head included among the other items of the land- 
lord's bilL Although this practice has been adopted by a few Hotelrkeepers, it 
is to be regretted that their example has not as yet been generally followed. 

To enable th^n to fiimish tourists with some information on this subject, the 
Publishers have applied to two hotel-keepers of the first respectability (the one 
in Liverpool, the other in Dublin,) by whom tiie practice of charging for servants 
» adopted, and the following are averaged from the rates charged in their estar- 
Uidmients : — 



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GRATUrriKS TO SERVANTS. 

1. 

A dngl« gentleman, taking the general aooommodatioii of the Hotd for one or two meali 
as a passing traveller. Waiter, Gd; Chambermaid, 6d. ; Porter or Boots, 6d. This in- 
cludes the removal of any reasonable weight of luggage ; but extza mesaages and par- 
cels axe charged separately. 

2. 

A single gentleman, staying a day and ni^it, and taking his meala in Uie hold. Is. 6d. or2i* 
fbr servants, and if he stays several days. Is. or Is. 6d. per day. 

3. 

A gentleman and his idfe, occupying a sitting nx»n and bed-room, 8s. Gd. to Ss. 6d. per 
night tar servants. If accompanied by sons or daughters, or other relatives half this 
rate ftom eachi but no charge for children under nine years of age. 

4. 
A party of four or six for one night about Is. 6d. each. 

Upon submittiiig this scale to several of the most respectable hotel-keepers in 
Edinburgh, they consider the rates to be a &ir average. In country and village 
inns, even the lowest of the payments above quoted may be unnecessarily liberal, 
while in some of the fiushionable hotels in London, the highest may be considcni- 
bly imder par. 



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IX 



HINTS TO ALL RAILWAY TRAVELLERS. 



Pack up your luggage in such order that you can readily carry with you the 
small matters you may want on your journey, or immediately on your arrival ; 
let the rest be put in such trunks, cases, boxes, or other packages as will either 
effectually protect it, or show at first sight that it must be handled carefully ; 
lemembering that, at railway stations, a great deal of business must be done in 
a little time, and therefore luggage which seems able to bear it, sometimes gets 
rough usage. 

Let your name and destination appear legibly on your luggage ; and if you 
wish to be safe against all chances of loss, put your name and address inside 
also of each package. Picture to yourself your trunk lying on the road, left in 
the comer of an office, or sent out to a wrong direction, and imagine what you 
would then wish should be on or in it, that it might be correctly or speedily sent 
to you. What you would then wish you had done, do before you start Let the 
label be of a strong material, and firmly attached to the package. 

Be at the station some minutes before the time ; if you do not resolve to be 
80, expect to see the train on its way without you. 

Get your ticket (by paying your fare), and be careful to understand exactly 
how fan that ticket frees you. On some railways you keep that ticket to the end 
of your journey; on others you are called on for it at starting. In either case 
be ready with it, remembering that, if you cannot produce it, you may be called 
upon to pay your fare again. 

See where your luggage is placed on the carriage, and prefer that it should 
be on that in which you are to be seated, if practicable ; see also that the com- 
pany's ticket or luggage number be affixed to each package, or you may be called 
oa to pay the carriage of it. 

Expect to pay for the carriage of all your luggage above 56 lbs. weight. 
Take the best care you can to prevent the necesisity of your leaving the car- 
riage before you reach the refreshment station at the end of your journey. 

Take your seats as soon as you have made all needful arrangements ; you 
may have with you a carpet-bag, hat-box, or other luggage, if it be not so bulky 
as to annoy your fellow-passengers. 

Do not open the carriage doors yourself; and do not at any station, except 
those where refreshments are provided, attempt to leave the carriage for any 



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reason whaterer, without the knowledge of the conductor, lest yon be injured by- 
some accident, or left behind. 

Neither smoking nor dogs are allowed in the carriages ; the latter are con- 
veyed under proper arrangements, and at a small charge, which may easily be 
learnt at each station. 

Female attendants wiU be found at each terminus, and at the refreshment 
station, to wait on ladies and children. 

Children under ten years of age are conveyed at half-price ; only infants un- 
able to walk are carried without charge. 

Invalids and decrepit persons commonly receive very considerate attention 
jrom the persons employed at the stations and on the line ; but they must cal- 
culate on none which would materially interfere with the general working of the 
establishment^ except they have expressely applied for, and been assured o^ it 
beforehand. 

Carriages of various kinds, special and public, suitable to the different locali- 
ties, will be found at both the termini, and at nearly all the stations. 

On change of carriage, or leaving the train, be careful to see what becomes of 
your luggage. 

Each person employed on the line has a distinguishing number on the collar 
of his coat ; if you have any complaint to make, write to the Secretary, designat- 
ing the offender by his number. 

Railway servants are enjoined to the observance of civility and attention to 
all passengers, and they usually fulfil these duties very cheerfully when treated 
with common propriety. They are forbidden to receive any fee or gratuity. 



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CONTENTS. 



Alphabetical List of Places, Exhibitiona, &c., in London, likety to prore 
most attractive to the Stranger or Tourist .... 

1. London — Rochester — Canterbury. [Margate — Bamsgate — Sandwich 

—Deal.] Dover ..... 

2. London to Woolwich, Gravesend, and Rochester, by Railway 

3. London to Folkestone and Dover, by Railway 

4. London to Canterbury, Ramsgate, and Margate, by Railway 

5. Lond(Hi to Deal, by Railway; .... 

6. London to Tnnbridge Wells, by Railway 

7. London — ^Maidstone— Hythe and Folkestone 

8. London to Maidstone, by Railway .... 

9. London, Sevenoaks, Tunbridge, Rye, and Winchelsea 

10. London to Hastings ..... 

11. London to Hastings, through Tunbridge Wells 

12. London— Uckfield— East Bourne .... 

13. London to Lewes and Brighton, through Croydon and East Grin- 

stead ....... 

U. London to Brighton, through Croydon and Cuckfield 

13. London to Brighton, through Croydon, Reigate, Crawley, 

Hickstead ...... 

16. London to Brighton, through Sutton, Reigate, and Cuckfield 

17. London to Brighton, by Railway .... 

18. London to Lewes and Hastings, by Railway 

19. London— Epsom — Dorking — Horsham— and Worthing 

20. London to Arundel and Little Hampton 
2t London to Dorking and GuUdfbrd, by Railway 
22. London to Croydon and Epsom, by Railway 



and 



xxu 

1-6 

7-8 

8-10 

11 

11 

11 

12-14 

14 

15-17 

17-18 

18 

18-19 

20-21 
21 

22 

22 

23-25 

25-29 

30-81 

31 

32 



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XU CONTENTS. 

PAGE 
28. London to Chichester, through Guildford and Midhurst— thence to 

Bognor 84 

24. London to Chichester, through Gnildford andPetworth B6 

25. London to Portsmouth, through Esher, Godalming, and Petersfield 36 

26. London to Gosport, through Alton and Fareham ... 87 

27. London to Southampton, through Famham, Alton, Alresford, and 

Winchester 87-89 

28. London to Southampton, through Bagshot, Basingstoke, and Win- 

chester ........ 89 

29. London to Southampton, through Alton and Bishop's Waltham 89-40 

30. London— Basingstoke— Whitchurch— Andover^Salisbury— Bhind- 

ford— Dorchester— Bridport ..... 40-44 

31. London to Exeter through Basingstoke, Shaftesbury, and Honiton 45-46 

32. London to Exeter, through Basingstoke, Andorer, Amesbury, Win- 

canton, nminster, and Honiton ..... 46-49 
38. London (by Railway) to Winchester and Southampton, thence to 
New Forest, Lymington, Isle of Wight, Portsmouth, Chichester, 

Arundel, Worthing, Steyning 50-78 

84. London to Portsmouth, by Brighton and South Coast RaUways 79-81 

35. London to Portsmouth, by South Western Railway . 81 

36. London to Guildford and Famham, by South Western Railway . 82 

37. London to Salisbury, by South Western Railway . . 82 

38. London to Poole, Wareham, and Dorchester, by South Western 

Railway 88-84 

39. Hastings to Aihford, by Coach, and thence to Canterbury and Mar- 

gate, by Railway ...... 84-85 

40. Hastings to Brighton, Chichester, Southampton, and Dorchester, 

by Railway; 85-86 

41. Portsmouth (or Gosport) to Salisbury, by Railway . 87 

42. London to Richmond, Staines, and Windsor, by South Western 

Railway 87-90 

43. London to Bath, through Maidenhead, Reading, Newbury, Marl- 

borough, and Devizes ...... 91-96 

44. London to Bath and Bristol, by Great Western Railway . 97-108 

45. Bath to Southampton, through Salisbury .... 103-104 

46. Bath to Poole, through Warminster, Shaftesbury, and Blandford 104-105 

47. Bath to Weymouth, through Frome .... 105-106 

48. Bath to Bridport, through Shepton Mallet, Ilchester, and Crewkeme 106-107 

49. Bath to Exeter, through Shepton Mallet, Ilmhister, and Honiton 107-108 

50. Bath to Exeter, through Bridgewater and Taunton . 108-110 

51. Exeter to Teignmouth, Torquay, and Dartmouth . 112 

52. Exeter to Plymouth and Devonport, through Totness . 118-115 



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C0HTSNT8. ZUl 

PAOB 

58. Exeter to Plymouth and Devonport, through Ashlmrtofi 116-116 

6i Bristol to Exeter and Plymouth, by Raihray . 117-120 

66, Exeter to Tavistock, CalHngton, Liakeiurd^ Lostwithiel, and 

Trmo 121-128 

56. Exeter to Laonceston, Bodmin, Truro, Penzance^ and Land's End ;L23-127 



WALEa 

57. Tour from Bristol along the coast of Wales, through Newport, 

Cardiff, Swansea, Caermarthen, Pembroke, Haverford, St 
David's, Cardigan, Aberystwith, &;c . . . 127-186 

58. A Tour through Wales 186-148 

9. Bristol — Chepstow — Monmouth — Hereford— Ludlow— Shrews- 
bury— Chester— Liverpool .... 148-150 

60. Bristol to Gloucester, Worcester, and Kidderminster 150-154 

61. London to Gloucester and Cheltenham, by RaOway 154-157 

62. Gloucester to Birmingham, by Railway . . . 157-159 

63. London to Gloucester, through Maidenhead, Faringdon, and Ciren- 

cester ....... 159-161 

63. London to Oxford, through Maidenhead and Henley . 161-166 

65. London to Gloucester, through Oxford and Cheltenham . 166-167 

66. London to Hereford, through Gloucester and Ledbury . 167-168 

67. London to Hereford, through Gloucester and Ross . . 168 
6S. London to St. David's, through Cardigan ... 169 

69. London to Haverfordwest and Milford, by Oxford, Gloucester, 

Ross, Monmouth, Brecon, and Caermarthen . 169-171 

70. London to Aberystwith, through Oxford, Gloucester, and Here- 

ford 172 

71. London to Worcester, through High-Wycombe, Oxford, and 

Per^ore ...... 172-178 

72. London to Aberystwith, through Worcester and Leominster 174-175 

ENDOFWALB8. 

78. London to Shrewrtniry, through Aylesbury, Kidderminster, and 

Much-Wenlock 175-177 

74. London to Shrewsbury, through Aylesbury, Kidderminster, Brose- 

ley, and Colebrook-Dale ..... 178 

75. London to Holyhead, through Coventry, Birmingham, and 

Shrewsbury . .... 178-182 

76. London to Newbury and Hungerford, by Railway . . 188 

77. London to Westbury, by Railway .... 184 

78. Dover and Folkestone to Reading and Bristol, by Railway 184-186 

79. London to Oxford, by RaUway .... 186-187 



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XIV CONTENTS. 

PAOK 

80. Southampton to Oxford, by Railway .... 187 

81. London to Birmingham, by Oxford, Woodstock, and Stratford-on- 

Avon 188-190 

82. London to Birmingham, by Aylesbury, Buckingham, Banbury, 

and Warwick 190-196 

83. London to Birmingham, by St. Albans, Dunstable, Daventry, and 

Coventry 196-199 

84. London to Birmingham, by Railway . . . 199-205 

85. London to Denbigh, through Birmingham, Newport, Whitchurch, 

Wrexham, and Mold ..... 205-208 

86. London to Chester and Holyhead, through St. Albans, Wobum, 

Northampton, Lutterworth, Lichfield, Stafford, and Nantwich, 209-216 

87. London to Chester, through Newport, Whitchurch— ^continued to 

Parkgate 216-217 

88. London to liverpool, through Dunstable, Coventry, Lichfield, 

Stone, Enutsford, and Warrington . . . 217-223 

89. London to Manchester, through St. Albans, Northampton, Leices- 

ter, Derby, Macclesfield, and Stockport . . . 223-227 

90. London to Manchester, through Buxton and Stockport . 228-230 

91. London to Manchester, through Derby, Matlock-Bath, Bakewell, 

and Chapel-en-le-Frith ..... 231-235 

92. Birmingham to Liverpool or Manchester, by Railway . 286-238 

93. Liverpool to Manchester, by Railway . . . 239-240 

94. Birmingham to Manchester, by Railway, direct . . 240 

95. London to Liverpool, by Trent Yalley line of London and North 

Western Railway 241-242 

96. London to Warwick and Leamington, by Railway . . 243 

97. London to Shrewsbury, through Birmingham, by Railway . 243-244 

98. Shrewsbury to Chester and Birkenhead, by Railway . 244-246 

99. London to Chester and Holyhead, by Railway . . 247-250 

100. London to Lancaster and Carlisle, by Railway . . 251-255 

101. Carlisle to Glasgow and Edinburgh, by Caledonian Railway 256 

102. Carlisle to Dumfries, by Railway .... 256 

103. London to Macclesfield, by North Staffordshire Railway . 257-258 

104. Manchester to Bolton and Preston, by RaUway . . 258-260 

105. Liverpool to Preston, through Ormskirk, by Railway . 260-261 

106. Carlisle to Whitehaven, by RaUway .... 261-263 

107. London to Whitehaven, by Preston, Fleetwood, and Ravenglass 263-265 

108. Carlisle to Newcastle, by Railway .... 265-266 



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CONTENTS. 



XV 



THE LAKE DISTRICT. 

Abstract of Tours, and Preliminaiy Remarks . 

Principal Towns and Lakes — 
Kendal — ^Birthwaite—BowneM—'^nndennere— Ambleside— UlTerston— 
Keswick— Derwentwater^Bowder Stone— Yale of St. John— Soar- 
Milk Gill— Buttermere, Crommock, and Lowes Water— Whiteharen— 
St Bees— Ennerdale Lake— Wast Water— Penrith— Giant's OsTes— 
Lowther Castle— UlleswateF—Hawes Water 

Monntains — 
ScavfeU— HelTellyn— SUddaw— Coniston Old Man— Langdale Pikes 

109. Ulverston— Ck>ni8ton Lake— Ambleside 

110. Kendal — ^Bowness — Hawkshead — Coniston 
HI. Kendal to Ambleside ..... 
112. Ambleside — Rydal — Grasmere — Thirlemere — Keswick 
US. Ambleside— Langdale — ^Eskdale — ^Egremont — Whitehaven 

114. WhitehaYen^Cockermonth— Bassentbwaite Lake — Keswick 

115. Keswick — Borrowdale— Buttermere — Scalehill— Cockermonth 

116. Keswick— Borrowdale — Wast Water— Egremont 

117. Keswick— Threlkeld-^Penrith .... 

118. Penrith— UUeswater—Patterdale — Kirkstone— Ambleside 

119. Penrith— Shap— Kendal .... 
Synoptical View of the Monntains of the Lake District 
Synoptical Yiew of Lakes and Water&lls 



267-268 



269-819 

311-319 
320 
321 
322 

328-324 



827 



331 

332 

883-334 



887 



END OF LAKE DISTBICT. 

121. Manchester to Bnry, Haslingden, and Blackbnm, by Hallway 338-340 

122. Manchester to Bochdale and Leeds, by Railway . . 841-342 

123. Manchester to Hnddersfield and Leeds, by Railway . . 344-345 

124. Preston to Blackbnm, Bnmley, Colne, Skipton, and Leeds, by 

Railway 845-348 

125. Manchester to York, through Huddersfield and Normanton, by 

Railway 348 

126. Manchester to Sheffield, Gainsborongh, Hull, and Grimsby, by 

RaUway 348-351 

127. London to Leeds, by Leicester, Derby, and Chesterfield, by Railway 351-356 

128. Birmingham and Derby Junction Railway . . 857 

129. Leeds to Selby and Hull, by Railway .... 358-360 

130. London to Kendal, through Bedfonl, Nottingham, Huddersfield, 

and Kirby Lonsdale ...... 360-370 

131. London to Carlisle, through Hatfield, Stamford, Newark, Don- 

caster, Boroughbridge, and Appleby . 370-372 



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XVI CONI^BNTS. 

PAGE 

132. London to Loughborong^ Nottingliam, Chesterfield, Sheffield, 

Barnsley, Wakefield, Leeds, Ripon, and Thirsk . . 873-380 

133. London to Newcasde-upon-Tyne, through Ware, Huntingdon, 

Stamford, Grantham, Newark, Doncaster, Borooghbrk^ Dar- 
lington, and Durham ..... 880-394 

134. Newcastle to Berwick-apon-Tweed, through Morpeth and Afaiwids: 394-399 

135. Newcastle to Coldstream, through Wooler . . 899-401 

136. Newcastle to £<Hnburgh, by Jedburgh ... 402 

187. London to Sedbergh, by Boroughbridge, Leybnm, and Askrigg 402-403 

188. London to Durham, by Boroughbridge, Catterick, and Bishop 

Auckland 404-407 

189. London to Alston, throu^ Wolsingham, Sta&hope^ and St Jute's 

Weardale , 407-408 

140. London to Sunderland, by Boroughbridge, Thiisk, Tarm, and 

Stockton 408-409 

141. London to Tynemouth, by Durham, Sandedond, and Soutii and 

North Shields 410-415 

142. London to Kirby Moorside^ throu^ Hehnsley, Blackmoor 415 
148. London to Whitby, throng Baldo<^ Stamford, Grantham, Don- 
caster, Toik, and New Malton .... 416 

144. London to Scarborough, throu^ Tork and New Bfalton 417 

145. London to Whitby, through Lincoln, Hull, and Scarborough 417-424 

146. London to Maiket Harborongh, through Newport Pagnel, Olney, 

Wellingborough, and Kettering .... 424-425 

147. London to Bedford, through St Albans and Luton 426 

148. London to Higham Ferrers, through Eimbolton . . 426 

149. London to Flamborough Head .... 427 

150. London to Hull, by York, Market Weighton, and Beverley . 428 

151. London to Market Weighton, by Bawtry, Thome, and Howden 428-429 

152. London to Great Grimsby, through Uncoln and Market Rasen 429-480 
158. London to Great Grimsby, through Spalding^ Boston, and Louth 480-482 

154. London to Cambridge, through Ware ... 482 

155. London to Cambridge, through Royston . 488-486 

156. London to Harrowgate, Ripon, and Thirsk (through Leeds), by 

Railway 486-487 

167. London to York (through Leicester and Derby), by Railway 487-489 

158. York to Durham, Newcastle, and Berwick, by Railway 489-448 

159. London to Hull, through Rugby, Leicester, Nottingham, and Lin- 

cohi, by Railway 448-446 

160. London to Northampton and Peterborough, l^ Railway 446-447 

161. London to Hull, through Peterborough, Boston, and Grimsby, by 

Raflway 448-449 



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CONTEMTS. XVn 

PAOB 

162. London to Hal]* tfavough Cambrid^^ Ely, Peterborough and Bos- 

ton, by Kailway 449-462 

163. Hull to Bridlington and Sotfbonmgli, by Baflway . 452-46$ 

164. Tork to ScarboFongh, by BaUway .... 468-464 
m York ta Pickering and Whitby, l^Baflway . 454-466 

166. London to Wella (Norfolk)^ tfaroaf^ Cambridge, Ely, and Lynn 465-468 

167. London to Lynn,*thrDagh fioyston, Cambridge, St Ives, Chatteris, 

March, and Wiebeach 468-469 

168. London to I^mi, by Epping, Newmarket, and Brandon 469-460 
lfi9. London to WeUfl, by Newnuurket, Brandon, Swaftham, and 

Fakenham • 400-462 

170. London to lilorwich, by Epping^ KewmariMt, Thetford, and 

Wymondham 462-466 

171. London to Korwich, by Chelmiford, Braintree;, Sudbmy, Bnry St 

Edmonds, and Tbetford 467-468 

172. London to Norwich, by Chelmsford, Braintree, Sndbniy, Bmy St 

Edmnnds, Ixworth, and Scole Inn, . . 469 

173. London to Norwich, by Bomford, Chelmsford, Colchester, and 

Ipewich 470-478 

171 London to Cromer, by Newmarket, Brandon, Walton, and East 

Berham 478-474 

176. London to Cromer, by Norwich and North Waltham 476 

176. London to Tarmontii, throogh Chelmsford, Ipswich, Scole Inn, 

Bnngay, and Beccles ..... 475-476 

177. London to Yarmouth, through Ipswich, Woodbridge, Saxmund- 

ham, and Lowestoft ..... 476-479 

178. London to Harwich, through Chelmsford and Colchester . 480 

179. London to Southend, through Barking, Bainham, Stanford-Ie- 

Hope, and Hadleigh 480-481 

180. London to Southend, through Bomford, Brentwood, Billeiicay, and 

Bayleigh 481 

181. London to Bedford, by KaUway .... 481-482 

182. Peterborough to Stamford, Bielton-Howbray, and Leicester, by 

BaUway ! 482-488 

183. London to Ware and Hertford, by Bailway . . 483-484 
181 London to Huntingdon, by Railway . . . 484 

185. London to March and Wisbeach, by Bailway . 484 

186. London to Downham and Lynn, by Bailway 486 

187. London to Norwich and Yarmouth, through Cambridge, by 

RaUway 486-487 

188. London to Norwich, through Ipswich, Haughley, and Diss, by 

Railway 487-490 

189. Norwich to East Dereham, Swaffham, and Lynn, by Railway 490-491 



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XVIU CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

190. Norwich to Ely, Peterborough, and Leicester, by Bailway . 491 

191. London to Newmarket, by Bailway . 491-492 

192. London to Bury St. Edmunds, by Bailway . . . 492 

193. London to York, by Great Northern Bailway, via Grantham and 

Newark ....... 498 

194. London to York, by Great Northern Baflway, via Boston linooln, 

andBetford ...... 495 

19d. Bristol to Gloucester by Bailway .... 496 

196. London to Gloucester, Chepstow, Cardiff, and Swansea (South 

Wales), by Bailway 496 

197. London to Banbury, through Buckingham, by Bailway . 497 
198.j^London to Oxford, through Winslow, Bidster, and Islip , 498 

The Trunk lines from the'Borders of England into Scotland 499 

Caledonian, Bailway— Carlisle to Edinburgh and Glasgow 600 

North British Bailway— Berwick to Edinburgh . 503 

Index ....... 505 



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ILLUSTRATIONS. 



I. MAPS AND RAILWAY CHABTS. 

Page 

1. Sonth-Eastera Railway— Reigate to Dover, Ganterbuiy, Deal, Rams- 

gate, and Margate 9 

2. London and Brighton, and Sooth Coast Railways— London to Brighton, 

Portsmouth, and Hastings ..... 23 

3. Soath-Westem Railway— London to Southampton . . 51 

4. Isle of Wight and part of Hampshire .... 65 

5. Great Western Railway — London to Bath and Bristol . 97 

6. Great Western Railway continued, and South Devon Railway — Bristol 

to Exeter and Plymouth ..... 117 

7. South Wales 127 

8. North Wales 137 

9. Bristol and Birmingham Railway— Bristol to Gloucester, Cheltenham, 

Worcester, and Birmingham . . 151 

10. North Western Railway — London to Birmingham 199 

11. North Western Railway continued — Birmingham to Lancaster, Liver- 

pool and Manchester ...... 237 

12. Lancaster and Carlisle Railway ..... 251 

13. Caledonian Railway — Carlisle to Edinburgh and Glasgow 256 
li. Newcastle and Carlisle and Tynemouth Railways 265 

15. Lake District of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire 267 

16. Derwent Water and Bassenthwaite 284 

17. Buttermere, Crummock, and Lowes Water 287 

18. Ulleswater 299 

19. Windermere, Coniston, and Grasmere, .... 315 

20. Midland Railway — ^Birmingham and Rugby to York, with the connect- 

ing Lines ....... 437 

21. Great Northern Railway— London to York, Hull, &c. 493 

22. York, Newcastle, and Berwick Railway— York to Newcastle . 439 

23. York, Newcastle, and Berwick Railway, continued — ^Newcastle to Berwick 442 

24. Northern and Eastern Railway — ^London to Hertford, Cambridge, Ely, 

Norwich, and Yarmouth ..... 485 

25. Eastern Counties and Eastern Union Railways— London to Ipswich, 

Bury, and Norwich ...... 487 

26. North British Railway— Berwick to Edinburgh ... 499 

27. Map of England, . • . . . End of the Voktine, 

h 



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U8T OF ILLUSTRATIONS— C'o««»i(«i. 

11. VIEWS OF SCENEEY. 



1. Castle Ddinas Bran, Yale of Llangollen 

2. Caderldris 

3. PontaberglassUyn Bridge 

4. Herefordshire Beacon 

5. Kenflworth Castle 

6. Carlisle 

7. Allonby 

8. Bowness 

9. Rotherham . 

10. Alnwick Castle 

11. Lindisflem Abbey 

12. Middleham CasUe 

13. Richmond Castle 



Page 
Frontispiece. 
189 
140 
167 
194 
255 
262 
319 
355 
395 
399 
408 
440 



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ALPHABETICAL LIST 
or 

PLACES, EXHIBITIONS, ETC., IN LONDON, 

UKBLT TO PBOTB MOOT ATTRAOnVK TO THE STKAKOEB OB TOURIST. 



PLACES. 


MODE OF OBTAINING ADMISSION. 


Abbey, Westminster. 






and Transept. Charge of 6d. for admission to 
Henry VU.'s and smaller Chapels. 




ipdeyHoascPiccadiUy. Long the rea-l 
denee ofthe late Duke of Wellington j 


Admission by ticket of the proprietor. 


AicadcB— Buiington. ^ 
Lowther. > 
Exeter Hall. ) 




Open to the public. 


Army and Navy Club, PaU Mall. 


Introduction by a member. 


Bank of England. 


Order of the Governor. 


Sasaan— Soho Square. 


Admission free. 


Pantheon. 


Do. 




Do. ^ * 


Prince of Wales, Begent St. 


Do. 


Bethlehem Hospital. 


Order of a Governor, except on Sunday, Monday, 




or Saturday. 
Order of the Firm. 


Meux's. 


Do. 


Whitbread's. 


Do. 


Bridges— London. 




Waterloo. 




Charing Cross. 




Sonthwark. 




British Mnsenm. 


Admission free, every day except Saturday and 

Sunday. 
Ticket signed by the Lord Chamberlain. 


Buckingham Palace. '^'' 


Cithedrals. 


See St. Paul's and Westminster. 


Chapels-Whitehall. The old Banquet* 
ting Hall. 
St. James's. 




Do. Do. 


Inner Temple. 


Order of a Bencher. 


Chelsea Hospital. 


Open to the public. 


Christ's Hospital. 


Order of a Governor. 


Chjbs-Army and Navy, PaU MaU. 
Carlton, PaU Mall. 


Introduction by a member. 


Do. do. 




Do. do. 


Reform, Pall Mall. 


Do. do. 


Coal Exchange. 


Op. n to the public. 



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SIGHTS IN LONDON. 



PLACES. 



Coliseum, Befcent's Park. 
Commons, House of. 

Cosmorama, Regent Street 
Cremome Gardens. 
Crosby Hall, Bishopgate Street. 
Courts of Law — Westminster HaU. 

Lincoln's Inn. 
Custom House. 

Docks. 

East India House and Museum. 
Egjrptian Hall, Piccadilly. 
Exchange, The. Open daily. 
Exeter HalL The May Meetings and 
Oratorios. 

Galleries, Picture. 

Bridgewater. 

Buckingham Palace. 

Grosvenor. 

Mr. Hope's, Piccadilly. 

Mr. Holford's^ark Lane. 

National and Vernon. 

Sutherland. 
Gardens, Public. 

Botanical, Regent's Park. 

Gore House. 

Kensington. 

Zoological, Regent's Park, 
Do. Surrey. 
Gates—Temple Bar. 

St. John's. 
Goldsmith's Hall. 
Guildhall. 

Holland House. 

Horse Guards. 

Hospitals— Bartholomew. \ 

Bethlehem. ( 

Chelsea. 

Christ's. ^ 

Guy's. 

St. George's. \ 

Westminster. 

London. J 

Houses of Parliament. 



Inns of Court — 

Gray's Inn, Holborn. 

Lincoln's Inn. 

Temple, Inner and Mid- 
dle, Fleet Street. 
India House Museum. 

Kensington Gardens. 

Lambeth Palace. 
Lincoln's Inn HaU 



'•I 



MODE OF OBTAINING ADMISSION. 



Admission, Is. 

Order of an M.P. for the ordinary Gallery, or of 

the Speaker for the Speaker's GFallery. 
Admission, Is. 
Admission, Is. 

Open to the public. 

Do. 
Long Room open to the public. 

Open to the public. The vaults by order of a Wine- 
Merchant to taste wines. 

Order of a Director. 
Exhibitions Tarious. 
Admission free. 

Do. 
Tickets, 8s. to 10s. 6d. 



Tickets issued gratuitously by Mr. Smith, 137 New 
Bond Street. 

Do. of the Lord Chamberlain. 

Do. of the Proprietor. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Open to the public on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednes- 
days, and Thursdays. 

Do. do. 

Ticket of a Subscriber or Member. 
Admission, 6d. 
Open to the public 
Admission, Is. 
Do. Is. 



Order of the Secretury to the Company. 
Open to the public 

Order of the Proprietor. 
Open to the pubhc 

Order of a Goyernor. 

Open to the public. 

Order of a Goyemor. 

See Ij(»^ and Commons. 

Otdtt of a Bencher. 

Order of a Director— open on TuesdayandThunday. 



Open to the public. 

Order of the Archbishop. 
Bencher's order. 



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SIGHTS IN LONDON. 



XXUl 



PLACES. 



MODE OF OBTAINING ADMISSION. 



Lords, House of. 

Mansion-Hoase. 

Marlborough House. PaU-MaU. 
Maiketa— Covent-Oarden. 
LeadenhaU. 
Smithfield. 
Mews, Boyid. 
Miot, Tower-Bin. 
Uonnmoits— The Monument. 
Duke of York. 
Nelson's. 
In Westminster Abbey,) 
St. Paurs,and Houses >- 
of Parliament. j 

Uasenms— Airiatic Society. 
British. 

East India House. 
Of Practical Geology. 
Sir J. Soanes. 
ITnited Service. 

National Gallery, Trafalgar Square. \ 
See also Vernon Gallery, j 

Opera Houses— ItNlian. 

Haymarket. 
Covent-Garden. 

Pailiament, Houses of. 



Palace»— St. James*. ^ 

Buckingham. > 

Kensfaigton. J 
Panopticon of Science, Leicester Square. 
PantecknicMi, BaUdn Street, West 

Paiks— Hyde. ") 

Green. C 

Begent*8. C 

St James'. J 
Polytechnic, Begent Street. 
Pottoe Courts. 

Pott-Office, St Martin*s-le> Grand. 

Priaoos-Milbank. > 

PentoATille, &c ) 

Qoeen*s Mews. 

Regent's Park. 
Boyal Exchange. 

Savoy Chapel. 

Schools— Christ*8 Hospital. ^ 

Charter House. f 

St. Paul's. r 

Westminster. J 

Soanes' Museum. 

Sode^ of Arts. 

Somerset House. 

St. James' Palace. 

8t Paul's. 

St. Stephen's, Walbrook. 



Order of a Peer or of the Usher of the Black Bod. 

Open to the public on Tuesdays and Fridays. 
Admission firee. 
Open to the public. 

Do. 

Do. 
Order of the Master of the Horse, 
llcket signed by the Master. 
Admission to the top, 8d. 
Do. 6d. 



Open to the public. 

Order of a Director. 

Open to the public. 

Director's order on Tuesday and Thunday. 

Open to the public. 

Ticket to be had on application. 

Member's ticket or introduction. 

Open to the public on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wed- 
nesdays, and Thursdays. 



Single Tickets, from Ss. 6d. to Sis. 

Order of a Peer or Member of Parliament during 
Session, and of fhe Lord Great Chambexlain 
during tacation. 

Order of the Lord Chamberlain. 

Admiraion, Is. 
Open to the pnblie. 

Open to the pnbhc 

Admission, Is. 

Open to the publie. 

Order of the JPostmaster-Genenl or Secietwy. 

Order of the Home Secretary. 

Ticket of Secretary to the Master of tlie Hone. 

Open to the public. 
Do. 

Open during Divine Service. 

Order of a Governor. 

Admission by Ticket. 
Member's order. 
Open to the public. 
Order of Lord Chamberlain. 
Admission during Divine Service. 
Do. do. 



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SIGHTS IN LONDON. 



FLACBS. 


MODE OP OBTAINING ADMISSION. 


StatuM-in Streets. Squares, &c. 

Queen Elizabeth, Fleet Street. 
Charles I- Charing Cross. 
Charles II., Soho Square. 
James II., Whitehall Gardens. 












William m.,St. James* Square. 
Queen Anne, St. Paul's 






Churchyard. 




George I., Grosvenor Square. 








Cavendish Squure. 




George III., Cockspur Street. 




George IV., Trafalgar Square. 
Wm. Pitt, Hanover Sqoace. 




Fox, Bloomshury Square. 
William IV., King WiUJam 






Street, City. 
Qia«eii TietQrift» Bcyal £x- 




Duke^of WeUiB«tott-Pic«a- 






HydePark. 




B^ Exchange. 




Surrey Zoological Gardens. 


Adssission, Is. 


Temple Church. 

Bar. 

Gardens* 
Thames Tunnel. 


Order of a Bencher. 


Open to the public. 
Admission, Id. 


ThMtre»-Opflra Houses, Hiymarketl 








Adelphi, Strand. 




Astley% Westminster Bridge 




Drury Lane, Drury Lane. 
French Theatre, King St. 
Haymarket, Haymarket. 
Lyceum, Strand. 
Olympic, Wych Street. 








Princess*, Oxford Street. 




Sadler's Wells, ClerkenweU. 




Strand, Strand. 




Surrey, Blackfnar's Bbad. 




Viciorfa, Waterloo Bond. 




Times Office. 


Order of the Editor. 


Tower of London. 


Admission, fid. to the Armoury, and 6d. to view Re- 

gaUa. 
AdmisBion, Is. 


TnssaucTs BxhibitioB, Baker Street 


Vauxhall Gardens. 


Do. 2s. 6d. 


Vernon Gallery, Marlborough House. 


Open to the public. 


Westminster Abbey. 


Admission free during Divine Service. 


Westminster, Palace of. 


Open to the public (see Houses of Lords and Com- 




mons.) 


Whitehall Chapel. 


Open during Divine Service. 




Admission, Is. 


Surrey. 


Do. fid. 



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THE 



PICTURESQUE TOURIST 

OP 

ENGLAND. 



L LONDON.— ROCHESTER.— CANTERBURY. [MARGATE.— RilMSGATEw- 
SANDWICH.— DEAL.] DOVER. 



ON MGHT yaOlt IX)ND. 



is 

67 



Mordcn College, con- 
siating of alnwliouaes for 
decayed merchants. 

Scrcndroog Castle, 
erected to commemorate 
the reduction of Seven- 
droog in 1756, a strong 
fort on an island near 
Bombay. _ ^ 

IDanson Park. . 
Crayford derives its 
name from an ancient 
ford over the CrHy, In 
this and the adjoming 
parish are a number qj 
5^ artificial caverns. 
A l»ttlc was fought here 
in 467 l>etwcen the Sax- 
ong and the Bntons. 



WombwcUjWL 

firaTMnm* >• ooBsidAred the 

nSfJTShe port of London. 

to lie tfll vlBit«d 



66J 



62} 



3 



56 



54 

50} 

49 



Deptford. 
g or. nver Ravens- 
bourn, 
to Greenwich, 1 mile, 
thence to Woolwich, 3 J. 
Blackheath. 



Shooter's Hill. 



Welling. 

Crayford. 

^^ cr. river Cray. 

Dartford. 

^^ cr. river Darent. 



Horn's Cross. 
Northiieet 



Gravesend. 



OK LKFT FBOM LOND. 



Greenwich Hospital 

Greenwich Park, a roy- 
al demesne, the favourite 
resort of Londoners. 

Woodlands. 

Charlton House, a fine 
specimen of the old manor 
house, the work of Inigo 
Jones, Sir T. M. WUson, 
Bart. 

Belvidere, the seat of 
Sir Cubing E. Eardley, 
Bart. 

Wickham. 



6i 



8i 



n 



jR At Dartford may be 
seen the remains of j 
nunnery founded by Ed- 
wardlll. Abranchof the 
old Roman Watling St. 
passes through the town. 
Here Wat Tyler's rebel- 
lion commenced. 

17 Ingress Park. 

Is'orthfleet commands a 
very extensive view. The 
church contains several 
{handsome monuments. 

22 I MUton Church. I 



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LONDON.— BOCHESTEIL-CAin^RBUKY. [MAEGATE.-RAMSGATE.- 
8ANDWICH.-DEAL] DOVEK—ContinMed, 





as 




fil 




ON KI6HT TKOM LOND. 


^1 


Chalk St 


23} 


ON LEFT MOM LOND. 


IXMite the Block House, on 
thTEuex »hore. Is TUbary 


47J 












Fort. luHring a strong battery. 










Coljliam HaU, (Earl of 


44f 


Gads Hill. 


26} 


Gads Hill is the scene 


Cobbam Woods. 


42i 


Stroud. 
J^ or. river Medway. 


28} 


of FalstafTs famous ex- 
ploit. 


Rcchester to a dty of great 


42 




29 




antiquity. The objects most 








Chatham Ii iltaated to the 


descrvinir of notice in It are 








left of Rochester about | of a 


the Cathedral and the remains 








mile from the hlfrh road to 


of the Castle, which occupy a 








Dover. It to celebrated for 










its extensive dockyards and 


loolcinjr the Uedway. Popul. 
(IMl) 14.938. It returns Iwo 








naval arsenaL It has also an 


41 


Cliatliam. 


30 


hospital for seamen and ship- 
wrifchts. and a vietnaUin^ 


llartlip. 


37 


Rainham. 


34 


office fur the navy. It to also 




34 


Newingham. 


37 


for India Population (1851) 




32} 
31 


Key St 
Sittingboume. 


38J 
40 


88.424. One Member. 

At the dtotance of 1 mile is 
Hilton Royal, fkmons for its 


Morris Court. 


29J 


Basschild. 


41i 


oysters. 


Rodmersham, W. Lush- 






Linstead. 


ington, Esq. 












28 


Radfield. 


43 




Linstead Lodge, Lord 
Teviiham. 
Norton Court, Rt. Hon. 




Green St 




At a short distance, 
Teynham. 










S. R. Lushington. 
Syndale House, W. 


25 


Ospring. 


46 


Faversham, 1 mffe dis- 


Hyde, Esq. 
Belmont, Lord Harris. 
At some disUnce to the 








tant. Popul. CL851) 4595. 


21} 


Boughton. 


49} 


Nash Court. 
Hoathwood. 


Wildmnn, Esq., and Godmer- 
iham Park, R. Knight, Esq. 










17 


Harbledown. 


54 


HaU Place. 




16J 


CANTKRBURT. 


65i 


Hales Place. 



Canterbury is pleasantly situated on the Stour. It is the metropolitan see 
of all England. The chief object of attraction is the magnificent cathedral, with 
a fine choir, an altar-piece, designed by Sir James Burrough, a remarkable 
painted window, and the shrine of Thomas d. Becket It was begun in 1174^ 
and not finished till the reign of Henry V. Under the Cathedral is a church 
for French Protestants, a colony of whom settled here after the revcJcation of 
the edict of Nantes, and established the silk manufacture, which sdll continues^ 
though in a declining state. Besides the Cathedral, Canterbury contains four- 
teen parish churches — one of which, St Martin's, is built of Roman bricks, and 
is supposed by antiquarians to have been erected so early as the second century 
of the Christian era. In the Church of the Holy Cross, St Dunstan's, is buried 
the head of Sir Thomas More. In the eastern suburbs, a short distance from 
the Cathedral, are the remains of St. Augustine's Monastery, formerly a mag- 
nificent building, which, with its precincts, occupied 16 acres of ground ; the 
ancient gateway, still remaining, is a fine specimen of architecture. This 
building for a long period lay almost entirely in ruins, and part of it was used 
as a common tavern and brewhouse. However, in 1844 it was purchased by 



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CANTEEBUEY-— WHTTSTABLE.— HEENE BAY/ 3 

A. J. B. Hope, Esq^ M.P., a soft of the author of "Anastaaixu," who not only 
saved it fh>m farther desecration, but has restored the gateway and bnilt 
within the Abbey walls a Protestant miasionary college. 

Mercery Lane, one of the ancient .avenues leading from the High Street to 
the Cathedral, is interesting to the visitor from its having been, according to 
tradition, the osual resort of the numerous pilgrims who in former times 
flocked to Canterbury to pay their devotions at the shrine of Thomas a Becket, 
where, as Chaucer expresses it— 

" And specially from erery shire^s ende 
Of Engle load to Canteroory they wende." * 

A pilgrimage to Canterbury will well repay the tourist, especially if he chance 
to be an ecclesiologist 

Of the walls by which Canterbury was anciently surrounded, some remains 
still exist; but all the gates have been taken down excepting one, Westgate, 
which forms the entrance by the London road. At the south-west extremity of 
the city are the remains of an abcient castle, a little to the east of which, and 
adjacent to the city wall, is a high artificial mound, called the Dane John 
(from Donjon), the sides of which are cut into serpentine walks, and tastefidly 
adorned with trees and shrubs. The summit commands a fine prospect of the 
surrounding country, and the whole forms a favourite place of public resort 

Canterbury has no manufacture of any importance, and, since the formation 
of the railway to Dover, has lost much of the traffic which it formerly possessed. 
Many of the lower class of inhabitants are engaged in the hop grounds by 
which it is surrounded. Canterbury has some trade in com, and good markets 
for provisions of all kinds. It returns two members to Parliament Popula- 
tion in 1851, 18,398. 



Six miles distant from Canterbury is Whitstable, a fishing village on the 
north coast of Kent, and near the mouth of the Swale, the estuary which sepa- 
rates the island of Sheppey from the mainland. It is connected with Canter- 
bury by a railway. Population (1851), 2746. Four and a half miles farther to 
the eastward is Heme Bay, which has of late years been partially frequented 
by the people of the metropolis as a summer bathing-place, for which its situa- 
tion is well suited. But the extensive scale upon which it was laid out gives 
it an unihiished appearance, and the greater gaiety of Margate and Ramsgate 
attracts by fiir the larger number of visitors. The pier, or rather jetty, which 
is built on wooden piles, extends three-quarters of a mile into the sea, and 
fixms a fine promenade. Heme Bay contains several charitable institutions, 
for which the inhabitants are chiefly indebted to the munificence of Mrs. 
Thwaits. 

Nearly three miles to the east of Heme Bay is the ancient village of Beculver, 
the site of the Boman station Regulbium, and afterwards the seat of royalty 
* Canterbury Tales, voL ii. p. 1. Pickering's Edition of Chancer. 



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4 ' MARGATE.-RAMSGATE. 

under the Saxons. The encroachments of the sea on this part of the coast 
have swept away many of the houses and part of the churchyard, which is 
situated on the edge of a cliff; but this has been preserved by artificial means 
from further devastation, and the two lofty towers of the ruined church, which 
form a well-known landmark to sailors, are kept in repaur under the direction 
of the Trinity House. Immediately beyond the Beculvers is the Isle of 
Thanet, on which are situated Margate and Ramsgate. 



Margate (11 miles to the eastward of Heme Bay, and 16 miles, by the turn- 
pike road, from Canterbury), originally an inconsiderable fishing village, has 
become of late years one of the most fitvourite and frequented watering-places 
in the kingdom. It contains numerous hotels, bazaars, assembly-rooms, a ' 
theatre, and other means of amusement for visitors during the bathing season. 
A stone pier, 903 feet long, and 60 feet wide in the broadest part, with a light- 
house at the extremity, forms a much-frequented promenade. During tho 
summer and autumn, steamboats pass every day between Margate and Lon- 
don, performing the voyage in from six to seven hours. Population (1851) 9107. 
Three miles west of Margate is Birchington Park, in which are two hand- 
some towers, one of which has a peal of 12 bells. Two and a half miles east 
of Margate is Kingsgate, situated in a bay formed by an indentation in 
the chalk clifis which line all this part of the Kentish coast Kingsgate 
was formerly called Bartholomew's Gate, but received its present appel- 
lation in consequence of Charles II. landing here on his way to Dover in 
1683. A mansion was erected here by Henry, third Lord Holland, on a plan 
resembling Tully'b villa on the coast of Baise : it is now partly in ruins, which 
have a fantastic and not unpicturesque appearance. Adjacent to Eing^te is 
the North Foreland, a bold promontory with a lighthouse on its summit 

About H mile to the south of the North Foreland is the pleasant village 
and watering-place of Broadstairs, distant 3 miles from Margate and 2 firom 
Ramsgate. Broadstairs is much resorted to during the bathing season, and is 
preferred by many on account of its quiet and retirement, as compared with 
the larger watering-places in its vicinity. It has a small pier for the protection 
of fishing-boats, but passengers from London are landed by boats from the 
Ramsgate steamers, which call here daily durlpg the summer season. Popu- 
lation, 1549. 

Near Broadstairs is Piermont, a villa which was the frequent residence of 
Her Majesty when a child. 

Ramsgate, 16 miles (by road) from Canterbury, and 4 miles from Margate, 
ii situated at the south-east extremity of the Isle of Thanet Besides being 
greatly resorted to as a bathing-place by visitors from London and elsewhere, 
Ramsgate has also considerable coasting trade, and both ship-building and 
rope-making are carried on. The harbour, which embraces an area of 48 
acres, is formed by two stone piers, of which the eastern extends 2000 feet in 
" ^*^h, and is one of the finest works of the kind in the kingdom. The western 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SANDWICH.— DBAL. 5 

pier 18 1500 feet long, and has a lighthouse at its extremitj. The harbour 
admits vesMls of 600 tons burden, and is divided into two parts by a wall, fitted 
^th sluices, and forming an inner and an outer harbour. The voyage between 
fi«n^gate and London by steamboat occupies from seven to eight hours. Po- 
poUtion in ia5l, 11,838. 

On the east side of Ramsgate is East C3iff Lodge, the seat of Sir Moses Hon- 
tefiore, Bart; and a short distance to the southwest of the town is Peg well Bay, 
ftmous for its shrimps. Pegwell Bay possesses also an interest of another kind, 
lince it was here that, according to tradition, Hengist and Horsa landed, about 
tiie year 446 a. d. 



A road also leads from Canterbury to Sandwich and Deal. At the distance 
of ^ mOes it passes Littleboume, near which, on the right, is Lee Priory, Sir 
J. W. E. B. Brydges, Bart Three miles farther on is Wingham, and near it, on 
the right is Dane Court, E. R. Rice, Esq. A little farther in the same direction 
is Goodneston, Sir B. W. Bridges, Bart lliree miles and a quarter fh>m 
Wingham is Ash ; and three miles farther, the town of Sandwich. This was 
fonnerly a place of some importance, but its harbour has long been choked up 
with sand. It is a Cinque Port, and contained in 1851, 2966 inhabitants. 

About 54 miles fit>m Sandwich is Deal, also one of the Cinque Ports, and 
■toated near the Downs, which extend about 8 miles in length and 6 in breadth, 
between this place and the Goodwin Sands. Deal is the general rendezvous of 
the East India and othor fleets, where nearly 400 sail have been at anchor to- 
gether. Here is an establishment of pilots, for the more safe conveyance of 
shipping into and out of the Downs, and up the rivers Thames and Medway. 
Deal is defended by a castle, and along the coast are several martello towers. Be- 
tween this place and Sandwich is Sandown Castle, built by Henry YIII ; and about 
a mile from the town, on the other side, is Walmer Castle, held till his decease by 
the Duke of Wellington, as Warden of the Cinque Ports. Deal has of late years 
hecome frequented as a watering-place, and its appearance been in consequence 
greatly improved. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in boat-building, sail- 
making, and other pursuits of a nautical character ; and the Deal boatmen have 
a deservedly high repute for their skill and intrepidity in affording assistance to 
vessels in distress. For Parliamentary purposes Deal is included in the bo- 
rough of Sandwich, which, conjointly with it, returns two members to Parlia- 
ment Population, 1851, 7067. 

Six miles distant from Deal is the S. Foreland Lighthouse ; and three miles 
beyond, Dover. 

ICargate, Ramsgate, and Deal are all connected with the metropolis by 
nilways, for which see Chapters IV. and V. 



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KOUTE TO DOYEBr-Oontinued. 



ON BIGHT FBOM LOND. 



Nackmgtou, Lord 
Sondes. 
Benwell. 
Pett House. 
Bridge Place. 
Bourne Place. 
Charlton Place. 

Barham. 

Broome Park, Sir H. 
Oxenden, Bart. 

Wootton Court, Sir J. 
E.B. 6rydge8,Bart. 



Jost entering Dover, on the 
right, are the new barracks 
and fortifications. 



1^ 

II 



Resuming the Route 
to Dover. 

j^ cr. the river Stour. 



Bridge. 
Barham Down. 

Halfway House. 



Lydden. 

Ewell. 

Buckland. 

.^g cr. river. 

DOVER. 




58| 
61 

631 



Bifirons, H. E. Taylor, 



Beaksbonme House, 
R. Peckham, Esq. 

Higham. 

IledeUfJ.P.Plumptre, 
Esq. 

DenhOl. 

^oolwichWood. 



At a little distance, 
Waldershare, Earl of 
Guilford. 



Dover is situated in a deep valley, formed by an opening in the chalk hills, 
which surround it in the form of an amphitheatre. On one of these, situated to 
the eastward of the town, and rising abruptly to a height of 320 feet above the 
sea, is situated the ancient Castle. The walls of Dover Castle embrace an area 
of nearly 35 acres of ground, within which space are contained towers and 
other buildings of various ages, from Roman to recent times. The appearance 
of the whole, from the commanding elevation which it occupies, is very im- 
posing. Other portions of the heights adjacent to the town are also fortified. 
The harbour, which is formed artificially by piers and jetties, has recently been 
deepened and much improved, at vast expense. The town has been greatly 
extended of late years, and is now a fiishionable and much-frequented watering- 
place, with every accommodation for the convenience of visitors. It is situated 
at the point of our island which makes the nearest approach to the coast of 
France, which is distant only 21 miles, and which is distinctly visible in clear 
weather. By means of the submarine electric telegraph, Dover now keeps up 
a constant communication with France, and through her, with a great portion 
of the continent. It was formerly the principal place of embarkation for the 
continent, but has been partially superseded in that respect by Folkstone. 
Dover is one of the Cinque Ports, and returns two m^nbers to Parliament. 
Population in 1851, 22,244. The hotels and inns are numerous. 

About half a mile to the south-west of Dover is Shakespere*s Cliff, a bold 
prominence of chalk, now tunnelled through by the railway, and the name of 
which is derived from the well-known description in the fourth act of *< King 
Lear,** which it is supposed to have suggest^ But portions of the summit 
have fitllen at various times, so that it now retires inland, and no longer "looks 
fearfully in the confined deep,**— though still affording a magnificent and 
** diify" prospect 



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n. LONDON TO WOOLWICH, GEAVKSEND, ROCHESTER, AND 
CHATHAM, BY RAILWAY, 31 Milefc 



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8 LONiX)N TO WOOLWICH, GEAYBSEND, ke^ BY KMLWkY-ConHnued. 



ON mioHT raoic lond. 



Oraveaend h«a sreatly in- 
creased in size of late yean, 
and berome a favourite place 
of resort for the pleasure 
seekers of the inetropolis.- 
There are S excellent landing 
piers for the steamers and a 
varietT of attractions for 
visitors. Pop.(18Sl)ie.eSS. 

Milton Churcli. 
Chalk. 

Cobham Hall, the noble 
seat of the Earl of Darn- 
ley, 3 miles. It contains 
a fine collection of pic- 
tures. Cobham Woods 
[>ossess peculiar charms 
for those who delight in 
sylvan scenery. 

Strood, at which the 
railway terminates, forms 
a suburb of Rochester, 
with whichitis connected 
by a^ handsome stone 
bridge. Together with 
the acljacent parish of 
Frinsbury, it forms a part 
of the borough of Rocnes- 
ter, which returns 2 mem- 
bers to Parliament. 



II 



GRAVK8BND. 

Between Gravesend and 
Rochester the Railway 
passes through a tunnel, 
nearly along the line for- 
merly occupied by tiie 
Thames and Medway CanaL 

Higham St 



8TROOD. 

J^ cr. river Medway 

to town of 

ROCHESTER (p. 2). 

CHATHAM (p. 2). 



II 



23 



81 



ON Lsrr nioK lord. 



is extensively bomt in the 
neighbourhood. The church 
is ancient, and contains some 
intereating monuments. 

Rosherville gardens and 

{>leasure grounds are well 
aid out, and with their 
adjuncts, form a great 
attraction to Cockney 
holid&y-makerf. 



S| miles distant ia Cow- 
ling Castle, built in the 
reien of Richard II.,once 
a ^Tace of great strength : 
it is now ouefly in ruins, 
parts of which are rery 
picturesque. 

2 miles from Stroud is 
Upnor Castle, on the west 
bank of the Medway.built 
in the reisn of Elizabeth 
for the defence of the 
nver. It forms a large 
ordnance depot for gun- 
powder. 



m. LOinWN TO FOLKSTONE AND DOVER, BY RAILWAY, 88 Miles. 




Home, 4 miles. 

Crowhurst. 

Hever Similes. Hever 
Castle, formerly the resi- 
dence of Anne Boleyn, is 
one of the most interest- 
ing relics in the kingdom. 
Many of the rooms are in 
the same state as when 
visited by Henry VIII. 
Adjacent to Hever is 
Chiddingstone, a village 
rich in specimens of old 
English architecture. It 
belonged till lately to the 
Waldo fomily. 



From London Bridge, 

h^ Greenwich and 
Bnghton railways, to 
Reigate June. St (p. 24). 

Through Bletchingley 

Tunnel, 1080 yards. 

Godstone St 

Enter Kent 

Edinbridge St 

Penshurst St 
Penshurst, (Lord de Lisle 
and Dudley), the ancient 
seat of the Sydney family, 
who became possessed of 
the manor in the reign of 
Edward VI. Here Sir 
Philip Sydney was bom in 
1554. It is a fine old 
mansion, of quadrangular 




Godstone, 2 miles. 
Tandridge Court, Earl 
of Cottenham. 

Westerham, 6 miles. 
Population, 2162. 

Seven Oaks, 6 miles; 
and near it, 

Knowle Park, Earl 
Amherst (p. 16). 



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SOUTH EASTERN RAILWAY. 



ftHishra ty A* CWadf.£diBln 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



LONDON TO FOLKESTONE AND WVEBr-^Coitthmd. 



OK weHT nox lonb. 




form, enclosing a spacious 


si 


cox LEFT nOK LQKD. 












court The state apart- 










ments are adorned with 










rare portraits and paintings 










by eminent masters. Pen- 
shnrt was also the birth- 


















place of the ftmous Alger- 










non Sydney. 








47 


Tonbridge Junction St 


41 


Ightham, 7 miles. 


Brandt to Tonbridge 

Wells, 6 miles. 




Here the central station 
of the railway is placed, 
covering 12 acres of ground, 
and consisting of offices, 














Tadeley. 


42 


Paddock Wood June 


46 


Branch to Maidstone, 


CapeL 




tion St. 




10 miles (p. U). 


Cranbrooke, H miles. 
Frittenden, Si miles. 
Sissinglrant Castle, 6 


38 
35 


J^ cr. river Teise. 

Harden St 

Staplehorst St 


50 
53 




miles ^m the Staple- 
hunt Station, is an an- 








Sutton Valence, 4 m. 


cient mansion now in 
rains. It was used dur- 




4M cr. river Benlt 




Cliart Sutton, 6 m. 
East Sutton, Sir E.Fil- 


ing one of the wars of 








mer, Bart. 


toe last century as a 
pison for French cap- 


82 


Headcom St 


66 


Boughton Malherb. 


fiiddenden, 4milM. 
Tenterden, 9 miles. 
Smarden. 


27 


FluckleySt 


61 


Charing, 5* miles. Po- 
pulation, 1241. 
Surrenden House, Sir 


Great Chart. 








C. E. Bering, Bart. 

Hothlield,SirBichard 
Tufton, Bart. 

Goddmton House, Rer. 
N.Toke. 


Branch to Kye and 


21 


ASHPORD JUNCTION 


67 


Branch to Canterbury, 
Ram8eate,8cc.(8eep.l0). 
WUIesborough. 


Hastings. 




ST. (p. 18). 




Jungsworth. 
AliBgton. 








Mersham Hatch, Sir 


Westenhanger House, 








N. J. KnatchbuU, Bart. 


M andcnt manorial resi- 




J^ cr. river Stour. 




Smeeth: Sellinge. 


dence of the time of Rich- 
«d L, (Hon. G. P. 8. 


13 


Westenhanger and 
Hythe St 


76 


Standford. 

Monks Horton, If m. 




2 miles west of Hythe is 
Lympne, the PortusLema^ 
nis of the Bomans : it has 
some remains of an ancient 
castle. 




Postling. 

Beachborough, Rev. 
W. E. Brockman. 
Newington. 


Cheriton. 

Folkestone, i mile. 
2 miles west of Folke- 
stone is Sandgate (p. U). 

Ike engineeringfeatures 


6 


Saltwood TonneL 

952 yards. 

Folkestone St 

Martello Tunnel, 

636 yards. 

Abbof 8 Cliff Tunnel, 


82 


Hawkinge. 
Capel le Feme. 


of the line between Folke- 






Hougham. 

1| m. from Hougham, 


itoneandDorerareweU 




lM7yardfc 





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10 LONDON TO FOLKESTONE AND DOVER, BY KAILW AY-Continued. 



DN RIGHT PROM LOND. 


U 


Shakespere'h Cliff 
Tunnel, 1393 yards. 

DOVER (p. 6). 


i| 


ON LEFT PROM LOND. 


irorthy of attention. The 
railway is altematdy car- 
ried through tunnels, and 
upon artificial embank- 
ments formed on the face 
of the chalk clifb, and 
trashed at their base by the 
lea. In blasting the Round- 
down cliff for the occasion 
(in 1843), upwards of 19,000 
pounds of gunpowder were 
used, and within a few se- 
oonds 400,000 cubic yards 
r>f chalk thrown down by 
the explosion to a depth 
of nearly 400 feet. 




88 


and 2i firom Dover, are tlu 
ruins of St Radigund's Mo- 
nastery, founded at the 
close of the 12th century. 



IV. LONDON TO CANTERBURY, RAMSGATE, AND MARGATE, BY RAILWAY, 

101 Miles. 



ON RIOHT PROM LOND. 


1^ 


From London Bridge 
to Ashford, as in 


1] 


ON LEFT FROM LOND. 


Leave main line to Do- 








ver. 


34 


preceding route. 


67 


Kennington. 


Hinxhill, and beyond 
Mersham Hatch, Sir N.J. 




Along the vaUey of the 
river Stour, which the Une 




EastweU Park, Earl of 






crosses 5 times between 




Winchilsea and Notting- 


Brook. 




Ashford and Canterbury. 






CrundeU. 


29 


Wye St 


72 


Godmersham Park, R. 
Knight, Esq. 


DengeWood. 


25 


Chilham St. 


76 


Chilham Park and 


Mystole House. 








To Feversham, 7 milea. 


Chartham. 








Fishpond Wood. 


Horton. 








Rarbledown: — Hall 


MUton. 








Place. 


Thaaington. 




CANTERBURY (p. 2). 


81 


Hales PI., 

Railway to Whitstable, 
6 miles. 


Pordwich. 


17 


SturrySt 


84 


Heme Bay, 6 miles 
through the village of 
Hem& 


Stodmarsh. 








Westbere. 


Grove HiU House. 


13 


Grove Ferry St. 
•1^ cr.riv. Wantsum, 


88 


Hoath. 

Chislet Court. 
Sarre Bridge. 


Branch to Sandwich and 
Deal, 9 miles. 


8 


and enter I. of Thanet 
Minster St. 


93 


Reculver, 3i miles. 
Monkton. 
Birchington, Smiles. 


PegweU Bay. 
St Lawrence. 












4 


RAMSGATE (p. 4). 


97 




Broadstairs, 2 mUes firom 








Dandelion. 


Ramsgate, and 3 firom 










Biargate, through St Pe- 
ter's jp. 4). 

N.Foreland Lighthouse. 

Kingsgate. 












MARGATE (p. 4). 


101 


To Reculver, 8 miles. 
Heme Bay, 11 miles. 



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y. LONDON TO DEAL, BT BAILWaT, 109 Mites. 



II 



ON RIGHT FROM I.OND. 



Worth. 
Sholden Lodge. 



From Deal to Dover, by 
. Mcfa, 8 inUes» paa«iii« 
throu^ Walmer and 
Binftwould. 



From London Br. to 
Minster St (p. 10). 

■^8! cr. riv. Stonr, and 
leavel. ofThanet 



SANDWICH (p. 0). 

To Ramsgate, by 

coach, 6 miles. 

DEAL (p. 6). 



93 



102 



ON LSFT FROM LOITD. 



About 1 mile befim 
reaching Sandwich ii 
Richborouffh Castle, thi 
ancientButiipise,a Boman 
station, and probably one 
of the earliest Boman 
works in the Island. It is 
now a ruin, standing on a 
mound, the base of which 
is washed by the Stour. 

Sandown Castle, where 
Ck>L Hutchinson died 
prisoner. 

Deal Castle. 

Walmer Castle. 



VI. LONDON TO TUNBBIDGB WELLS, BY BAIL WAY, 46 Mike. 



W RIGHT VBOA LOVD. 


1^ 


From London Br. to 
Tunbridge (p. 9). 

TUNBBIDGB WELLS. 


li 


ON LBFT FROM LOND. 


MaUedoo Park, J. Dea- 

ndborough. 
SoQthborough Bounds. 
Ronsoch Green. 


5 


41 
46 


Summerhill. 

Great Lodge. 
Pembury. 



Tonbridge Wells is a celebrated watering-place upon the borders of Kent and 
Suaex. The chalybeate spring, to which the town owes its origin, was first no- 
ticed in the reign of James I., by Dudley, Lord North. The town has much 
iBcieased of late years, and contains all the usual requisites of a watering-place. 
It is celebrated for the salubrity of its air, and the neighbourhood is extremely 
picturesque and beautiful. Pop. (1851) 10,687. Excursions may be made to 
Penshurst, (Lord Be Lisle and Dudley), 6 m. distant ; Bridge Castle, 2 m. dls- 
ttot; Herer Casde, 7 m. distant; Bayham Abbey (Marquis Camden), 6 m. 
^tint, the ndns of which are extremely picturesque. There is a modem 
numsion in the Gothic style. Two miles beyond Tunbridge Wells is Eridge 
Castle, the seat of the Earl of Abergavenny. 



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12 m L0in)0N.--MAiD8T0NE.-HTTHE AND FOLKESTONE. 69} MIIm. 




LewUham, a very po- 
pulous vfflage, extending 
near a mile on road to 
Bromley,5 miles distant 



66} 

66 

64i 



64 
611 



Kemnel. 

Frognal, Vlsct Syd- 
ney. 

At a little distance, 
Chiselhunt. 

Two miles distant, 
Lullingstone Castle, Sir 
P. Hart Dyke, Bart. 

To Seven-Oaks, 8 m. 

ToTanbridge,8}. 

St. Clere, W. J. Eve- 
hm, Esq., and 8 miles 
from Wrotham at Igh- 
tham, Oldbnry Place, 
W. Elers, Esq. 

Offham. 

Bradboume Hon8e,Sir 
W. Twysden, Bart 



To Tnnbridge, ISi m. 



Green-Man turnpike. 
H^ cr. Surrey Canal. 
Turk's Head or Half- 
way House. 
Hatcham. 
Newcross Square. 
^^ cr. Croydon CanaL 
Newcross. 
Enter Kent 
Lewisham. 
1^ cr. river Rayens- 
boum. 
Lee. 
KUbaiTiT 
The church contains se- 
veral interesting monn 
ments. Here are the ruins 
of an old palace, hi the 
time of Henry VH. one of 
the most magnificent rojral 
edifices in England. The 
great hall is now used as a 
bam— the splendid roof of 
finely carved wood is in a 
good state of preservation. 
Thisis still Crown property. 
Southend. 
Sidcnp. 
Foot's Cfray. 
J^ cr. river Cray. 
Birchwood Comer. 
Pedham Place. 
Famingham. 
J^ cr. river Darent 
The Cock. 
Wrotham. 




Wrotham Heath. 

Roval Oak. 

A short distance to right, 

West Mailing and East 

Mailing. 

Larkfieid. 

Ditton. 

^Q cr. river Medway* 

MAIDSTONE. 



Lee Lodge. 

Lee Manor House, F. 
Perkins, Esq. 

Lee Grove, T. Brand- 
ram, Esq. 

WeU-Hall, B. Sutton, 

Park Farm Place. 
To Dartford, 8} miles. 



9 

i5i 

20} 
24 



30 
SOf 



North Cray. 
Foot's Gray Place. 



Addington. 
Leyboume - Grange, 
Sir J. H. Hawley, Bt 



Aylesford and Friar*s 
Place, Earl of Aylesford. 
Preston HalL 



Maidstone, the county town of Kent, is situated on a pleasant declivity, chiefly 
on the right bank of the Medway . In the vicinity are very extensive hop plan- 
tations, and the town is surrounded by gardens and orchards. Maidstone has 
an extensive and flourishing trade in hops, grain, fhdt, stone, &c The paper- 



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I0Jn)0N.-MAIDSTONE.— HTTHE AND POLKESTONE.-Con<inK«tf. 13 

Bills em{)lo7 upwards of 300 hands. The Archbishop's Palace is a Gothic 
ftnctfoe, rebuilt about the middle of the fourteenth century. It has undergone 
oooxiderable alterations since that period, but is still a pleasant and convenient 
residence. Among the other buildings worthy of notice are, the County Hall, 
Comity Gaol, Chapel of Newark Hospital, All Saints Church, and a very ancient 
«DDe bridge. The town contains a grammar school, a proprietary school, 4 
durity schools, 19 alms-houses, and 9 Dissenting meeting-houses. The county 
gwl was erected in 1818, on the improved radiating plan, at an expense of 
X200,000. Maidstone has returned two members of Parliament since the reign 
rf Edward VI. It formerly contained a college, founded by Archbishop Cour- 
toay in the reign of Richard II. ; but it was suppressed by Edward VI. Po- 
pulation in 1851, 20,801. About 1} miles north-east of the town is Pennenden 
Heath, where the county meetings have been held from a period prior to the 
Conquest Soads lead from Maidstone to Hythe, Folkestone, and Dover, Can- 
tertnny, Rochester, Tenterden, and Ronmey, Tunbridge and Tunbridge WeUs, 
*nd to Westerham. 



Folkestone 
nued. 


i 


ON Urr FROM U>MD. 


^11 


At a little distance 


sh is a large 
Qe structure, 
curious stalls 
mts. 




Otterdeo. 


m the left. 


47i 


To Faversham 10} m. 
To Canterbury 13^ m. 
Pett Place. 


Common. 


60i 


At a distance^Eastwell 
Park, Earl of Winchilsea 
and NoUingham. 


ford, 

aence of two 
heStour. The 
tains several 
well worthy 
3p. 1851,4092. 


68i 


To Faversham 14^ m. 
To Canterbury 14^ m. 


)orough. 
n Hatch. 

inge. 
n Green. 


64i 
66 

60 


Mersham Hatch, Sir 
N. J. Knatchbull, Bart. 

At a distance Eving- 
ton, Sir Courtenay Ho- 
nywood, Bart 

Monks-Holton. 

Digitized by GoOQIc 



14 LONDON.— MAIDSTONE.- HTTHE AND VOLKESfrOV^-ConHnued. 




Route to Folkestone 
continiied. 

HYTHE, 
One of the Cinque Forts, 
formerly a maritime town 
of great importance. It 
is a thoroughfare for per- 
sons going to or coming 
fi'om France ; thechannd 
here being only 27 miles 
across to Calais, and the 
voyage being often made 
in one tide if the wind is 
fair. Returns 1 M.P. Pop. 
1851, of town, 28r.7, and 
Pari, borough, 18,164. 

Seabrook Bridge. 
Sandgate. 




Marine ^^lla, Earl of 
Damley. 



To New Bomney 9 
miles. This borough is 
one of the Cinque Ports. 
It formerly sent two 
members to Parliament, 
—the right of election 
being vested in the 
mayor, jurats, and com- 
monalty ; but it is now 
disfranchised. Pop. of 
parish, 1851, 1053. 

Sandgate is a village 
of considerable repute 

as a watering-place. It 6 Seabrook Bridge. 63* 
has a castte, originally i| Sandgate. 68 

built by Henry VUI., * »«"uft»w. w 

now employed as a mar- 
teHo tower. FOLKESTONE. 

Folkestone was at one time a flourishing place, but is now much decayed. It 
has, however, greatly increased in importance since the opening of the South- 
Eastern Railway, the directors of which have made it a principal station for 
communication with France. Swift steam-packets pass daily, and often twice 
a-day, between Folkestone and Boulogne (a direct distance of 30 miles), accom- 
plishing the voyage in two hours. The harbour has been greatiy extended and 
improved, and numerous modem buildings erected for the accommodation of 
visitors, by whom it is resorted to during the summer months. The surround- 
ing country is very beautiful. Dr. William Harvey, the discoverer of the cir- 
culation of the blood, was a native of this place, and left a sum of money, with 
which a school has been founded and endowed. Pop. of parish, 1851, 6726. 

Vm. LONDON TO MAIDSTONE, BY RAILWAY, 56 Miles. 



Three miles distant, 
Sibton, J. Uneack, Esq. 
Hythe, near thechurch 
is the villa of Professor 
Coleman, and beyond, 
Beachborough, Eev. W. 
D. Brockman. 





g| 








ON BIOHT FEOM LOND. 


^1 


From London Br. to 


&l 


ON LEPT FBOM IX)ND. 












10 


Paddock Wood St 
■^ cr. river Medway. 


46 






7 


Yalding St 


49 


Boydon Hall. 

Mereworth Castle, 
Lady Le Despencer. 




6 


Wateringbury St. 
The line hence runs along 


51 


Yates Court, Viscount 
Torrington. 


West Farleigh. 




the left bank of the Med- 








way. 




Teston. 


The Mote, Earl of 
Romney. 


2 


East Farleigh St 


64 


Banning. 




MAIDSTONE (p. 12). 


66 


To Bochester,by road, 
7i miles. 



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n^-LOKDON» SbVBNOAKS, TUNBRIDOS, KTE, AWD WINCHELSSA, 15 

6S Mites. 



ON WGHT PROM LOND. 


II 


From London to 


A 


ON LBFT FROM LOND. 












Lewisham Bridge, see 










page 12. 






Wefl. 
Brockky. 


60 


Lewisham Bridge. 


5 


Lee. 
HoraPark. 


Cttsford Bridge. 


59 


Rushy Green. 


6 


To Greenwich, «| milefc 
Burnt A«h Grove. 


Sydenham. 

Beckenham Place, J. Ca- 


574 


South End. 


74 




ter, E«I. 










Wuren Ho. 








PlalstowHall. 


CkyHUl, 


56 


BROMLET. 


9 


Camden Fl. Marq. Cam- 
den. 


Eden Farm, Lord Aock- 








Bromley Hoose. 


Itnd (Bishop of Sodor and 








Chiselhnrrt. 


Man). 








Leeaons, Lord Wynford 
5mUes. 



Bromley derives its name from the quantity of broom with which it was for- 
Bierly surrounded. It is pleasantly situated on the Rarensboum, and poflsesses 
I spring whose waters afford great relief in a variety of infirmities, from the chap 
lybeate with which they are impregnated. The church contains a monument 
to the memory of Br Hawkesworth, (the author of the Adventurer,) and the 
tomb of the wife of Dr Johnson. Bishop Warner, in 1666, here founded a col- 
lege for 20 clergymen^s widows. Population in 1851, 4127. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



544 



jUngley Pa., E. Good- 

Hayes and Hayes PL 
Oikdy Farm. 



Hdwood Ho.,(J. Ward, 
En.)Qinoe the seat of Mr. 
Pitt. 

High Elms, Sir J. W. 
LoMiock, BarL 

New House. 



Aahgrove 



Knocfcholt, 
Cottage. 

"^ening and Cheve- 
. „ Pa. fitfl Stanhope. 
iTbethiidEarl possessed a 



52 
51 

49j 

48i 
474 

45 



Route continued. 

Mason's Hill. 
Leaves Green. 



Bromley Common. 

Lock>j Bottom. 

Famborough. 

Green Street Green. 

Spratt's Bottom. 
Richmore HilL 



Morant's Court Hill, 

the swnmit of which com 

mands a fine prospect. 



ro4 



13 

14 

m 
m 

174 
20 



ON LBFT FROM LOND. 



SouthbOTOUgh. 
Magpie HalL 



Famborough HalL 
Chelsfield. 



Halstead and Halstend 
Place. 



Otford. 
Dimton Green. 



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16 LONIH>N.— 8EVBN0AKS.— TUNBRID6E AND WINCHELSEA— C^mClnMAf. 



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tONDOW.-fiEVENOAKS.— TUNBRIDGE AND WINCHELSEA-OmKmied. J 7 



<Nf RIGHT FROM LOND. 



fm miles distant. Bay- 

tm Abbe7(Maraais Cam- 
den), founded about the 
year 1200, beyond which, 
at Frant, is Shernfold, 
aadEridge Castle, Earl ^ 
Abeifavenny. 

To Battle, 12 mitefl. 

Elford& 

liUesden. 

ToBattle, 11 miles. 



Herea road leads to Four 
Oaks, through Whitebread 
' me, saving 1| mile. 

At a distance are the ru- 
iM of Bodyham Castle, a 
uagnifioent building, sup- 
pond to have been built by 
ooe of tile Dalyngriges, a 
bnOy of great consequence 
k Siuaex in the fourteenth 
nd fifteenth centuries. 



25 
22 

20i 
174 

14f 



Enter Siusei. 

LamberhursU 
Jg^ cr. River Teise. 
Stone Crouch, (Kent). 



FlimwelL 
Hlghgate. 

Hawkhurst 

Sandhurst 

Newinden. 
-^cr. River Rother, 
and enter Sussex. 

Nirthiam. 
Beckley. 

Four Oaks. 

Peasemarsh. 

RVE (p. 29.) 
WINCHELSEA. 



40 
43 

44} 
474 



50| 
52| 



54f 

551 

57i 

59 

63 

65 



ON LBFT FBOM LOND. 



Court Lodge. 

Seotney Castle, an an- 
cient seat situated in a deep 
vale on the banks of the 
Beulth. 

Bedgebury Park. 

Oakfield Lodge. 

To Cranbrook, five m. 

To Tenterden, five m. 

Two miles distant, Mer< 
rington Place. 



Monntsfield, at the en- 
trance of Bye. 
Winchebtea Castle. 



X. LONDON TO HASTINGS, 63} Miles. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 


19 


London Bridge to Flim- 




ON LBFT FROM LOND. 


To Tunbridge Wells, 13 


44i 


To Rye, IH miles. 






well (Kent) as above 






To Lewes, 34 miles. 


16 


Hurst Green (Sussex.) 

-^ cr. river Rother. 
Robert's Bridge. 


47J 


Wdge PI. Sir S. B. P. 
Micklethwait, Bart 


CoortLo.; and, farther 


U 


Vine HalL 


52J 




4tlierigfat,DarTellBank. 










^ a distance, Ashbnm. 
MB House, Earl of Ash- 


94 


Wartlington. 


544 




loraham. 










Battle Abbey, Sir G. Y. 


7i 


Battle. 


56 




CtowhUTStPL 


H 


Crowhurst Park. 


58 


Beauport, Sir Charles 
1£ Lamb, Bart 


BoDington Ixxlge. 








limile distant Westfield. 


Ore Place-Sir H. El- 


2i 


Ore. 


614 


Bohemy House. 


[IdBgitone. Bart. 




HASTINGS (p. 28) 


63 J 


To Winchelsea, 7i miles, 
thence to Rye, 2 miles. 



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18 XI. LONDON TO HASTINGS THROUGH TUNBRIDGE WELLS. 



ON lUtiHT FKOM U)NS. 



To Lewes« S4| milet. 
To Bast Bourne, 30 m. 



37 



34 



London to Tunbridge 30 

r^^ cr. river Medway. 
Southborough. 33 
Nonsuch-Green. 
Tunbridge Wells. 35J 
Front (Sussex.) 37J 
Wadhurst 42] 

Shover's Green. 

Ticehurst 45| 

Junction of the road 

from Flimwell, 43 
Thence to Hastings as by 
the preceding route. 



§1 



Fenshorst, Lordde JMe 
and Dudley. 

South Pa. Great Bounds, 
Viscount Qardinge. 



ON LEFT FBOM LONIL 



XII. LONDON.— UCKFIELD.—EAST BOURNE, 62| Miles. 




Westerham is a small 
market-town. The manor 
^uras given to Abbey of West- 
minster by Edward I.— It 
is now the property of J. 
Ward, Esq. Gen. Wolfe 
and Bishop Hoadley were 
natives of this place. 

Squerries. 



Hammerwood Lodge, J. 
D. Magens, Esq. 

To East Grinstead, 6| m. 

Two miles distant, Ash- 
down House, A. E. Fuller, 
Esq. 

Maresfleld Park, Sir J. 
V. Shelley, Bart. 



U mile ftom Uckfleld, 
road leads off to Lewes 
miles distant 



London Br. to Bromley 10 
(Kent) (See p. 15.) 
48i Keston. 14^ 

47 J Leaves Green. 15| 
44 South Street. 18 j 

41 i Westerham. 21 ^ 

To Reigate, 13i m. 
To East Grinstead, 16| 
miles. 
To Maidstone, 22 m. 
374 Lindhurst. 25J 

36 Eden Br. 26J 

-^S cr. river Eden. 
31 j Kent Water,enter Suss. 31 

28| Hartfield. 34 

Ashdown Forest 
24f Junction of the road. 38 

Maresfield. 

194 UCKFIELD. 43J 

In thendghbourhoodare 
two chalybeate springs. Po- 
pulation, 1861, 1690: 

There is another and a 
shorter route firom Lon- 
don to Uckfield <see p. 20.) 




Holwood Ho., J. Ward, 
Elsq. The old mansion- 
house of Holwood was for 
many years the fiivourite 
retirement of Mr Pitt. On 
west side of Holwood HiU 
are the remains of an ex- 
tensive encampment, sup- 
posed to be of Roman 
origin. 
Hill Park. 



Stoneland Park. 



Buckstead. 

Framfield Park, A. Do- 
novan, Elsq. 



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LONDON.— UCKFIELD.- EAST BOURNE.— ConNfiueii. 



19 




East Hoathley. 

Whitesmith Green. 

H(»sebridge. 

■^S cr. rir. Cuckmere. 

Hailsham. 

Polegate Green. 

Willingdon. 

EAST BOURNE.' 




55i 
60| 



Four m. distant, Hnrtt- 
monoeuz Park, H. M. 
CarteuBjEaq. 



Batton Park, Freeman 
Thomas, Esq. 
Compton Place, Eari of 
62J|Barlington. 



East Bourne is a feahionable searbathing place, situated in a valley at the ez- 
tranity of the South Down& It has a handsome church, in which are some 
monmnents and a shignlar font The bathing here is remarkably good ; and it 
bag also the advaiitage of a chalybeate spring. To the west of East Bourne is 
Beachy-Head, the loftiest cHfT on this coast It is 573 feet in height, and con- 
tains sereial caverns. Six miles east €i East Bourne is Pevensey Castle, a fine 
ipedmen of ancient architecture. The date of its erection is unknown, but 
from the quantity of Roman brick employed in the work, it is supposed to 
bare been constructed out of some Roman fortress. The town and castle of 
Pevensey were conferred by William the Conqueror on his half-brother, Robert 
Etrl of Montainge and Cornwall They were afterwards forfeited to the Crown, 
md Henry IIL granted them to his son Prince Edward and his heirs. Kings of 
England, so that they should never more be separated from the Crown. Not- 
withstanding of this, however, they were settled on the celebrated John of 
Qaont For many years Pevensey Castle was held by the Pelhams. It then 
eme to Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, and ultimately descended by 
<ttinage to the Earl of Burlix^ton. Six miles from Pevensey and 12 from East 
Boome are the ruins of Hurstmonceuz Castle, formerly a fortress of great mag- 
uficence and strength. Till 1777 it was the most perfect and regular caatel- 
Iried mansion in the kingdom ; but about that period the roof was taken down, 
ladtke interior completely stript by the proprietor, the Rev. Mr Hare, who 
employed the materials thus obtained in the erection of some additional rooms 
in the modem mansion-house. The church contains some curious monuments 
cf the fiunily of Fiennes. Hurstmonceux is now the property of H. M. Corteis, 
Esq, who manifests a praiseworthy zeal in the preservation of its ruins. 

Tlie nearest road to East Bourne, and that which is most travelled, is through 
East Grinstead and Uckfield (see page 20)w Its distance from London by the 
route is 61 miles. The population of East Bourne parish in 1851 was 3433. 



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20 XIII. LONDON TO LEWES AND BRIGHTON THROUGH CROYDON 
AND EAST GRINSTEAD, 58^ MUes. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Streatham Park, where, 
while it was occupied by 
the Thrales, Dr. Johnson 
was a frequent visitor. 



Beddington Pa., G. H. 
Carew, Esq., beyond which 
is Carshafton Ho., Car- 
shalton Pa. and Carsbalton 
Academy, a branch of the 
Military Academy, WooL 
wich. 

Hayling House. 



QuBxry House. 



Gasson Houses 



Fdbrid«e P. 



56| 
53 



49 
46| 



44i 
43 



Framepost, and Saint 
Hill. 



At the east end of the 
town to Sackville College, 
erected by Robert, Earl of 
Dorset, for the residence of 
24 aged persons. 



Kidbrooke, Lord Col- 
chester. 



To Cuckfield, 13 miles. 

At a distance Sheffield 
Pa. Earl of Sheffield, and 
Fletching church, in which 
Gibbon the historian is in- 
terred. 



24i 
18t 
16i| 



Westminster Bridge 

to Kennington T. P. 

Brixton. 

Streatham. 



CROYDON. 
To Epsom 94 miles. 

Purley House. 



Rose and Crown Inn. 
Harden Park Lodge. 

Godstone Green. 



Stanstead Borough. 

Blindley Heath. 
New Chapel Green. 

Felbridge (enter Sus- 
sex). 
E VST GRtNSTEAD. 

The church is a spacious 
building, containing a cu- 
rious monument, with an 
inscriptioa stating that the 
chunm was founded by 
R. Lewkner, Esq. and his 
wife, who was one of the 
ladies to the Queens of 
Edward IV. and Henry 
VIL 

■^^ cr. river Medway. 
Forest Row. 



Wych Cross. 

Nutley. 
Maresfield. 

Uckfield. 



H 

m 

131 
151 



19 



The vidnity of Croydon 
is particularly celebrated 
forneld-sports. The church 
is a fine ancient building, 
containing the monuments 
of Sheldon, Wake, OridaU, 
Whitgift,and Potter,Arch. 
bishops of Canterbury. 

To Bromley 6| miles. 



204 

23 

25 

27 
28i 



31i 

34 
37 
39i 

414 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



Purley Ho. Here Home 
Tooke resided. 
Sanderstead Co. 



Harden Park, Sir W. E. 
Clayton, Bart. 

Rook»s Nest, C. H. Tur- 
ner Esq. 

flower House. 

Lee Place. 

Stratton House. 



Felcourt, Sir T. E. M, 
Turton,Bart. 

To Brighton thnraffh 
lindfield 27 miles. 

East Co. 



East Grinstead formerly 
returned 2 M.P.*s., but is 
now disfranchised. Pop. 
of parish, 1851, 3820. 



Ashdown Pa., A. 
Ful|(er, Esq. 
Pixton House. 



E. 



MaresfiddPa. Sir J.V. 
Shelley, Bart. 
Buxted Place. 



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LONDON TO LEWES AND BRIGHTON— C!tm«mi«l. 



21 



OM BIGHT FROM LOND 



MaUin^ House. 
Maning Deanery, 



Combe Place, Sir H. 
adflber, Bart. 
Stanmer Park, Earl of 



8| 



Horeted. 

CHff. 

S cr. liyer Ouse. 

LEWES. 

(See p. 28.) 

Ashcombe. 

Falmer. 

BRIGHTON. 



m 

50 
51} 

54 
58^ 



ON LBFT FROM LOND. 



Fnunfield, A. Donovan, 
Esq. 

Here a road leads oft to 
East Bourne, distant 19^ 
miles. 

Plashet Park, Visconnt 



Gage. 
Glyi 



Jlynde,Sm.Lord Dacre 
and Glyndbcume. 
rirle Place, Viact Gage. 



HV. LONDON TO BRIGHTON THROUGH CROYDON AND CUCKFIELD, 51^ 

Miles. 



Near on Red-HOl Com- 
on Leith Hill Tower, a 

eoupicuous otject iu this 

Ddghbourhood. 



ON SIGHT FROM LOND. 






344 
27i 



Daany, W. J. Campion, 
WooboDbury Beacon. 



London to Merstham. 

At the 19th milestone, to 

Brighton, through Reigate. 

' Horley. 



24 
21i 
20i 
18t 
15 

■Si 



Enter Sussex. 

Richman^s Green. 

Worth-Bridge. 

Northfolk Arms. 

Balcombe. 
Wliitenian'S Green. 

CUCKFIELP, Pop. of 
pariah, 1851, SUda. 

Friar's Oak Inn. 
Clayton. 

Piecombe. 
Patcham. 
Withdean. 

BRIGHTON. 



24 



27^ 
29i 
31 
32; 

36; 

37 

42| 

444 

454 
48^ 
49 
51i 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



To Brighton through 
Hickstead, 24 miles. 



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22 XV, LONDON TO BRIGHTON THROUGH CROYDON, REIGATE. 
CRAWLEY, AND HICKSTEAD, 52^ Miles 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Up. Gatton Houae, W 
Currie, Esq. 

Gatton Park, Jx)rd 
Monson. 

QatUm is remarkable as 
having possessed theprivi^ 
loj^e of sending 3 M. P's. 
while it had seven electors. 



Charlwood House, J. 
Fraser^Esq. 

To Horsham, 7 miles. 



Alboome Place. 



22i 

114 

H 

3i 



Westminster Bridge to 
CROYDON. 

MersthanL 



REIGATE. 
The church contains se- 
veral costly monuments. A 
castle form^ly stood here^ 
but no part of the building 
now remains. The Priory 
(Earl Somers) stands on 
the site of a convent of Au- 
gustines. Reigate returns 
oneM.P. Pop. 1851, 4927. 
At the County Oak, 
enter Sussex. 
CRAWLEY. 29| 

■^@ cr. a branch of 
river Adur, 
HICKSTEAD. 40| 

Alboume Green. 42f 
Piecombe. 46 

Patcham. 49 

BRIGHTON. 52J 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



Tilgate Lodge, Lord St. 
T^nonards, 



Hnrstpierpoint. 

Stanmer Park, Earl of 
Chichester. 



XVI. LONDON TO BRIGHTON THROUGH SUTTON, REIGATE, AND 
CUCKFIELD 525 Maes. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



At a distance Mordon 
Park. 



46} 
45 



NorkHo. E.ofEgmont. 
Tad worth Court. 



Gatton, a famous nomi- 
nation borough, now dis- 
franchised. 



«i 



39} 
34; 



m 



Clapham Common. 

Tooting. 

Miteham. 

^^ cr. river Wandle, 

Once celebrated for the 

excellence of its trout. 

SUTTON. 



Banstead Downs. 
Obelisk. 

Walton Heath, 
Gatton Inn. 



REIGATE. 
Thence to Brighton by 
Crawley and duck- 
field. 



b 

6 
71 



"J 



ON LEFT FROM LOND, 



Beddington Park, C. H. 
Carew, Esq. 

Carshalton House. 

Carshalton Park. 

Carshalton Academy. 

Carshalton church con." 
tains a handsinne monu. 
ment to the Gaynesford 
family. 

The Oaks (formerly a 
seat of the Earls of Derby), 
a noble mansion, com- 
manding fine views. 

Upper Gatton Honae, 
W. Currie, Esq. 

Gatton Pa, a nob e ma - 
sion, the approach to which 
istboughttoequal anjrthitig 
of the kind in the kingdom, 
the seat of Lord Monson. 



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J\J.].sh/-ii 1.;.' A .VlM4laci.Kd.ai>ur^. 



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XVII. LONDON TO BBIOHTON« BY RAILWAY, W Miles. 



2d 




At New Crosg Is the 
Boyal Naval School, 
founded in 1843. 



One and a half m. dis- 

nt is Dulwich, noted for 
tocdlvgeand picture-gal- 
lery. The college was 
founded in l6Xt» bv Ed- 
ward Alleyn, a player, for 
the education and main- 
tenance of jwor scholars. 
The picture-gallery, be- 
queathed to the College 
Dv Sirfrancis Bourgeois, 
aA^ and rich in speci- 
mens of the Dutch school, 
is open to the public by 
tickets, which may be 
obtained of the princiiml 
London printsellers. 

North Surrey Indus- 
trial Schools. 

Benlah Spa, 1 mile, and 
beyond it Streatham, 
where Dr. Johnson was 
wont to spend much of 
his time with the Thrale 
lamily. 

Croydon and Epsom 
railway branches off. 

Hfl(yiing Park. 



Bottom, _ 

brood open valley, through 
»hidi the coach road 
^Mest beyond are Ban- 
itead Downs. 

,Two miles distant. The 
Ous, formerly a seat ol 
the Earls of Derby. 

Woodmansteme. 

Gatton Ho^ Lord Mon- 
Bon, a magniflcoit stmc- 
tore, surrounded by an 
Ot^islve park. , 

The adjacent village of 
Oatton, long notorious 
as a rotten bonragh, was 



48 



454 



40} 



From London Bridge 
by Greenwich Rail- 
way for 1 J m. 

4^ cr. Surrey CanaL 

New Cross St. 

Forest Hill St. 



Sydenham. 

The resting-place of the 

Crystal Palace. 

Anerley. 

Norwood. 

Prom Upper Norwood, moit 
extensive viewi of London and 
the stuTOundiag oountiy nuj 
be Obtained. 

Sydenham, Anerley, and 
Norwood, are stations used 
only by the Croydon and 
£psom trains. 

Croydon (East) St 
The town of Croydon is 

to the right of the railway. 

(See p. Si), 




37i 



36} 



32 



Godstone Road St. 

To Godstone 8 miles, 

on left 

Stoat's Nest St. 

Merstham Tunnel, 
1820 yards. 

Merstham St, used 

only by the South- 

Eastem trains. 



fii 



101 



13* 



14i 



19 



Oeptfionl. 
Qreenwieh (see p. 7). 



To Lee and Eltham. 

The sealery in the nei^h< 
bourhood or this portion 
of the line presents many 
attractions ; the country u 
richly cultivated^ and the 
church spires rising in the 
distance form pleasmg feni- 
tares in the landscape. 

Beckenham. 



Eden Farm, Lord Auck- 
land (Bishop of Sodor 
and Man). 



Addiscombe College, foi 
the education of cadets foi 
the E. I. Co.'s service. 

Addin^n Park, 8i m., 
Archbp. of Canterbury. 

Purley House, once the 
residenoe of John Home 
Tooke, and whence the 
title of his work, "The 
Diversions of Purley," was 
derived. 

Sanderstead Oonrt 



Coulsdon. 

Chaldon. 

Marden Park, Sir W. 
R. Clayton, Bart 

Merstham House, Sir 
W. G. H. Jolliife, Bart. 



y Google 



24 



LONDON TO BRIGHTON— Continued. 




disftandiiMd in 1832 by the 
Reform Act, a short time 
>revious to which it had 
)een purchased by the 5th 
Ld. Monson for L. 100,000. 
Railway to Beading, 
through Dorking and 
Guildford, (p. 185). 

Reigate, situated on the 
Mole, and built upon a rock 
of white 8and,mueh valued 
for the manufacture of fine 
articles of glass. An object 
of much curiosity here is 
the Baron's Cave. The 
town returns 1 member to 
parliament. Pop. 1861, 
1827. 



Charlwood. 
Crawley, Ik mile. 



Branch to Honham* 8 

I. (Seep.aO). 



25 



21 



17 



Slaugham Place. 



Cuckfield, 2 mile^ is a 
small but pleasant mar. 
ket-town, with a fine and 
spacious church. Pop. of 
par. 1861, 3196. 



13 



Bedfafil Junction St 21 



Earlle Wood embank- 
ment, over Earl's 
wood Common. 



4^ cr. 2 branches of 
the river Mole. 

Horley St. 26 

Cross county boundary 
and enter Sussex. 

:M cr. river Mole. 

Three Bridges St 80 

Pass through Tilgate 
Forest, part of The 
Weald. 

S^ cr. branch of R. 
Mole. 

Balcombe Tunnel, 
1120 yards. 

Balcombe St. 84 

Aboat 1^ mile from the cte. 
tion is the Quae Viaduct, one 
of the most stupendona worka 
of the kind in the kingdom. 
It oonsisU of thirtj-seren 
Mjshes, of SO thet apan each. 
The height from the water to 
the aurfkce of the road ia 100 
feet { height of the abntmenta, 
40 feet : the length of the whole 
upwarda of a quarter of a mil*. 



Leave South . East«ra 
nne, to Dover, (p. 8). 

Kntfield. Many years 
ago a vast number of 
Roman coins were dis- 
covered here. 

Holmesdale Lodge. 



Burstow. 



Hayward's Heath St I 38 



Worth, 1^ m. distant, 
has an ancient Saxon 
duirch. 



East Orinstead, 7 m., a 
market-town. Pop. of 
parish, 1851, 3820. It 
formerly returned two 
M.P.'s, but is now dis- 
franchised. (See p. 20.) 

Balcombe House. 2| 
m. distant, Wakehurst 
PL, J. J. W.Peyton, Esq. 



Ardingley. 
Lindfield. 



Branch to L«wes and 
Hastings, (p. 2fi). 

Wivelsfidd. 



y Google 



LONDON TO BRIGHTON— CimMfHied. 



25 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND, 



Cockfield Place. 

Clayton Priory.' 
Horstpierpoint, 2 m. 

Alboorne Place, 3 m. 



Danny Ho., W. J. Cam- 
pioD«Esq. 
I^ewtimber. 

Withdean. 



Branch to Chidiester 
UKt Portsmouth, (p. 79) • 



Burgess Hill St 

Hassock's Gate St. 

Clayton Timnel, 2240 
varcb long, passes through 
the range of the S. Down 
hllla. 

Patcham Tunnel, 480 
yards. 



Descent to 

BRIGHTON. 



51 



ON LIFT FROM LONO. 



Keyxner; Ditchllng. 
To Lewes, by road, 9 m. 



Clayton. 
Panedean. 
Patcham. 

Stanmer Park, 2 miles, 
Earl of Chichester. 

Preston. 



Branch to Lewes and 
Hastingi, 32} miles. 



XVIII. LONDON TO LEWES AND HASTINGS (ST LEONARD'S), BY 
RAILWAY, 74 MUe^ 



JN RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Leare line to Brighton. 

DitchHng. — Ditchling 

eaoon, one of the highest 
Nrintsof Uie S. Downs, is 
BB feet above the sea. 

Westmeston. 

Plnmpion. 

Combe Place, Sir H. 
Biiflher, Bart. -* Hamsey 
Fhoe. 



^ to Newhaven, Sj m. 

ln4taT«ii is situated at the 
Booth of the OuBe. and formi 
flMportofLewea. Itsbarboor 
■•• raeently been improTed, 
Md ii the point of embarkation 
•»ni tlie eteamera wliidi 



jr thejpaauga 
Umihoan. Pop.0M. 

ISePWrViMt. Gage. 
Firle Hill, 820 feet high. 
Sefaneiton. 
Berwidc Court. 



254 



From London Br. to 
Hairwardls Heath (p. 
24). 

Cook's Bridge St 

^ The range of the South 
Down fiflls lies to the 
ri^ht hand. 



LEWB& 



22} 



18 



Join line from Brigh- 
ton (see p. 85). 
•1^ or. river Ouse. 
The line here runs be- 
tween the S. Down ranges. 
Glynde St 



Line of S. Down Hills 

to the right 

Berwick St 



38 

U 

484 

614 
56 



ON LIFT FROM LOND. 



WiTdsfield. 
Chailey, 2% m. 
Chiltington. 

WdUngham, Si m. 



Cliff: the highest point 
of Cliff Hill, round which 
the ndlway winds, it 
called Mount Cabum; it 
oommands an extensive 
view. 



Glynde Place. 
Glyndbourae. 



y Google 



26 



LONDON TO LEWES AND ILhSFnSBS^CoHtinua. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 




^^ cr. riv. Cuckmere. 


ii 


ON LSPT FROM LOND. 




Willingdon. 






Arlington. 




miles (p. 19). 


u 


Polegate St 


60 


Branch to Haibham, sj 
m. Haikham is a Bmaul 






The railway now leaves 
the South Downs, which 
stretch southward • to 




market-town, £9 m. from 
London by road. Pop., 
of Parish (1851) 1825. 








Beadiy Head, and runs 
through a level tract, with 
the sea on the right hand. 






























lOi 


West Ham and Pe- 
TenseySt 


63i 












are the ruins of Pevenaey 




The coast is here lined 




Pevensey is a very an- 




Castle (p. 19). 




by the martello towers, 




cient place. 1 1 was proba- 
bly the Anderida of the 




HnrstmonoenxPark, Si 




built at the period of the 
threatened French inva- 






m., and mlns of Hurst- 






Romans, and the Andre- 




monceux Castle, H. M. 




sion, and which extend at 








Curteis, Esq. 

Beyond, Windmill Hill, 
H. M Curteis, Esq. 

Wartling. 

Hooe. 




ntervals along great part 
ofthe Kentish and Sussex 
coasts. 


4 


BexhiUSt 


70 












Five m. ftomBexhiU St. 












is Ashbumham Ho. (Ear] 








Bulverhithft. 




of Ashbumham), a fine 
modem edifice, standing 
in an extensive park. The 
parish church or Ashbum- 
ham contains some inte- 
























St Leonard's consbts 












wholly of modem struc- 




Bopoop. 




■uch as the watch, shirt, 




tures, erected withm the 






&c. worn by him on the 




last few years for the ae- 








scaffold. 




Qommodation of visitors. 










md is at present one of the 
most fashionable and fte- 






















[{uented watering-places 


1 


ST. LEONARD'S. 


73 






on the English coast. The 












est in Europe. 




HASTINGS. 


74 







Brighton is situated nearly in the centre ofthe bay stretching from Selsey Bill, 
in the west, to Beachy Head, the eastern extremity of the South Downs. It is 
protected on the north and north-east by this verdant chain of chalk hills, and 
on the west lies a level district of arable land. The sea has made considerable 
encroachments on this part of the coast. In the reign of Elizabeth the town of 
Brighton was situated on that tract whore the chain-pier now extends into the 
sea, but the whole of the tenements under the cliff were destroyed by tremen- 
dous storms in 1 703 and 1705, and no traces of this ancient town are now per- 
ceptible. The foundation of the prosperity of Brighton was laid by Dr Richard 
Russell, an eminent physician, whose work on the efficacy of sea water, combin- 
ed vith his successful practice* broueht numerous visitors to the coast. But it 



y Google 



BRIGHTON. 27 

was to George lY. when Prince of Wales, Brighton was indebted for its cde- 
brity as a watering-place. His Royal Highness first visited Brighton in 1782, 
after which time he passed the summer and autnmn months here for many 
yean in succession. In 1784, he commenced the erection of the Pavilion, which 
was completed in its original design in 1787, and under the stimulus of royal 
patronage, what was formerly a fishing village, has now become the most attrac- 
tive watering-place in Europe. The Pavilion having been purchased by the 
inhabitants in 1840, its gardens are used as a public promenade. 

Brighton is not an incorporated town. Its government is vested in a chief 
constable and twelve head boroughs, who are annually chosen at the court-leet of 
the Earl of Abergavenny. The afiairs of the town are managed by ] 15 com- 
missioners, who regulate the cleansing, lighting, &c 

The fishery of Brighton was once very considerable, but has now declined to 
aD ahnoet incredible extent 

Of the puUic buildings of Brighton, the most distinguidied is the Ro3ral Pavi- 
Hon, the architecture of which has been severely and justly censured. The 
Chain Pier is a light and ^egant structure, erected in 1822, under the superin- 
tendence of Captain Brown, at an expense of L. 30,000. It has twice suffered 
from violent storms. The marine wall, which was completed in 1838, and 
was eleven years in building, is a splendid structure. It is nearly two miles in 
length, and cost about L. 100,000. The celebrated spot called the Steyne, which 
was formerly a piece of vraste land, is now a fiishionable promenade, and is siir- 
roanded by beautiful buildings. In the northern endosure stands the famous 
bronze statute of Greorge IV. executed by Cbantrey. The Town Hall is an 
ifflmense pile of building, the cost of which is said to have been near L.30,000. 
Brighton contains numerous (13) places of worship in connection with the estab- 
lishment, and many belonging to the various denominations of Christian 
Dissenters, and a Jews* synagogue. In the church-yard of the old church is a 
monmnent erected to the memory of Captain Tattersal, who assisted Charles II. 
in his escape to the continent after the battle of Worcester. There are a consi- 
derable number of schools in the town for the instruction of the children of the 
poor. Brighton contains barracks both for cavahy and infimtry ; the former 
affords accommodation for 625, and the latter for about 400 men. In the rear 
of the east part of the town is a pleasing rural retreat, called the Park, in which 
is the German spa establishment, where chemical imitations of the most cele- 
brated mineral waters of Germany are prepared. At Wick, half a mile west of 
the town, there is a chalybeate spring, which has of late years been much fre- 
quented. Brighton is well supplied with baths, and every convenience for the 
iccommodation of those who wish to avail themselves of the advantages of sea- 
bathing. The exteriors of many of the hotels are magnificent, and the interiors 
fitted up with much taste and convenience. 

Brighton is not a manufacturing or commercial town, but it has an extensive 
retail trade. Steam-boats ply regularly between this place and DieppOt 

To the north and north-east of the town, on the summit of the Downs, is the 
nee^oourse, commanding an extensive view. A number of pleasant excu^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



28 LEWES.~HASTINGS. 

may be made in the vi^nity. The population of Brighton, which, at the com- 
mencement of the present century, was only 7339, was, by the census of 1841, 
46,661, and by that of 1851, 69,673, while during the fashionable season, it is 
estunated at 90,000. Brighton returns two members to Parliament under the 
Reform Act. 

At the distance of 8 miles from Brighton, stands the ancient market-town 
nd borough of Lewes, pleasantly situated on a rising groimd, and surrounded 
partly by hills, and watered by the river Ouse. Lewes is a place of great anti- 
quity, and numerous remains of Roman art have been excavated in the town 
nd neighbourhood. It was strongly fortified in the time of the Saxons. At the 
period of the Conquest, the rape of Lewes fell to the lot of William de Warren, 
son-in-law of William the Conqueror, who erected a castle in Lewes, and made 
it the place of his residence. It continued in the possession of his descendants 
until the beginning of the fourteenth century, when, in defiiult of male issue, 
the barony passed into the £unily of Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel. On the death 
of Thomas, Earl of Arundel, in 1439, it was divided among the noble families of 
Norfolk, Dorset, and Abergavenny, in the possession of whose descendants it still 
remains. In the immediate vicinity of Lewes^ a sanguinary battle was fought 
in May 1264, between the troops of Henry III., and those of the barons under 
Simon de Montfort, in which the former were defeated. A considerable portion 
of the castle still remains, and there are also some interesting ruins of the mon> 
astery of St Pancras, founded by the first Earl de Warren in 1076. The annual 
revenue of the monastery at the time of the dissolution is valued at £1091 : 9 : 6. 
Lewes could also boast in former times of at least nine churches, but of these 
only two now remain. At present it contains six parish churches, and eight 
Dissenting chapels. The public buildings are, the County Hall, House of Cor- 
rection, and Theatre. There is also an excellent race-course. A number of 
influential county families formerly had their principal residences at Lewes. 
The town has possessed the privilege of returning two members to Parliameiit 
since the time of Edward I. The population by the census of 1851 was 9533. 

The distance from Lewes to London by Chailey is 49 miles ; by Uckfield, a 
mile more. 

About forty miles east from Brighton is the borough of Hastings, a celebrated 
watering-place, and a place of great antiquity. The entrance to it from th 
London road is extremely beautifiiL The town is well paved and lighted, and 
very neat and clean. It formerly possessed a good harbour ; but its chief de- 
pendence now lies on its fisheries, and on the influx of visitors. The citizens of 
the place are famous for their skill in boatr-building. On a lofty rocky clifF 
westward of the town are the remains of a very ancient castle, the walls of which 
are still partly entire, and are in some places eight feet thick. The town con- 
tains a supply of hot and cold baths, libraries — a promenade, a theatre, an as- 
sembly room, &c. The notorious Titus Oates was bom in this town, and ofR- 
dated for some time as minister in AH-Souls-Church. The vicinity of Hastings 
abounds in interesting and romantic scenery. The borough ranks as the first of 
'^Inque Ports in their official proceedings, and returns two members to Par- 



y Google 



BATTLE.-RTB.-WINCHELSEA. 29 

Uament The population of the borough and Cinque Port was 17,011 in 1851. 
Hastings is 64 miles distant from London. 

About seven miles north-west from Hastings is the market^own of Battle, which 
takes its name from that memorable contest, commonly called the Battle of Hast- 
ings, idiich put an end to the Saxon line of kings, and placed the crown of Enghmd 
on the head of a Norman. In the year following his victory, William, in fulfilment, 
it is said, of a tow made on the nig^t previous to the battle, caused to be founded 
a splendid abbey, which, however, was not completed till seven years after his 
death. His conquering sword, and the robe which he had worn at his corona- 
tion, were offered at the altar. Here also was deposited the ** Roll of Battel 
Abbey,^ consisting of a tabte of the Norman gentry who came into England with 
the Conqueror. This abbey was one of the mitred ones which conferred on the 
abbot the honour of a seat in Parliament At the dissolution of the monasteries 
i grant of the house and site of the abbey was made to Sir Anthony Browne, the 
ancestor of the Montagu family, who continued to reside here in a part of the 
abbey which had been converted into a mansion, till the beginning of the eight- 
eenth century, when it was sdd to Sir Thomas Webster, Bart; and it at 
present belongs to Sir Godfrey Vassal Webster, Bart, his descendant The 
tl>bey when in its complete state, formed a square, three sides of which are now 
partly occupied with its ruins. 

The town of Battle is celebrated for its manufacture of gunpowder. Pop. of 
Parish (1861) 3849. 

Ten miles east from Hastings stands the ancient town of Rye, situated on a rock 
near the mouth of the Bother. It was strongly fortified in the reign of Edward 
TIL, and part of the walls and some of the gates are still standing. Its harbour hav- 
ing been choked up by sand, a new one has been formed by cutting a large canal 
n'amore direct line to the sea, sufficiently spacious to admit vessels of 200 tons 
up to the quay. The only objects worthy of notice are, the church, a very huge 
stone building; Ypres Castle, originally built for the defence of the town, by 
William de Ypres, in the twelfth century, now occupied as a prison ; the Town- 
Hall and the Marketrplace ; and the remams of the town gates and walls. The 
Mermen of Rye send considerable supplies to the London market Rye has 
for centuries been celebrated for a very extensive illicit trade, which is now, 
however, greatly diminished. Rye is one of the Cinque Ports ; and, before the 
Reform Bill passed, returned two members to Parliament It now, in conjuno- 
tion with some of the neighbouring parishes, returns one. The population of 
Bye, Pari. Borough, in 1861 was 8641. 

To the westward of Rye is the disfranchised borough of Winchelsea, formerly 
a place of considerable importance, but now greatly reduced, in consequence of 
the sea having deserted it A part of one of its churches is all that remains out of 
three which it formerly possessed. It contains two monuments of Knights Tem- 
plars, and there is a third in the vestry. The whole of Old Winchelsea was 
swallowed up by the sea in a tempest The new town was built by Edward I. 
Between Winchelsea and Rye, and about two miles from the former, are th« 
fmns of Winchelsea or Camber Castle, built by Henry VIII. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 



30 XIX. L0NJX)N.-EPS0M.--D0RK1N6.~H0ESHAM.-AND 

WORTHING, 66 MILES. 



y Google 



LONDON.— EPSOM.^D0RKINO.—HORSHAM.-AND WORTHING. 
Continued. 



31 



V BIGHT TBOM LOND. 



To Petworth, Col. 
Wyndham, 12 miles. 

Highden, Sir H. D. 
G<Hing, Bart. 

Mantham. 

Offlngton House. 






Washin/icton Common. 

Findon. 

Broadwater. 



WORTHING (p. 77). 



66 



ON LIFT FBOlf LOND. 



To Steyning, 3| miles. 

Cisebmy Hill, sor- 
moonted by the ndns of 
a fort, said to have been 
constructed by Cisa, 
second King of the 
South Saxons. 



XX. LONDON TO ARUNDEL AND LITTLE HAMPTON, 59 Miles. 



ON BIGHT FROM LOND. 




London to Bear Green 


a 


ON LEFT PROM LOND. 


Leith Hill, a beautiful 


3H 


274 






(pagedO.) 




Tition of 993 feet, and sur- 
nvMiDted by a tower, com. 


28} 


Stone Street 


301 


Oakley Court. 


nanding a view of remark- 
lUe extent and beauty. 


26 


Denn Bridge (Sussex). 


33 


Eldersley Lodge. 

Reld Place, Sir P. F. 
Shelley, Bart, son of the 




21| 
20 


Park Street. 


37J 
39 


Doet. 




Buckman's Comer. 


Somers. 




18 


Billinghurst 


41 


Clark's Land. 




13 


Pulborough. 


46 






12 


Haxdham. 


47 




Bignor Park, J. Haw- 


10} 


Coldwaltham. 


48i 


• 


kins, Esq. Here are 


8 


Bury. 


51 


Houghton Hill. The 


Mosaic pavements and 








extensive Roman villa. 








particularly interesting. 


ToSahabury, 64 miles. To 


3i 


ARUNDEL, (p. 77). 
J^ cr. river Arun. 


65i 




Portnnouth, 40 miles. 




Leominster. 








i* 


LITTLE HAMPTON, 
A retired watering-place 
near the mouth of the 
Arun. It has a new Gothic 
church and Wesleyan cha- 
pel, a fort, and a ferry con- 
necting Bognor and the 
Brighton Road. Bognor 
is & m. distant; Arundel 
Castle, Duke of Norfolk, 
4 or 5 ; Worthing about 8 


6Vi 
59 








miles. Pop. (1851) 2486. | 





y Google 



32 XXL LONDON TO DORKING AND GUILDFOED, BY RAILWAY, 42 MUea. 



OW BIGHT rsOM LOND. 


fc3 

CD 


From London Bridge 


ij 


ON LEFT mOM LOND. 










by Brighton Railway^ 






Gatton Park, Lord 


21 


to Reigate St (p. 24). 


21 


Leave Line to Brighton. 


Monson. 








The Priory, Earl So- 


Upper Gatton Honse, 


19 


TownofREIGATE, 


23 


mers. 


W. Currie, Esq. 




(See p. 22). 




Reigate Lodge, J. 


Headley Lodge. 








PhUlIps, Esq. 


Buckland Gfreen. 








Buckland. 

Backland Court, Miss 
Carbonell. 
Wonham House, A. 


Box Hill, £uned for its 


16 


Betchworth St 


26 


Way, Esq. 
Moor Place, J. W. 


extensive prospect, and 


14 


Box-Hill St 


28 


Freshfield, Esq. 


the beauty of the snr- 








Betchworth House, 


roonding scenery. It re- 
ceived its name from the 








Rt. Hon. H. Goulbum. 








Betchworth Castle, a 


box-trees, planted in the 
reign of Charles L 








fine ruin.- 








Broome Park, Sir B. 


Ashnrst Lodge, J. M. 








Brodie, Bart 


Strachan, Esq. 








Shrub Hill, Lady Eliz. 


Headley Court,?. Lad- 








Wathen. 


broke, Esq. 


13 


DORKING, 


29 




Burford Bridge, J. A. 




Dorking is a market-town. 




Esq. 


Gordon, Esq. 




noted for the excellence of 




Bury Hill, C. Barclay, 


Mickleham Hall, R. 








The Rookery, N. J. 


W. Crawford, Esq. 




found here in great abun- 
dance. Pop., 1861, 849a 




Juniper Hil],Cuthbert 






Fuller, Esq. 


Ellison, Esq. 








Wotton Place, W. J. 


Juniper Hall, Miss 








Evelyn, Esq. 


Beardmore. 








Abinger Hall, Lord 


Norbury Park, T. 
GrisseU Esq. 
The Denbies, T. Cu- 








Abinger. 
Leith HiH, 4* m. dis- 


bitt, Esq. 








tant, is the highest hiU 


Polsden, J. P. Bonsor, 
Esq. 
Great Bookham Court, 


8 


Gomshall St 


84 


in the county of Surrey, 
and is 993 feet above the 








level of the sea. 


Viscount Downe. 










Netley Place, in ruins. 
Sherd, E. Bray, Esq. 


7 


Shere Heath St 


35 


Hartswood Common, 


Albury Park, Henry 








R. Glutton, Esq. 


Drummond, Esq., and 










Lord Lovaine. 










Weston House. 












4 


Chiiworth St. 


38 


Wonersh PaA, Lord 


Shalford House, Sir 


2 


Shalford St 


40 


Grantley. 


H. Austin. 




^Q cr. riv. Wey. 




Loseley Place, Sir C. 


Gosden House, John 








E. Scott, Bart., l\ mile. 


Soarkes, Esq. 








St. Catherine's HHl. 






GUILDFORD. 


42 


Branch ot South Wes- 






Thence to Reading by 










railway, 25 m. (p. 185.) | | 



y Google 



XXn, LONDON TO CJBOYDON AND EPSOM, BY RAILWAY, IHi MQet. 38 



W RIGHT FROM LOND. 




From London Br. to 
Croydon (as in p. 23). 




ON LEFT PROM LOND. 


Mitduun, 3 m. 


8 


101 


1| m. before reaching 
Croydon, leave Brightoi 
railway. 


Beddington Pazk, C. 
H. Carew, Esq. 




Croydon is a town of con- 
siderable antiquity, and 
much resorted to by the 
people of London since the 
opening of the rwlway. 
Sir William Walworth, 
famous for killing Wat 
Tyler, resided at Croydon 
Park. Here the London- 
army of Henry III. in 
I2M. Fop. (1851) 10,260. 




HayUng PaA. 


&i Ae village of Carshal- 
ton is the chief source of 
cberiTerWandle. 

Oushalton Houses 
Oanhflltoa Academy. 


54 


Carshalton St. 


13 


Banstead Downs. 

The Oaks. The draw- 
iug-room, on the first 
floor, is an octagon, and 
oummands an extensive 
prospect, emhracinjt 
liampstead, Highgate, 
and part of London. 


Mitcfaam.Smflea. 


Si 


Sutton St 


I4f 


Sutton Lodge. 


Mardoa. Smiles. 




cross Reigate road. 




Banstead, 2} miles. 

Nork Park, Earl of 
£gmont. 


N<m8achPaA,W.F.a. 
fmaa, Esq. 


24 


CheamSt. 


151 




To Kingston, 6i miles. 




Ewell St, 
EPSOM. 

(See p. 30). 


171 

m 


Dnrdans, Sir 6. J 
Heathcote, Bart. 
Woodcote Park. 


Thb line of railway wai 
tor some time worked up- 
no the atmospheric prin- 
aple. which, however, was 
m found successful, and 
•as finally abandoned in 
IM7. Since then it has 
MQ worked in the ordi- 
wyway, by locomotive 




From Epsom by road 

1 to Leatherhead 4 m. 

to Dorking 8 m. 







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34 



XXm. LONDON TO CHICHESTEB THBOUGH GUILDFORD AND MID- 
HURST, 62 Miles, THENCE TO B06N0R, 7} Miles. 



wooaonage, xu 
Mangles, Esq., M.F. 

Guildford gives the 
title of Earl to the North 
family. 

To Famham, 11^ m 

To Odiham, 19i m. 

To Basingstoke, 26 m. 



Losely Flace, Sir C. E. 
Scott, Bart. 
Northbrooke Flace. 

Westbrooke Flace. 

At a distance, Fepper 
Harrow (Viscount Mid- 
leton), situated in a 
beautiful park, contains 
some good pictures. 



28i 



school, erected in Uie rei^ 
of Edward VI. ; three parish 
churches — one of which 
contains monuments in 
memory of Arch. Abbot 
and Mr. Speaker Onslow; 
Abbot's Hospital; several 
meeting-houses and chari> 
table institutions; a new 
gaol, a theatre, the ruins of 
an ancient fortress, &c. 
The town carries on a con- 
siderable trade in com and 
timber. In the neighbour- 
hood ai-e powder and paper 
mills. 2M.F. Fopiilation 
(1861) 6740. 
J^ cr. river Wey. 

GODALMING, 
on the Wey, wliich is navi- 
gable from hence to the 
Thames. The cliief trade is 
in timber, and in preparing 
silk and worsted for stock- 
ing^ and gloves. In the 
vicinity are several paper 
and corn mills. Fop. (1851) 
2218. 



331 



child. - ' 

Clandon Fark, Earl of 
Onslow. 

About 2 miles east of 
the town is the Merrows 
race-conrse. 

To Dorking, 11^ m. 

To Horsham. 19 m. 

To Reigate, 18 m.- 



Catherine Hill, on tne 
summit of which are the 
ruins of a ehapel of un- 
known origin, but rebuilt 
in the time of Edward I. 

Shalford House, Sir H. 
Austen. 

Gosden House. J. 
Sparkes, Esq., ana at a 
distance Wonersh, Lord 
Grantley. 



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LONDON TO CHICHESTER THBOUOH GITILDFORD, &c.—Co»timted. 35 



ON UOHT FROM LOND, 



Eashing Hoose. 
Lea House. 
Cosfofd House. 



Ipinjf Home, Sir C. J. 
J. Hamilton, Bart. 

Woolbeding House. 

Two miles distant, 
ChUgrove House. 

West Lavant House. 

Stoke House. 

Oakwood, J. Baring, 
Esq. 



27 



20 



Milford. 



HASLEMEEE 
has a chapel containing 
some pain t^ glass. It re- 
turned two M.P.'s till dis- 
franchised by the Reform 
Act. Pop. of pw. 1851, 955. 
Enter Sussex. 

Femhurst. 

Henley Green. 

MIDHURST (See p. 76). 

Singleton. 

"West Dean. 

Binderton. 

Mid-Lavant 



CHICHESTER (p. 76). 



85 



42 



ON LZPT FftOM LOND. 



Busbridge. 

To Petworth, 9| miles. 



Cowdray Park, Earl of 
Egmont. 

Here a road leads to 
Chichester over Rook's 
Hill, and through East 
Lavant, 6 miles. 

Cannon House, Rev. 
L. V. Harcourt. 

Molecombe. 

Goodwood, Duke of 
Richmond. 



XXIV. LONDON TO CHICHESTER THROUGH GUILDFORD AND 
PETWORTH, 63i Miles. 



OH WGHT P*OM LOND" 


Il 


From London Bridge 


^J 


ON LEFT FBOM LOND. 




684 






28^ 


to Milford, Surrey. 


85 






2(>1 


Witley. 


37 






23f 


Chiddingfold. 
Over Cripple Crouch Hill, 


40 
















and enter Sussex. 






To Haslemere, Si m. 


?^ 


Fisher's Street. 


48 


ShiUinglee Park, Earl 


Pitshill,W.T.Mitford, 

Petworth House, Col. 
Wyndham. 
ToMidhurst,6im. 


North Chapel. 


44 


ofWinterton. 


14i 


PETWORTH. Pop. 1851, 
2427. 


49 


To Arundel, IH miles. 


Lavington House, 
Bishop of Oxford. 


10} 


^^ cr. river Rother. 
Duncton. 


681 


Burton Pa. (A. W. 
Biddnlph, Esq.), a noble 
mansion, erected by 
Leoni, an Italian archi- 












S 


Upper Waltham. 


66f 


tect of great repute. 


Halnaker Fa. Duke of 


Halnaker. 


60 


Eartham (Mrs. E. 


Bichroond. Here are pre- 




The church contains a rich 




Huskisson), built bv 


■erved two curfews, sup- 
posed to be as old as the 
time of WUUam I. 




monument of the De La 




Hayley the poet. Here 




Warr family. 




Cowper the poet visited 
him. It was at onetime 


Goodwood, Duke of 








the residence of the late 


Richmond. (See p. 76). 




CHICHF^STER (p. 75). 


68i 


Mr. Huskisson, M.P. 



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36 XXV. LONDON TO PORTSMOUTH, THROUGH E8HER, GODALMINO, 
AND PETERSFIELD, 72i Miles* 



To the right of this 
place is a deep dell, 
called the Devil's Punch 
BowL 



To Alton, 13 miles. 

To Selborne, rendered 
famous by White's char- 
ming history, 10 miles. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Catherington House. 



Southwick Pa. (T. 
Thistlethwayte, Esq.) an 
elegant mansion,erected 
on the site of an old 
manor-house, built here 
in the time of James I., 
and in which two mo- 
narchs were entertain- 
edjCharles Land George 
I. The former was here 
at the time of Bucking- 
ham's assassination. 
Within the park stood 
the ancient priory of 
Black Canons, where 
Henry VI. and Margaret 
of Aiijou were married. 

Porchester Castle, on 
the Southwick estate, 
was used as a French 
prison during the war. 
It is now a fine ruin. In 
the interior is an old 
Saxon church, well pre- 
served. The grounds 
are unfortunately, dur- 
ing the summer months, 
degraded into tea-gar- 
dens. 



72 
87i 
36 
31 

2a 

2& 
23 

18i 






H 



From London Bridge to 

Milford, Surrey, (p. 36.) 

Mousehill. 

Hind Head Hill. 

Seven Thorns, Hants. 

Liphook. 

Rake, Su&sex, 

Sheet Bridge, Hants. 

PETERSFIELD, 
a small neat town, of consi- 
derable antiquity.is princi- 
pally supported by its road 
trade. Near the chapel 
is an equestrian statue of 
WilUam HI. One M.P. 
Population, 1851, 5S50. 

Bntser Hill, 
917 feet high. The summit 
commands a most exten- 
sive view. 

Homdean. 

To HMTADt* 4| in. Th«nee to 
Haylinp, 8 mileii, a small isUnd 
8 or 6 miles east of Portamouth. 
Its attractions as a watering- 
ilace are increasing. Over the 
forest of Bere, comprehendingr 
abont 18,000 acres, oi which one. 
third is enclosed. The quantity 
of timber is trlflfng compared 
with what it onee yielded. Some 
deer are kept. 

Purbrook. 
Portsdown Hill, 

i47 feet high, and runs east and 
west nearly seven miles. On the 
summit is a monument to the 
memory of Lord Nelson. It 
commands one of the most ex. 
tensive and beautiful prospects 
in the south of Eneland, inclnd. 
ing Chichester Cathedral, Ports- 
mouth, Isle of Wight, South, 
ampton Water. 4e. A grand 
annual XaXv is held in July on 
the Biunmit. 

Cosliam. 



4i 



Portsea Bridge. 
Enter Portsea Island. 

Hillsea. 
PORTSMOUTH, (p. 72). 



57 



61i 



65| 
67 



ON LEFT PKOM LOND. 



To Petworth, 14 m. 
Haslemere, 6| m. 



3 m. distant, Holly- 
combe. 



To Haslemere. 12 m. 
Mickhnrst, 9 miles. 

Rogate lodge, Col. C. 
Wyndham. 

Heath House, Sir W. 
O.H Jolliffe,Bart. 



Dltcham, Ear. of Li- 
merick. Up Park, Lady 
Fetherstonhftugh. 

Idsworth Park, Rev. 
Sir S. C. Jervoise, Bart. 

Blendworth Lodge, 
Sir W. W. Knighton, Bt. 

Homdean Ho., and at 
a distance, Stanstead. 



Purbrook House, 
lieut-Gen. Sir Charltt 
J. Napier, G.C.B. 



671 



72J 



By the new road lately cut through hilly parts, the distance is reduced to 69 miles. 



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UTL LONDON TO GOdPOBT, THBOUOH ALTON j^ND FAREHAM, 78| Miles. 37 



OF UGHT PKOM LOND. 


^1 


From Hyde Pa. Comer 


ii 


ON LIFT FBOM LOND. | 




784 








22 


to Filmer Hill, ffants. 
(p. 89.) 


564 


HaU Place. 


BiDokwood Park. 


194 


WestMeon. 


59 


Westbury Home, Vis- 
count Gage. 




18 


Wamford. 


604 


Beknont Inthegrounds 
dent mansion, said to have 




164 


Extoiu 


62 


been in a decayed state 
before 16ia 

is a Roman camp. 


CoihainptooHoiMe. 


16 


Corhampton. 


624 


Midlington Place. 


Swounore House. 


144 

12; 


Droxford. 

Hill Pound Inn. 

Forw. over Waltham Chase. 


64 
664 


HUl Place. 


Park Place. 


9 


Wickham, 
remarkable as the birth- 
place of William of Wyke- 
ham, the architectof Wind- 


694 


Wickham diurefa is an 
ancient building, contain* 
ingaeveral interestingtombs 














sor Castle, and founder of 






Uplands, J. Beaidmoie, 




the college at Winchester 






^Biackbrook, G. T. M. 


H 


at the head of Portsniouth 


73 


Roche Coort, a mansion 
nearly 700 years old. 




harbour* carries on a consi- 










derable trade in com and 




Cams House, H. P. 






coals. During summer it 




Dehne, Esq., prettUy situ- 
ated at the head of Ports- 






ismudi ftequenteti for sea- 








bathing Pop. 1861,8461. 




mouth Harbour. ■ 




I 


Forton. 774 


Heetland House. 






GOSPORT,<p.75.) 784 


Brockhurst 1 



XXVIL LONDON TO SOUTHAMPTON, THROUGH FARNHAM. ALTON. 
ALRESFORD, AND WINCHESTER, 77 Miles, 




To Badngstoke, 171 nu 
Hawley House. 

^dhurst Bfffitary Col- 



Clsre House 



45 



Froxp Hyde Paik Cor- 
ner to 
Bagshot, Surrey, p. 41.' 

Frimley. 
■^ cr. river Black- 
water, aad enter Hamp- 
shire. 
Famboron^, (Railway 32 

station.) , , 

FARNHAM, {Surretf,) ooi 
on the Wey, is famous for * 
its hops and its large wheat 
narket. The church has a 
beautfftd altar-piece, and 
handsomemonuments. The 
■castle, the lesiuenoe of the* 




To Guildford, 10 m. 

2i m. distant is Moor 
Park, formerly the resi- 
dence of Sir WUIiam Tern- 
pie. Here is a cave in a 
rock thxou^ which flows 
lastream of pure water. The 



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38 LONDON TO SOUTHAMPTON THEOUGH FARNHAM, 8tc.— Cwtfuiwrf. 




Willey Place, J. Ward, 
Esq. 

Northbrook House, Ad- 
miral Sir J. A. Ommaoey, 
K.C.B. 



Froyle Place, Rev. i 
T. C. Miller, Bart. 



To Odiham 9 m., to 
Basingstoke, 10| m. 



To Winchester station, 

n- 

New Place, J. Rawlin- 
son, Esq. 

Upton House. 

Old Alresford House, 
liord B,odney. 



OTing;t<m. 

Avington (J. Shelley, 
Esq.) contains some valu- 
able paintings. T}ie park 
is 3 m. in circumference. 

To Basingtoke, 17i m, 
—Whitchurch, 18— An- 
dover, IS— Stockbridge, 
9— Eomsey, 11. 

Cranbury House, Thos. 
Chamberlavne. Esq. 

Chilworth House. 

Portswood House. 



84f 



80| 
29{ 



22i 

21 
19i 



18i 

12 
11 

I 



Bishops of Winchester, 
contains a good library, and 
a Tfduable collection of 
paintings. Wm. Gobbet 
was a native of this place. 
Population (1851) 9076. 



Bentley Green, Hants. 

Froyle. 

Holyboume. 
ALTON on the Wey. 
The inhabitants are princi- 
pally employed in the culti- 
vation of hops, and in the 
manufacture of stuffs. 
Population (1861) S6S8. 

Chawton. 

Ropley Dean. 
Here the valley of the 

Itchin commences. 

Bishop's Sutton. 
ALRESFORD, 
a neat little market-town 
on the Itchin^ has a small 
manufacture of linseys. It 
formerlv sent a representa* 
tive to Parliament. In 1833, 
a large q^uantity of English 
silver coins of the reign of 
William I. were found in a 
field a short distance from 
this town. About 7000 of 
these coins are now in the 
British Museum. Pop. of 
parish of New Alresford 
a861) 1618. 

Seward's Bridge. 

WINCHESTER, (p. 52). 

St. CJross. 

Compton. 

Otterboome. 

Chandler's Ford Bridge. 

Junction of the Boa^ 



SJ 



m 



ON LER VBOX LOND. 



spot is sadd to have been 
afavourite place of retire- 
ment with Swift when 
Secretary to Sir W. 
Temple. 

Fir Grove. 

Waverley Abbey, late 
Lord Sydenham. 

Pierrepont Lodge. 

Mareland House. 

Great Lodge. 

Arthur Young, called 
the vale between Fam- 
ham and Alton, the finest 
10 miles in England. 



ToSelborDe»4m. 



481 Chawton House, 
* Knight, Esq. 

64i 



56 
67J 



58i 

65 

66 

67i 

691 

7lj 

74 



Tichbome House, Sir 
Edward Doughty, Bart, 



To Bishop's Waltham, 

mm. 

To Gosport, 23| m. 

Hursley Park (SirW. 
Heathcote, Bart.), very 
picturesque, and contain- 
in g remains of one of 
Cromwell's Aeld fcnrtifica- 
tions. 

Jforth Stoneham Park, 
J. W. Fleming, Esq. 

South StouehamPark. 



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LONDON TO SOUTHAMPTON, THBOUGH FABNHAM. dte-Contintud. 



39 



OM UGBT FROM IX>XD. 



^1 



BeUevoe. 



SOUTHAMPTON, (p. 58-) 77 



ON LIFT FROM LOHD. 



Midanbury Hoiue, M 
Bittern Lodge. 



Chessel Ho\ise, Loid Ash 
'town. 



XXVHL LONDON TO SOUTHAMPTON, THROUGH BAG8H0T, BASIN08T0KB, 
AND WINCHESTER, 7i| MUe». 



ON RIGHT FROM I.OIfll. 



HaU Place. 



741 

22i 

21i 

174 
14J 

12 



From Hyde Park 

Comer to 

BASINGSTOKE, HanU, 

(p.a2.) 



45i 
52^ 

574 
604 

WINCHESTER, (p. 52.) 624 
"" lenoe to Southe — '"** '- ' ' 
12 milea, (See p 



Popham. 
East Stratton. 



Limwayslmu 
Worthy. 



ON LBFT FROM LOND. 



Thence to Southampton, '74! 



Kempshot Park; and 
beyond, Farleigh House. 

Dummer House, once 
occupied by T. Terry, the 
actor and correspondent of 
Sir Walter Scott 

Stratton Park, Rt Hon. 
Sir F. T. Baring, Bart. 

Orange Park, Lord Ash- 
bnrton. 

Worthy. 

Avhigton, J. Shelley, 
Esq. 



XXIX LONDON TO SOUTHAMPTON THROUGH ALTON AND BISHOP'S 
WALTHAM, 75i MUes. 



ON RIGHT PBOM LOND. 



Pdham Place. 
Botherfleld Park. 

Brookwood Park. 



28 

214 
24} 

23 

18| 



From Hyde Park 

Comer to 

ALTON, iran<«, (p. 38.) 

Chawton. 

Farringdon. 

EastTisted. 
Filmer HilL 



|474 
48} 
504 

52i 

564 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



To Sdbome, 4 miles. 
Chawton House, E* 
Knight, Esq. 
To Selbome, 2 milea. 



Basing Park. 

To Goqport S3 miles. 



y Google 



40 LONDON TO SOUTHAMPTON THB0U6H ALTON« &e.-Coiil<iMMl. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Northbrook House. 
Swanmoie Houie. 

To Winchester, 101 m. 



BoUey Oiange. 



10 BISHOP'S WALTHAU, 65^ 
a small town carrying on a 
considerable trade in lea- 
ther. It has immemorially 
been the property of ihe See 
of Winchester. Here are 
the remaink of the Bishop's 
castle, originally built oy 
Bishop Henry deBlois, bro- 
ther of Kins Stephen. It 
was demolished during the 
dvil wars by the Parlia> 
mentary army under Wal 
ler. William of Wykeham^ 
to whom it owed much of 
its grandeur, made it his fa- 
vourite residence, and died 
here at the age of eighty. 
Pop. of Pariah (1861) 3265 



Botley. 

Northam Bridge. 
1^ cross riyer Itchin. 

SOUTHAMPTON, (p. BQ.) 



Eastward of the town is 
Waltham Chace, a waste of 
2000 acres, belonging to the 
Bishop of Windiester. 

To Gotport 13 miles. 



68} 
75k 



OK X.SFT FROM LOND. 



XXX. LONDON^BASINGSTOKE.— WHITCHURCH.— ANDOVER.— SALISBURY.— 
BLANDFORD.— DORCHESTER.— BRIDPORT, 134] Mllea. 



y Google 



LONDON.— BASnfOBTOKS^WUlTCHU llOH.—A]n>OTER, &e.— ClMilfmiAl. 41 




Two mOes distant An- 
karwycke House, Q. S. 
Hircouit, £aq. 



To tte ri^ is Buxmy- 
nede, where the baxons 
ibtainedfkom King John 
tbegnnt of Magna Chaita. 

&nminghi11 , Silwood 

?tA, and beyond Asoot 
EMfrfETOimd. 

Ba^hotPaxfc. 
Sandhuzat Military Col- 

Tately Hooae. 

Warren House. 

Bramshill Park, Rev. 

ir W. H. Cope, Bart ; 
1^ beyond, Heckfield 
dace, Bt Hon. 0. Shaw 
(iSfeviek 

TBncyBal). 
Newnham. 
OMBadng. 
Bmiiv House, (p. 35.) 

Baainga^ke carries on 
I ctnidderable trade in 
con, Budt, timber, and 



Worting House, and 
oeyood, Tangier Many- 
JoWn, Sir R. C. H. Ry- 
Mft, BarL; and Mal- 



117 
113J 

108} 
107J 
104i 



Ash House. 

Lsrerstoke Hall, M. 
Portal, E«i. 

f^eefolk Priori^ M. 
hrtalEMi. 



Hmstbounie Park, Earl 
ifPOrtaQiouth. 

. AQdofer iaa weU buUt 
town. Ttvechurchisaspa- 
doas stroeture, and has ex- 
ited as fiirback as the time 



bf Om 1 



Staines. 

i^ cr. the Thames and 

enter Surrey. 

Egham. 

Windsor is 5 m. to the right 

Viroinia Water. 

To Beafflbg through Oak 

ingham, 18 m. 



96i 
95| 
92 



89i 

87i 
84f 
81} 

78J 



76i 



7U 




Qolden Fanner. 
Blackwater, ffanta. 

Hartford Bridge. 

Hartley Row. 
To Odiham, 3 nu 

Murrell Green. 

Hook. 

Maplederwell Hatch. 



BASINGSTOKE. 

To Alton, 6 m. 

To Windkester, 171 m. 

To Stockbrid^, 21 m. 

Wortmg. 



Clerken Green. 



Overton. 



WHITCHURCH. 

To Kingsclere, 7 m. thence 
to Reading, 16| m. 
To Newbury, 13 m. 
To Wincheitier. 13 m, 

Hurstboume. 



171 
21 

26 

274 

304 

354 
36| 



ANDOVER. 
ontfaeleftbankoftheAiitan. 



Laleham,Eart of I^ican. 

Hampton is 7 m., King- 
ston 9^ m., and Croydon 
20| m. distant 

E^ham Parte, Colonel 
H balwey; Kingswood 
Lodge and Beaumont 
Lodge, Yisconnt Ash' 
brook, ate to the right of 
E^uun. 

Wentworth. 

Hall Grove,and beyond 
WoodUmds and Ohobham 
Place. 

Obelisk which is visible 
for many miles around. 

Hawley Ho. 

Etvetham, Lord Cal- 
thorpe. 

Beyond, about 5 milea 
ftom the road (near Odi- 
ham), is Dogmersfleld 
Pwk, Sir H. B. P. St 
Jolm Mildmay; Bart. 

Winchfield House. 



451 

474 
50 

53 
564 

584 



Hackwood Park, Lord 
Bolton, and farther to ths 
left Herriard Park. 



HaB Place. 
Ash Park. 



Whitdiurcb is a mar- 
ket-town, and disftsnchis- 
ed borough. Population 
in 1851 was lail. half ag- 
ricultural. Shalloons and 
seiges are manufitctured, 
also paper for the use of 
the Bank of Eni^land. 

Long Parish House, CoL 
Hawker, author of a cele- 
bmted work on Sporting. 

^oi Near Andovo* there 
o«>$ the remains of some Bo- 
man encampments. An- 
dover is 11 m. west ttatn 



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42 LONDON^BASINGSTOKE.— WHITCHUB0H.--Ain)OVEB. 3tc.^4;<mtinMd. 



ON RIGHT FROM LONO. 



borough returns two mem- 
bers to Parliament The 
diief business is malting 
and the manu&cture of 
silk. Pop. 0851), 6895. 

Amport Park, Marquis 
of Winchester. 

Between Andover and 
the veige of the county are 
several remains of camps. 



The College^ J. H. Camp- 
bell Wyndham, Esq. 



691 



To Newbury, 16 m. 

ToLuggershall, 7im. thence 

to Devizes, 20 m. 

To Amesbury, 14 m. 

To Winchester, 14 m. 



Little Anne. 

Middle Wallop. 
LobcombeComer, en. Wilts. 

Winteralow Hut. 
^^ cr.theriyer Bourne. 

53} SALISBURY. 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



that part of the railway cal- 
led the Andover Boad Sta- 
tion, and 18 m. ttom the 
station at Basingstoke. 

Three m. beyond Ando- 
ver. to the right, is Wey- 
hili , celebrated for one of 
the greatest Mrs in Eng- 
land for hopa, cheese, cat- 
g5jtle,&c 

71 

75 

oi I Larerstock House, a 
oi I lunatic asylum. 



Saliabuiy, the capital of WUts, jsituated near the confluence of the liyers 
Wilej, Ayon, and Bourne, is distinguished for the pleasing airang^nent of its 
buildings. It has ten principal streets, crossing at right angles, and through 
them is conveyed a perpetual stream of water, supplied from the Avon by sluiceB. 
That part of Salisbury denominated the Close is occupied by the Cathedra]^ the 
Bishopls palace, the houses of residentiary clergy, and many spacious private 
dwellings. The Cathedral, erected in the 13th century, is the most elegant and 
uniform structure of the kind in England. The spire, which was built a century 
later, is celebrated for its beauty and its height, which is upwards of 400 feet. 
The length of the Cathedral outside from west to east is 480 feet. The length 
of the grand transept is 232. The interior is particularly rich in sepulchral mo- 
numents. That to the Countess of Pembroke, ''Sidney's sister Pembroke's 
mother," is particularly famous for the epitaph by Ben Jonson. The great 
east window, the window at the west end over the central door, and the chapter- 
house, are also worthy of notice. Salisbury contains three parish churcheSy 
and several dissenting meeting-houses, a grammar school, where Addison re- 
ceived Ids education, Assembly Booms, a Theatre, an Infirmary, and several 
charitable institutions. The Council-House, an elegant building, was erected 
at the sole expense of the ad Earl of Radnor in 1795. Salisbury was for- 
merly celebrated for its manufiujtories of cutlery, which, however, have of late 
years declined. The city returns two members to Parliament. Salisbury nusee 
generally take place in August, on the plain about three miles from the dty. 
The population in 1831 amounted to 9876, and in 1851 to 11,657. 

About three miles from Salisbury, on the left, is Longford CasUe, the seat of 
the Earl of Radnor. It contains a valuable collection of pictures. At the dis- 
tance of five miles stands Clarendon Castle, the ruins of which may still be traced, 
but not in such a state of preservation as to enable one to form any idea of the 
fixrmer grandeur of the building. It was here that, in the reign of Henry IjL, 
the laws regarding ecclesiastical authority, known by the name of the ** Consti- 
'ition of Clarendon,^ were framed. Old Sarum, &mou8 for the privily it fox^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



SAUSBXTET.— LONGFORD CASTLE,— WILTON. 



4a 



meiiy possessed of retoming two members to Parliament, was sitaated about two 
mOes from Saliabmy. The tree beneath which the election took place was cut 
down in 1831. There are visible traces of the walls of yery extensive religious 
booses that once existed here. 

At the distance of 8 miles from Salisbury, situated in the Plain near Amesbmy^ 
is the finnous monument of antiquity called Stonehenge. It consists of a number 
of yery large stones arranged in a circular form, and still partly connected with 
each other at the top by flat pieces placed in a transverse direction. Antiquarians 
ve not agreed as to the object of this rude structure, or by whom it was made. 
By some it has been attributed to the Druids ; by others, to the Danes ; and by 
t Uurd party, to the Romans. 

About three miles from Salisbury is the ancient town of Wilton, at the conflux 
of the WHey and the Nadder, long noted for the manufacture of carpets ; but this 
boaness has now declined. The town returns one member to Parliament. Pop. 
1851, 8607. Adjoining the town is Wilton House, the celebrated seat of the 
Bails of Pembroke, now occupied by the Right Hon. Sidney Herbert, who has 
at a vast expense erected a fine church in the town. Here Sir Philip Sydney 
wrote his *< Arcadia^" Twelve miles from Wilton is Hindon, near which is the 
fmom Fonthill Abbey, now the property of the Marquis of Westminster. A 
Me to the south of Fonthill, and about ten or eleven miles fh>m Wilton, is War- 
<ioiir Castle, the seat of Lord Arund^ of Wardour. In the grounds are the 
noofl of the ancient castle. 



OH 1I6HT FBOX 1.010). 



Stratford, St. Anthony. 

Handley. 

Boshmore Lodge, Lord. 
liTere. 
Chettle,Ea8tbury Park. 



Shaftesbury, about 11 
>det distant, formerly 
pDMeised one of th^ 
riehest nunneries in the 
kiBsdom. It returns one 
M£. Population, 1861, 

Bryanston, the beauti- 
fUaeatof Lord Portman. 
^ Down House, Sir J.J. 
Si^Bart. 



Whatcombe House. 



it 
It 

n 



50i 
88} 



81} 



g 

Betnmin^ the route to g '| 

Bridport. fnj 

Combe Basset. 84} 

Woodyate*8 Inn. 91} 
{Dorsetshire.) 

Cashmore Inn. 96} 



Tarrant Hinton. 

Pimpeme. 101] 



BLANDFORD. lOSi 

Population, 1861, 8918. 
To Shaftesbury, llj miles. 
To Stnrmiaster, 9 do. 
To Wimborne Minster, 10 
do., thence to Poole, 6^ do. 
^^ cross river Stour. 
Winterbome Whit- I08f 
chm-ch. I 



ON LBrr noM lond. 



To Cranborne, 4 miles. 



St. Gflea' Park. E«rl of 
8hafl«>bur7. The frardenii 
spacious and plea»ant.and the 
park Is about two miles in cir- 
eumiVirenoe. There is also a 
beautiftil frrotto. said to hare 
cost L.iaOOO. At no_ffreat 
distance is Critdiill Hoose, 
H. C. Stort, Esq. 

Blandford race ground. 



Langton House. 



y Google 



44 BLANDFOBD.— DOaCHBSTEB.-^BRIDPOBT.-'BEAMINSTEB.— Conflmietf. 




Milton Abb(^,B4^ Hon. 
0. L. Dawaon Damer. 

Dewliah Hotue, J. 
Michel, Esq. 

Melcombe Bingham, B 
H. Bingham, Esq. 

To Itamnton 5 milels 

FramptQn Uouge, R. B» 

Sheridan, Esq., grandson 

of R. Brinaiey Sheridan. 

To Oeme Abbas, 7im. 

Sherborne, 18 

Yeovil, 19 

Ilchester, 2» 

Somerton, S7I 

Glastonbury, 35k 

Ctewkeme, S2 

- • 17i 



23i 
16i 



I Gro68 river Piddl& 
Piddletown. 114^ 

I croBS river From& 

DORCHESTER, 
thecaiiital of Dorset, alown 1194 
of great antiquitv on the] 
Prome. Its ancient 



Lodera Court, Sir H.H. 
Nepean, But 



10* 

7 
8i 




Milboum. 



lUi 



was Pumovaria, ^gnlMng 
the passage of the river. 
It was strongly fortified. 
Several Roman antiquities 
have been discovered in it; 
andimile distant is Maum- 
bury, the mq^t perfect Ro- 
man amphitheatre in the 
kingdom. The church of 
St. Peter contains nume- 
rous monuments. Popula- 
tion 1861, 6,891. 

Winterbome Abba& 



Longbredy Turnpike. 
Traveller's Rest 

BRIDPORT. 
Bridport is situated about 
a mile hom the sea, and de- 
rives its name ftom itssituar 
tion between two branches 
of the Brit. It appears to 
have beoi a considerable 
town before the Conquest, 
and is noted in Doomsday 
Book. It has a handsome 
town-hall andmarket-plaoe, 
and a large and ancient 
church. It returns two 
members to pHrliament. 
Popttktion, 1861, 7,666. 



124i 



1271 
131j 

134} 



Islington House. 

Kingston House. 

Stinsfoid House. 

To Wareham, 18 miles. 

To Weymouth, 8i. 

Weymouth (and Mel- 
eombe Regis), is a place of 
considerable antiquity at 
the entrance of uie Wey. 
It formerly carried on a 

lod trade, bnt the har- 

)ur has been ii^ed by 
sand, and it is now cele- 
brated as a waterin g-place, 
this character having been 
derived from the frequent 
visits of Geo. III. and his 
femily. It gives the title 
of Viscount to the Marquis 
of Bath. It returns two 
M.P.'8. Population, 1861 
9468.. 



About 6| miles from Bridport is the andent town of Beaminster, which ha^ 
suffered greatly by fire no less than three times during the last two centuries, but 
is now in a flourishing condition. Pop. of township 1851, 2085. Near it is Pam- 
ham houses Sir W. Oglander, Bart From Bridport to Lyme Regis is about 9^ 
miJes ; to Axminster, 12 miles ; to Honiton^ 21| miles ; to Exeter, 38| mil«& 



y Google 



nil. LOlfDON TO EXSTEB, THROUGH BASINGSTOKE, SHAFTESBURY, 45 
AND HONITON, 168i Miles. 




to^ord Castle (Earl! 874 
rfJUdnor), 2 m. * 



loWanniDster, ISim. 



Hutdoott Ho., A. Pow- 
lil.S<q. 
lb HhMkiD, 91 m. 

^Comrtnn Ho., J. H. 
Ffearoadock, Esq. 

Imni. distant, Dinton, 
W.WyDdham, Esii. 

Wirioar Caatlc Lord 
^B(ieU of Wardour. 
^mthe grounds are the 
■nv of the old easily fa- 
■tvforthe defence made 
*iriBg the dvil wars by a 
PniaoQ of only 25 men 
*"fe the command of 
l4JlT Blanch, against ISOO 
<f ae Parhament forces. 

Donhead HalL 

To Hindon, 7 m. 

PaslmiT Honse. 
^totcombe Hoxuet Mar- 
fk of Westminster. 



87 
84| 

84^ 

831 
82} 
814 

79J 
77i 
73} 



From Hyde Park Co> 

ner to 

SALISBURY, WUtt, 

FishertoD. 

Fugglestone. 

•1^ cr. riyer Atoii. 

WILTON, (p. 43.) 

Ugford. 

Biurcombe. 

Barford« 

-^ cr. river Nadder. 
Compton Chamberlayne. 

FoTant 

Wardour Park. 



72i 
704 

674 



63} 

62i 
58 



54 

524 
514 



49i 



Donhead. 

LiidwelL 

Enter Dorsetshire. 

SHAFTESBURY, (p. 43.) 

East Stour. 
-0^ cr. river Stour. 

West Stour. 
Henstridge Ash, So- 
merset, 

Milbome Port 

Obome, DorseL 

SHERBORNE, p.lO&) 



Nether Compton. 
J^ cr, river Yeo. 



ON LBFT FROM LONDu 



81 



814 



Trafalgar Home (Earl 
Nelson), 4 miles. 

To Romsey, 15| miles, 
Southampton, through 
Romsey, 23^ m^ Lyming- 
ton, 27 m.,Fording Bridge, 



83} 124 m. 



84} 
85} 
85} 
87 



89} 
90} 
94} 



Wilton Honse (Earl of 
Pembroke), occupied by 
Rt. Hon. Sidney Herbert. 



96 



101 



105} 

106^ 
llOi 



1144 

116 
117 



119} 



Fsrn Ho., T. Giov^ Biq. 



To Sturminster, 8 m. 



Fifcihead House. 

ToStalbridge.l4m. 

Stalbridjre Pa., and, 
bevond, Thomhill. 

Yen House, Sir W. C. 
Medlycott, Bart. 



Sherborne Castle, Earl 
Digby. The centre was 
built by Sir W. Raleish, 
whose ramily were depnv- 
ed of the estate in a most 
disgraceful manner by 
James I. who bestowed iti 
on his infiunous favourite, i 
Car. 



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46 LONDON TO EXETER THROUGH BASINGSTOKE, &c.-(7<mWniied. 



ON lUGBT FROM LOND. 



Brynq)too House. 

To Cattle Gary, ISim. 
Ilchester, 4). m., Ilmiii' 
ster, 14 m. 



Three m.dist Montaeute 
House, W.Phelips, Esq. 



To Dcfaester, lOi m., 
SomertOD, 14 m., Ilmin- 
ster, 8 m. 



Hinton St George, Earl 
Poulett 
To Umiiuter, 4| m. 



To Ilminster, ft^ m., 
Taunton, 13 m. 



4gj| YEOVIL fBomertetJ 
n ancient town, with m_ 
lufiustories of linens, dow- 
las, ticking, and gloves. 
The vicinity is beautifully 
'diversified with hill and 
u Pop. of pai. 7043. 

41} East Chinnock. 

HaaelbuTj. 
CRBWKERNE, 
in a valley watered by the 
Axe and the Parret, na» a 
fine Gothic church, richly 
adorned with carved work. 
Here are manufactories 
of sail-cloth, dowlas, and 
stockings. Pop. 1861, 3908. 



33i 



221 
164 



White Down. 



28i CHABD, 14Q 

' well-built manufacturing 
»wn, has a town hall— an 
ancient Gothic bnilding.fw- 
merly achapel— a hancuome 
church, dec Chard was the 
scene of the defeat of the 
Royalists under Col. Pen- 
ruddock during the dvil 
wars. Fop. 1851, 2291. 
Stockland, Dorset 



HONITON, Dewm, 
EXETER, (p. 110.) 



122i 



127J 

129J 
132 



135 



146 
152 
168l| 



ON LEFT PROM LOND. 



Barwick House, J.New. 
man, Esq. 
To Dorchester, 19 m. 



To Dordiester, 22 m., 
Beaminster, 7i m., Lyme 
Regis, 16 m. 



To Axminster, 10( m. 

Cricket Lodge, Lord 
Bridport, and 8 miles be- 
yond it, Ford Abbey. 

Four m. beyond Chard 
is a beautiful prospect on 
the left to the English 
Channd, and on the right 
to that of Bristol. 



Ito 



,711 



ZXXII. LONDON TO EXETER THROUGH BASINGSTOKE, ANDOVER, AMES- 
BURY, WINCANTON, ILMINSTER, AND HONITON, 164| Miks.* 




To Ludgenhall,4 mUes. 



101 
97i 




1644|From Hyde Pa. Comer 

to ANDOVER, Hants, 
(n. 41.) 
HILL, 



celebrated for the greatest 
fair in Ensland for hops, 

. catUe, sheep, &«. 

96| Mollens Pond. 



63i 



68i 



Ampoit Park, Marquis 
of Winchester. 
Quarley House. 



* It it proposed to carry on a line from the South Western RaHi^ay, at Basingstoke, toy 
Andover to Salisbury, whidi will be connected by the Wilts, Somerset, and Weymouth line 
with the Great Western Railway, near TauntoQ, and also, by another branch, with Dar^nts- 
ter and Bridport. 



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LONDON TO EXETEB THROUGH BASIN08T0KE, Ac-Cm^ImimI. 47 




Tedworth House, T. A. 



Amesbnry House was 
often the residoice of Gay 
wbjie under the patronage 
Df the Duke and Ducbess 
tf Qoeensberry, and 
WW the jecopcrty of Sir 
LW.Antrobns, Bart. 



Tb Wanninster throu^ 
ShrewtoD, 16i miles. 

TambuTy Camp, a fine 
-^ of anci^it forti- 



To Wanninster, 1(^ in. 



Knoyle House, H. D. 
Bejmonr, Esq. 

To Braton, 11^ miles. 



ToPiome, lU miles. 



Stoorhead Honse, the 
leit of Sir H. K. Hoare, 
Birt^ a splendid man- 
MD, situated in delightful 
poonds, and adorned with 



87 



82i 

78 

77i 
72i 
704 
67J 



633 



61J 



604 



Park House. 

Enter WiltBhire. 

▲MESBITRT, 

man •admt town oa the 
npper Avon. The ohtirch is 
suppoMd to have beloofed to 
•oAbbej. Two miles divUnt on 
Sallslrary Plain Is thnt renurk* 
able monument of nntiqaitjr, 
Stonehenge. Seventeen nnjre 
stones are now standing, which, 
with seven others lying on the 



from the outer one, and has 
eleven stones standing, and 
eight fallen. Between these 
two circles is a walk of about 
SOO feet in circumferenee. 
Around are numerous barrows, 
many of which have been found 
'- contain human skeletons, 

I. and military weapons. 

Dr Stukelv fixes the date of the 
erection wO b.o. Near Stone- 
henge is an inn called the Druid's 
Head. rop.of Amesbnry, 117L 



^S cross river ATon. 
Winterboume Stoke. 



Deptford Inn. 

WiUey. 

New Inn. 

HINDON. Pop. 772. 
To Shaftesbury 7 miles. 
Willoughby Hedge. 




MERE, 
formerly a place of conside- 
rable importance. It had a 
castle, of whidi very few 
traces now remahi. Tne in- 
habitantsare principally era- 
ployed in the manufacture 
of dowlas and ticking. 

ZeaPs Green, Dorset- 
shirer 



Boorton. 



724 



774 



quarlev HOI, the le- 
mauu of an ancient en- 
oampment. 

Wilbury Park, W. Ca- 
bitt, Esq. 



82 



87i 
92 

94 

96| 



lOOf 

1021 
104} 



Fonthill Abbey (Marquis 
of Westminster), erected 
by the late Mr. Beckford, 
under the direction of 
Wyatt. The tower has 
now fallen down, and the 
edifice suffered greatly. 
Farther to the left is Pyt 
Honse, J. Benett, Esq., 
M.P.i andWardourCastle^ 
Lord Anmdellof Wardour. 



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48 LONDON ro BXETEB THROUGH BASINOSTOKBi *c—Ciwil#iH«»i. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND 



apictiiTeg«)lery, alibrAry, 
&c Within the ground 
is a lofty tower, erected by 
H. Boare, Esq., an ances- 
tor of the present proinrie- 
tor, to the memory of 
Alfred the Great, who here 
raised his standard against 
the Danes. 

To Bruton, 6 miles, 
Castle Gary, 5 miles. 

At a distance B«dlynch, 
Earl of Dchester. 

Holbrook House. 

Hadspen House, Bight 
Hon. H. Hobhouse. 

Yarlin$rton Lodge, F. 
Roicers, Esq. 

Cadbury Castle, at Ca- 
malet, was formerly one 
of the most stupendous 
fortifications in the king- 
dom. In it is a spot call- 
ed King Arthur's Palace. 
Many Roman coins ha^e 
been found here. 

To Bruton, 8 nules. Cas- 
tle Caiy, 4 miles. 



To South Petherton, 1 m. 



Dillington House. 

To Langport» 9) miles. 
Jordan's House, W, 
Speke, Esq. 



To Taunton, 11 miles. 

Four miles distent Wol 
Ibrd Lodgp ; near whJob 
b HembujryPort, supposed 

ito haye been a Roman for: 
tification. 
Tracey House. 



BayfoTd, Somenet 



56i WINCANTON, 108 

an ancient town watered by 
the Cale. Here are the re- 
mains of an Augustine 
Priory. One mile distant is 
Horwood Spring Popula- 
tion of parish, 2296. 

544 Helton. 110 



52 J Blackford. 111^ 

51 Cadbury, 1134 

surrounded by beautiftil 
scenery. The church con- 
teins a very curious epiteph 
in memory of Lady Magda- 
len Hastings. 

49 Sparkford. 1154 

434 ILCHESTER, 121 

on the south bank of the 
Ivel, is a place of conside- 
rable antiquity, having been 
fortified in the time of the 
Romans. Pop. 1068. 

374 Petherton Bridge. 127 
^^ cross river Parret. 

344 Seavington. 130 

33 White Lackington. 1314 

314 ILMINSTER 133 

was formerly famous for its 
manufacture of cloth. It 
has a handsome church, 
oonteining a monument in 
memory of Nicholas Wad- 
ham and his wife, the found- 
ers of Wadham College at 
Oxfoi4. Pop. 2957. 

25 4 Buckland St Mary. 1 39 
-^g cross river Haven, 
and enter Devonshire. 

234 Heathfield Arms. 141 

ifil HONITON, 148 

" a neatly built t<>wn, in a fine 
vale on the Otter, notwi for 
the manufecture of lace. 
The church contsdns some 
ancient monuments. Two 
M.P. Pop. 1861, 8427. 




To Shaftesbury, 10 m. 
Shanks House. 



To Sherborne, 8 miles. 



To Shobonie, 6 mUci. 



To Sherborne, 8 miki. 
To Yeovil, 7J miles. 

To Yeovil, 4 miles. 



Hinton St Oeorge. Karl 
Poulett. 



To Chard, 5k miles. 

At Horton, li mile dis- 
tant, is a spring much ce- 
lebrated for its efficacy in 
diseases of the eye. 



To Axroinster, 7 miles. 

Four miles distant Ne- 
therton House, Sir B. 8. 
Prideaux, Baxt. 

Bramble HiU. 



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LONDON TO EXETER THB0U6H BASINGSTOKE, hc^OotUmued. 



49 





g o 




s § 




ox BIGHT 7BOM LOKD. 


2 » 




ll 


ON LEFT raOM LOWD. 


Oikfidd House. Deer 


15 


Weston. 


1491 


Combe House. 


Ftfk. 










Fcuiton Court, Right 
Hoo. Sir J. Patteson. 


18 


Fenny Bridges. 


uu 


To Ottery 8t Mary, 


Concombe House. Es- 
oot,Sir J.Kennaway.Bt. 




^^ cross river Otter. 




2i miles. 


Larkbear HouBO. 












«J 


Rockbeare. 


168i 


Rockbeare House. 




H 


Honiton's Clist 


160} 


Bishop's Court, Lord 
Graves, Winslade, and 
Farriugdou House. 


Poltimore, Lord Polti- 




4S^ cross river Clist. 






Brockliill House. 


i 


Heavitree. 


168} 


Northbrook Lodge, H. 
D. Seymour, Esq. 
Higher Newcourt. 


Pynes (Sir 8.H. North- 








Powderham Castle 


cote, Bart.>, 2 miles. 


1 EXETER (p 110). 


164i 


(Earl of Devon). 



Nine miles fh)m Honiton is Sidmoutu, a fiishionable watering-place, situated 
It the mouth of the river Sid, celebrated for the beauty of tfie surrounding 
Kenery. It stands between two hills, nearly enclosing it on all sides but the 
Mith, which lies open to a beautiftil bay of the English channel The views 
ketween this place and Seaton are considered the finest on the south coast of 
Devon. The climate is extremely mild and salubrious. Sidmouth is much fre- 
qiented by company in the bathing season, for whose accommodation there are 
vann baths, a public room, libraries, &c. It has also an ancient church and 
•ereral meeting-houses. Population 1851, 2516. 

Five miles from Sidmouth, and 12 miles from Exeter^ is Bicton (Clinton Rolle, 
Esq.), the seat of the late Lord Rolle, and now occupiea by Lady Rolle. The 
ps^ upwards of 1000 acres in extent, is stocked with deer and fine timber. 
The mansion is beautifully situated, and conmiands an extensive view of the 

ML 

About 8^ miles from Sidmouth, and 10} miles from Exeter, is Exmouth, at 
the mouth of the Exe, the oldest and best frequented watering-place in Devon. 
It is celebrated for the mildness of its climate, the town being well sheltered 
from the north-east and south-east winds by some high hills which rise almost 
doM behind it The rides and walks in the neighbourhood are remarkably beau- 
tjfoL Here are Assembly Rooms, baths, libraries, and other accommodations for 
TiBtoiSk The Beacon Hill, on which stands the handsome chapel of St Mar- 
fuet, commandfl one of the finest views in the west of England. The road from 
Sxmouth to Exeter through Topeham is remarkably beautiful Population, 
1861,5123. 



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60 



XXXin. LONDON TO WINCHESTER AND SOUTHAMPTON, BT 
RAILWAY, 80 Miles. 



ON &IOHT FBOM LOMD. 


a 




-1 


ON LEJTT fKOM LOND. 


Battersea Fields. A 






public park is to be laid 




From Waterloo Road to 






out here. 


78 


Vauxhall Station. 


2 




Battersea Church con- 








StockweU. 


tains a monument to 
Henry St. John, the cele- 
brated Vise. Bolingbroke. 








Clapham, and Clap- 
ham Common. 


Branches to Kew, 


75 


Clapham Common St. 


5 


Balham HiU. 


Brentford, Richmond, 
and Windsor (p. 87). 




.^^ cr. river Wandle. 
At the mouth of which, 
near the banks of the 
Thames, is Wandsworth: 
numerous people are here 




Tooting. 

Garrat, a hamlet, the 
ancient practice ot elect- 
ing a mayor at which 
gave the title to Foote's 


Wimbledon Park, for- 




engaged in dyeing, print- 
ing; calicoes, &c. 
Wimbledon and Mer- 




farce, "The Mayor of 
Garrat." 


raerly Earl Spencer's, hut 
now subdiviued for villas. 


72 


8 


To Merton, | mile. 
Mitcham, 2 miles. 
Mordon, 2^ miles. 


Prospect Pla(;e. 




tonSt 




Combe House, and be- 

in 








Mordon Park. 
Cannon Hill. 


69i 


Maiden St. 
-^ cr. riv. HogsmiU. 


lOi 


Maiden, 1^ mile. 


on 
or 


68 


Kingston St. 
The town of Kingston is 


12 


ToEwell,4miles. 


he 




IJ mile distant from the 






irt 




station; but, since the 






ne 

(68 




opening of the railway, a 






he 




new town, distinguished as 






nd 
of 




Kingston-on-rail, or New 






ir, 




Kingston, has sprung into 
existence. Pop. (1851) 6279. 

• 






he 
to 
as 

z 

Mr 
r's 
en 
at 


-■ 




Long Ditton. 


)r. 
ns 
of 

ne 
ch 

0- 

be 


65 


Esher and Claremont 
Stations. 


15 


Esher. 1 mile, and Rher 
Place : beyond is Claremont, 
once the residence of the 


•rt 




■?S^ cr. river Mole. 




IMnceBS Charlotte and Prince 
Leopold, now Kint of the 
Belsrlans, and latterly the 










li- 








M By lam of the late Louis 
Philippe, ex-King of the 


li. 


63 


Walton and Hersham 
St. 


17 


Hersham Green. 


n- 






Burwood Park, Sir 


of 


61 


Weybridge St. 


19 


Richard Frederick, Bart. 


id 

Ham'Haw^Parkr'" 
Wobarn Park. 




1 mile beyond, on the 
right, is a branch railway 
to Addlestone and Chert- 
sey, 8i miles long. Pop. of 
Weybridge (1851) 2743. 




Painshill Park, 2 m. 

From the summit of 
St. George's Hill (Earl of 
Eilesmere), about a mile 
distantjis aline panoramic 



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LONDON TO WINCHESTER AND SOUTHAMPTON— Cimttnwd. 



51 





Hondl. ' 
CboUuun, 2i miles. 
Knapp Hill« axid The 
Hermitiure. 
BfaleyT 

Bisley Common. 
Chobham Hills. 



Fiimley Green. 



To Fnrnley 1| milei 
Ba(!ihot, 5k miles ; Win- 
"flBham, 6i miles. 

Suidhiirat MiHtaryCol* 
Iq|^ Similes. 

Avetham House* Lord 
ttHiaspe, formerly 
Iwt of great extent and 
Kfeniflcence. Here a fa- 
WJn entertainment was 
pni to Queen Elizabeth 
Earl of Hertford in 



mfooAi 



is Bramshin, the 

of Rev. Sir W. H. 

Gipe, Bt., bnilt for Heury 

frace of Wales, eldest 

M of James I. 

TOneyHall. 



Newnham. 



Oiineham. 

Tvo miles from Old 
Bating is the Vine (W. 
L. W. Chute, Esq.), a 
liion built by the first 
lord Sandys. 

The ruins of Holy Ghost 
Chapel are visible from 
the One. 



47 



43 



J^ cr. river Wey, 
and Wey Navigation 

Canal 

Ham Haw Common. 

Woking Heath. 



Woking St. 
The line here continues 
alongside of the Basing- 
stoke Canal, which after- 
wards crosses the railway. 
Cross Blackwater river, 

and enter Hants. 

Cross line of Reading, 

Guildford, and Rei- 

gate Railway. 

Famborough St. 



Fleetpond St 



40 Winchfield St. 
Tunnel* 80 yards long. 



.^^ cr. Whitewater 
river. 

Embankment over 
valley of the Loddon, 

Line passes through the 
village of Old Basins, the 
scene of a severe battle 
fought in 871 between the 
Danes and the Saxons, 
when the latter, under the 
•command of Alfred, were 
idefeated. 



1 



37 



40 



view over the Thames and 
adjacent country, embrac- 
ing HamptonCourt,Chert- 
sey, Windsor, Ac. 

Byfleet. 

Wisley. 

Pyrford. 

Hoebridge Place. 
25 Branches to Guildford, 
Godalmine, and Fam- 
ham (p. 82). 

Pirbright 



33 Famborough Place. 

Famham« 6} miles (tee 
p. 37). 



Do^ersfield Park, Sir 
H. P. St. John Mildmay. 
Bart. ' 

Three miles south of 
Winchfield is Odiham, 
the birth-place of Lilly the 
Grammarian. Near it are 
the remains of an old 
castle, in which David, 
king of Scotland, was con- 
fin^ for eleven years after 
his capture at Neville's 
Cross. Population of Odi 
ham parish, 1851, 2811. 



Nateley Scures. 

Ruins of Basing House, 
famous for the gallant de- 
fence which it made under 
John, fifth Marquis of 
Winchester, against the 
Parliamentary troops. It 
held out during two years, 
and was ultimately stormed 
by Cromwell. 



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52 



LONDON TO WINCHESTER AND SOUTHAMPTON— OrnHmf^d. 




StrathfieldsHve (Duke ol 
Wellington), 6} miles. 

Branch to Reading, 15 
miles (see p. 187). 

Winklebury Hill, au an- 
cient encampment. 

Worting House. 

Manydown House (Sir 
R. C. H. Rycroft, Bart). 

Malshanger House. 

Oakley Park. 

Hall Place. 

Ash Park. 

Overton, a large village, 
formerly a market town, 
4i mill's. 

Whitchurch, 6 miles. 

Andover, 111 miles. 



Weston, Stoke Charity, 
Wonston, Himton. 



Winchester race course, 
on Worthy Down. 



32 



22 



13 



Basingstoke St 
Baaiugstokeis mentiimed 
in Doomsday Book under 
the name of Basingtochest 
and is described as having 
been always a royal manor. 
Malting and the com trade 
form its principal business. 
Basingstoke had before the 
opening of the railway a 
very extensive coach traf- 
fic, from its position on 
one of the great western 
roads. Pop. 1851, 4263. 
Lichfield Tunnel, 
200 yards. 
Popham Hill Tunnel, 
200 yards. ^ 

Andover Road St 



48 



58 



Over Micheklev«r em 
bankment, raised more 
than 100 feet above the 
meadows. 

Lunwayt Inn Tunnel, 



WINCHESTER. 



67 



ON LBFT FROM LOND. 



Hackwood Park, Lore 
Bolton, 1 mile. 
Herriard Fark, 3 miles. 



Kempshot Park. 
North Waltham. 



Popham Beacon, 4€C 
feet high, affords a fine 
view trom the summit. 

Stratton Park, Rt. Hon. 
Sir F. T. Baring, Bart., 
contains a fine collection 
of paintings. Stratton 
belonged to Thomas Earl 
of Southampton, and by 
the marriHge of his 
daughter to the illus- 
trious patriot.. Lord Wil- 
linm Russell, it came into 
the possession of the Bed- 
lord lamily, who sold it to 
the grandfather of the 
present possessor. 

Micheldever. 3 miles 
distant, the Grange, Lord 
Aahburton. 

Kings Worthy, Head- 
born W(Nrthy, Abbots 
Worthy, Easton ; and be- 
youd, Avington Park, J. 
Shelley, Esq. 



The origin of Winchester is involved in obscurity ; but tradition, and the evi- 
dence of our oldest historical monuments, concur in representing it as one oi 
the earliest settlements of the first inhabitants of thf island. It was termed Caei 
Gwent by the Britons^ Yenta Belgarum by the BomaDs, and Wintanceaster by th< 
Saxons. It became the capital of England under the Saxons when the country 
was united under the sway of Egbert, King of Wessex, in the beginning of the 
ninth century, and it retained this dignity till the reign of Edward the Confessoi 
in the middle of the eleventh century. Here lie the bones of Alfred the Great 
and of the fomous Canute. In this city^ in 1002, commenced the horrid mas- 
sacre of all the Danes who had settled in England. From this massacre sprung 
the old English custom of the Hocktide merriments. Here William the Con- 
queror btiilt a castle and a palace, part of the foundations of which is yet to 
t>e seen. Here his son, William Rufiis, was crowned, and here he was buried : 



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WINCHESTER. 53 

and here wiere the roykl mint, treasury, and public record-office. Wincbester 
Bofiered seTerely during the wars between Stephen and the (Impress Matilda. 
Here Richard Coeur-de-Lion was crowned a second time with great pomp after 
hk return from the crusades. Here John ratified his ignominious submission 
to the Pope^ agent, Pandulph, and did homage to him for his crown* Henry 

III. was bom here, and always bore the name of Henry of Winchester. Henry 

IV. here married Joan of Brittany. Parliaments were held in this city both in 
the fouH«enth and fifteenth centuries. Prince Arthur, son of Henry VII., was 
bom at the cdBtle ; and Henry VIII. entertained the Emperor Charles V. at 
the same place in 1522. At the Reformation, it suffered severely from the dis- 
Bolution of its monastics and other religious buildings, so that it had the ap- 
pearance of a dty sacked by a hostile army. Here Queen Mary was married 
to Philip of Spain. James h made Winchester the scene of the di^graceftil 
trials of Sir Walter Raleigh, Lords Cobham and Orey, and their assumed ac- 
complices ; and three of these royal victims, the Hon. George Brooke, brother 
of Lord Cobham, and the prieetd, Watson and Clarke, were executed here on 
the Castle-hilL Thd Castle was garrisoned during the civil War> first by the ad- 
herents of the Pariiament, from whom it was taken by the Royalists in 1643. 
Aft^ the battle of Naseby, it was retaken by Cromwell, who blew it up with 
gunpowder, battered to pieces thd fortifications of the city, and demolished 
Wolvesey Castle, the bishop^s palace. His troopers stabled th^ir horses in the 
cathedral, and committed great excesses, demc^shing the monuments, and mu- 
tilating and injuring parts of the edifice. The bishopls palace was rebuilt in 
1684. Winchester Was a fhvourite city of Charles IL, who C(^nmenced the 
erection of a palace in 1682 on the site of the old castle, which, so fiir as finish- 
ed, stands there now, and is occupied as barracks^ Richard Cnmiwell, after 
resigning tiie Protectorate, passed the remainder of his lifb in retir^nent in the 
neighbourhood of this city, at the old manor of Merdon at Hursley. 

Winchester is leituated oh the eastern slo^^e ci an eminence, at the fbot of 
which flows the beautiful river Itehen. The city has a solemn and venerable 
appearance. It consists of scveml good streets, lighted with gas, and Well payed. 
Of the fire ancient gates only two are now remaining ; and all traces of the 
ditches and old tealls have been obliterated. The most interesting public build^ 
iag in Winchester is the caUiedral Kihegils, the firrt of the Saxon kings who 
embraced Christiahity, laid the foundation of a cathedral here, which, afW his 
death, was carried on by his son, Kenewalch, and completed ih 648. It stood 
on the spot whidi is occupied by the existing building. Having fkllen into de- 
cay, it was rebuilt by St Ethelwold in 980. Bishop Walkelyn, the prelate who 
was first appointed to the see after the conquest, rebuilt the central tower, and 
iDade various important repains and additions. Bishop Oodfirey de Lucy rebuilt 
t portion of the east end towards the close of the eleventh century. Various 
«ittensive improvements were made about the middle of the fourteenth century 
fy Bishop William de Edyndon ; and his illustrious successor, William de 



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54 WINCHESTER. 

Wykeham, who held the see of Winchester from 1366 to 1404, rebuilt nearly 
the whole of the cathedral to the westward of the central tower. A considerable 
part of the church to the east of this tower was restored by Bishop Richard Fox 
in the early part of the sixteenth century. The building is in the form of a 
cross, its length from east to west being 560 feet^ and the breadth of the nave 
and aisles 86 feet The nave, 250 feet in length, is considered one of the finest in 
England. The length of the transepts is 186 feet The tower is 138 feet in height 
and 50 feet by 48 in breadth. By far the noblest part of the building is the west 
front, built by William of Wykeham, with its great central doorway, its noble 
window, rich with perpendicular tracery, its buttresses and pinnacled turrets, its 
croMming tabernacle, with its statue of the builder, and its pinnacled side aisles. 
The interior has a peculiarly solemn and magnificent appearance, and is richiy 
ornamented. Around the walls are numerous monuments of bishops, deans, 
nobles, and gentlemen of neighbouring funilies. The chapels or chantries of 
Wykeham, Edington, Fox, Cardinal Beaufort, Waynflete, and Gardiner, are of the 
most beautiful and elaborate workmanship. ** So delicately, so elaborately are 
they canred out, that they have more the appearance of being wrought in ivory 
than in stone. In these, on stately tombs, the sides of which are figured with 
the richest panelling, lie the e£Sgies of these magnificent old prelates, and h&e 
weie daily masses chanted for the repose of their souls.** The workmanship of 
the choir is remarkably rich and beautiful. On the fioor, a plain bevelled stone 
0^ dark marble marks the tomb of William Rufus ; and arranged on each side 
of the sanctuary are six mortuary chests, containing the bones of many of the 
most eminent Saxon princes. Behind the altar is a magnificent stone screen 
of the most exquisite workmanship, erected by Bishop Fox ; and a painting by 
West; of the raismg of Lazarus, now occupies the place where the high altar 
formerly stood. In the floor of Prior Silkstede^b chapel, in the old Norman 
south transept, is the tomb of Izaak Walton. 

The most interesting building in Winchester next to the cathedral is St Mary's 
College. William of Wykeham, by whom it was founded and endowed, was ori- 
ginally a poor boy of the neighbouring town of Wickham, who, having attracted 
the notice of Nicholas Uvedale, the lord of the manor, was sent by him to the old 
grammar-school of Winchester, which stood on the very spot where his college 
now stands. It has been justly said, that "his architectural works at Dover, 
Queenborough, Windsor, and other castles for the king— the building of his two 
colleges, this and New College, Oxford,— and his rebuilding the nave of his cathe- 
dral—mark him as the greatest architectural genius of the age.** Winchester 
College was begun in the year 1387, and was completed six years afterwards. 
The society consisted of a warden and ten priests, who are perpetual fellows, three 
chaplains, three clerks, and sixteen choristers, a schoolmaster and under master^ 
and seventy scholars. The establishment continues in the same condition ; but be- 
dides the seventy scholars, there are now taught a considerable number of youths 
who are not on the foundation. The college is built round two courts, with towers 



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WINCHESTER. 65 

over each gateway. The buddings in the second court are in a far superior style 
to those in the first. The dining-hall is a splendid room in the ancient Gothic 
style, with a lofty groined roof. In a chamber adjoining the kitchen is a very 
angalar emblematical figure in oil-painting, usually termed ''the trusty servant.** 
The chapel is lofty, finely roofed, and the large windows are filled with stained 
glass. On the south side of the chapel are the cloisters, enclosing a quadrangle 
of 132 feet square. In the midst of the quadrangle is a little Grothic chapel, where 
a monk used to perform a daily mass for the dead. It is now the library of the 
establishment, and contains a collection of valuable old books. To the westward 
of the cloisters and library is the school, a detached building, erected in 1687. 
Over the entrance is a fine bronze statue of WySeham, cast and presented to the 
college by Gains Gabriel Gibber, father of Golley Gibber. 

The Hospital of St Gross is situated about a mile from the city, in the centre 
of a delightful part of the valley of the Itchen. A pleasant path leads to it across 
the meadows. To the left is the hill of St Gatherine's, near the simimit of which 
there are traces of an ancient fortification. Behind St Gatherine's, on the top of 
Twyford down, there are some vestiges of the great Roman road from Porttts Mag- 
nus (Porchester) to Winchester. The Hospital of St Gross was erected in the time 
of King Stephen by Henry de Blois, and was originally intended for thirteen poor 
men, a master, a steward, four chaplains, thirteen derks, and seven choristers. 
The hospital was built in a quadrangular form; and three sides of the square yet 
remain. On the outer front of the gateway tower is a statue of Gardinal Beaufort, 
who may be regarded as the second founder of the institution. The Ghurch of 
St Gross, which is one of the most interesting monuments of architectural anti- 
quity in the kingdom, consists of a nave and side aisles, with a chancel and tran- 
septs, and a piassy Norman tower over the intersection. The view from the leads 
of the tower is very fine. The hospital was stripped of much of its income at the 
Reformation. It still, however, afibrds a handsome revenue to the master, and 
comfortable subsistence to thirteen poor brethren. The present master is the 
Earl of Guilford, who is in holy orders. The brethren wear black cloaks, with a 
silver cross on the breast. A small remnant of the ancient hospitality is still 
kept up ; for any one who presents himself at the porter's lodge is entitled to re- 
ceive a horn of ale and a slice of bread, the ale, however, being of the thinnest 
and the bread of the hardest. 

Winchester returns two members to Parliament. Population of city and 
Hberty m 1851, 13,704. 

A road leads from Winchester, a distance of 24 miles, to Gosport, passing 
through Twyford (where there was once a Roman Gatholic seminary, at which 
Pope received part of his education), Botley and Titchfield, the church of which 
is an interesting structure, and contains the efiigies of Wriothesley, first Earl of 
Southampton, and his wife and son. Near the town are the ruins of Titchfield 
House, in which Gharles I. was twice concealed. 



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56 



LONDON TO WINCHESTER AND SOVTUAHFIO^— Continued. 



ON RIGHT F&OX LOMD. 



Compton. 

Otterbonrne, and be- 
yond, Cranbury Park, T. 
Chamberlayne, Eb^. 

Four miles distant, 
Huraley Park, Sir W. 
Heathcote, Bart. The 
park is very picturesque, 



6:5 



wooded, and command- 
ing: fine views. Beyond, 
Ciiilworth House. 



Portswood House. 
Bannister House. 
Bevois Mount. 
Bellevue. 



(From Winchester.) 

The railway runs hence 
through the valley of the 
Itchen. 

Hursley, 6 miles from 
Winchester, was once the 
property of Bichard Crom- 
well, in right of his wife, 
Dorothy Major. His 
daughters, after his death, 
sold the estate to Sir W. 
Heathcote, who caused the 
ancient mansion to be taken 
down. A seal was found 
on this occasion in one of 
the walls, which proved to 
be the seal of the Common- 
wealth; in the opinion of 
Virtue^ the eminent artist, 
the very one taken away by 
Cromwell from the House 
of Parliament. 

Bishopstoke St 

Dr. Garnier, Dean of 
Winchester, holds the 
living of Bishopstoke. His 
gardens are most attrao* 
tive, and admission is 
readily granted to any re- 
spectabk person present- 
ing a card, and signifying 
R wish to see them. The 
Himalayan collection is 
very fine. 

Admiral Hawkes, one of 
the naval heroes of the 
reign of George II, is 
buried in North Stoueham 
church. 

The line crosses the river 
Itchem by a viaduct. 
SOUTHAMPTON. 




74 



80 



Hospital of St. Cross. 
(See p. 55.) 

St. Catherine's HilL 

Twyford House. 

TM^ford Lodge. 

Shawfbrd Lodge, Sir 
H. B. P. St. John Mild- 
may, Bart., and 4 miles 
distant. Rose Hill Park, 
Earl of Norlhesk. 



Bambridge House, 
Lieut.-6en. Sir John 
Hanbury, K.C.H. 

MarweU Hall. 

Branch to Gosport, 16 
miles (p. 81). 



Swathling. 

TownhillTark. 

South Stoneham Ho. 

Midanbury House. 

Bittern Grove. 

At Bittern was i 
Roman station, the Clau- 
sentum of the Itinerary. 
Roman remains are found 
here. 



Chessel House, Lord 
Ashtown. 



Southampton is heautifully situated at the head of the bay called the South- 
ampton Water, having the river Itchen on the one side, and the Test or Anton 
on the other. It was anciently fortified, and the remuns of its walls and castle 
still exist The town appears to have had its origin in the Saxon times, and is 
mentioned in the Saxon Chronicle under the year 873. During the ninth and 
tenth centuries it was frequently ravaged by the Danes ; here Canute occa- 
sionally resided ; and it was while he stayed at Southampton that ^he well- 
known incident occurred in which he rebuked the flattery of his courtiers. In 
the sixteenth century Southampton* was visited by the Emperor Chailes V., by 
Edward VI., Philip of Spain, and Queen Elizabeth ; and it was for some time 
the residence of Charles I. Southampton posoesses an exceUent harbour for 



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SOUTHAMPTON. 57 

loerchantmeii, and its value and importance has been greatly increased by the 
recent formation of docks of a capacity sufficient to receive vessels of the 
Ingest class, and steam-vessels. This town has long been a place of great 
trade with Spain and Portugal, chiefly for the importation of wine and fruit. It 
has also a considerable trade with ^ance, with the Baltic ports and Canada, and 
with the Channel Islands. It carries on a brisk coasting trade ; and is the most 
convenient port for steam-boats plying to Guernsey, Jersey, St Malo, Granville, 
tod. H&vre. There are also regular trading-smacks and schooners between London 
and Southampton. The total amount of the gross revenue collected at the custom- 
liODae in Southampton in 1850 amounted to L.56,065 : 9s. The formation of thd 
Sooth- Western Railway has proved of great benefit to the trade and local interests 
of Sonthampton, which is now the principal station fbrthe West India, and also 
the Peninsular and Oriental packets, by the latter of which the overland com- 
mimication with India, through Egypt and across the Isthmus of Suez, is main- 
timed; this line of route has been further extended to Sydney and New Zea- 
land. 

Sonthampton was anciently defended by double ditches, battlements, and 
watch-towers. Of the gates, the only one remaining is an imposing structure 
called Bargate, on tJie north firont of which are two figures, said by tradition to 
represent the fomous Sir Bevois of Hampton and the giant Ascapart, whom he 
(lew in single combat. Southampton contains a great number of large and well- 
boflt houses, and the principal streets are spacious and well paved. 

Sonthampton contains five churches, of which St Michaers is remarkable for 
its high slender octagonal tovrer, which serves as a landmark to ships entering 
the harbour ; it has also a Catholic chapel, and several places of meeting for dis- 
KQters of various denominations. There is a grammar-school, founded in the 
time of Edward VI. On the north side of the town is an asylum for female 
orphans, the children of soldiers ; and there are various charitable institutions. 
Ahout half a mile from, the Bargate stand the barracks^ which enclose an area 
of two acres, but this is not now a military station^ 

Since the fire which occurred at the Tower of London in 1841, the engraving 
department of the ordnance establishment has been removed to Southampton, at 
which town the execution of the national survey of Great Britain is at present 
<amed on, and upon which numerous engravers are now employed. The 
Ordnance Survey of England and Wales, which was commenced in 1791, has 
iMen completed on a scale of one inch to a mile, with the exception of the six 
oorthera counties, at a total cost of L.662,000. The remaining portion, as well 
asashnilar survey of Scotland, at present in progress, is being proceeded with 
Qpon the scales of six and three inches to a mile. 

Southampton was incorporated into a borough by Charles I., and is a1»o a 
county of itself: it is divided into five wards, and governed by a mayor, teu 



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58 THE NEW FOREST. 

aldermen, and thirty councillors. It letums two members to Parliament. Po- 
pulation of Parliamentary borough 1851, 35,305. 

From Southampton to Salisbury is 21^ miles— Lymington, 20| — Portsmouth, 
17^Go8port, 16i— Poole, 34— Winchester, 12. 

The mildness of the air, the fitcility of making excursions by water as well as 
by land, the vicinity of the Isle of Wight and of the New Forest, contribute to 
render the town a desirable place for either a temporary or a permanent resi- 
dence, which is further recommended by the excellent supplies of fish, firuit, 
meat, and other necessaries. 

A number of pleasant excursions may be made in the neighbourhood of 
Southampton. About three miles from the town is the celebrated Netley Ab- 
bey,* one of the most picturesque ruins in England. The founder of this abbey 
was Peter Roche, Bishop of Winchester, who died towards the middle of the 
thirteenth century. Its inmates were of the Cistertian order. At the dissolu- 
tion it was granted to Sir William Paulet, afterwards the celebrated Marquis of 
Winchester. The abbey is now a complete ruin, so that scarcely any part of 
it can be distinguished, except the remains of the chapeL The walk to it from 
the town of Southampton is one of enchanting beauty. The abbey itself is al- 
most completely concealed by the luxuriant foliage of the trees among whick » 
is unbosomed, and, altogether, the spot is one of singular loveliness. 

THE NEW FOREST. 

In the neighbourhood of Southampton is that large tract of woodland termed 
the New Forest, than which there are probably few spots in England more in- 
teresting, or more worthy of being visited. The New Forest was originally 
formed by William the Conqueror in the year 1079, about thirteen years after 
the battle of Hastings. Its shape is a kind of irregular triangle, wide at the 
south, and drawing to a point towards the north, contained within a circumfe- 
rence of about fifty miles. Great odium has been heaped on the memory of 
William, particularly by the monkish historians, because of his alleged conduct 
in afforesting these woodlands, and it has been confidently asserted that he de- 
stroyed a large number of villages and churches, drove out the inhabitants, laid 
their lands waste, and formed the New Forest in their room. These statements, 
however, are greatly exaggerated, for it is obviously impossible that such an ex- 
tensive depopulation could have taken place in a country which, fit)m the na- 
ture of it, must have been from the first very thinly inhabited. At the same time, 
he cannot be absolved from all reproach in this matter, for it is evident that 
many persons must have been dispossessed of their lands ere such an extensive 
tract could have been wholly at his disposal His son, William Rufus, was kil- 
led in this forest, according to popular tradition, by a random arrow, but the 
precise circumstances attending his death are involved in doubt This event 

* Leland states that the proper name of the place it Lettley, which is supposed to be a oor* 
nqition of the Latin words de Lato Loco, 



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THE NEW FOREST. 59 

took place near Stoney Cross, at a short distance fropi Castle Malwood. An oak 
formerly stood on the spot, but this has now disappeared, and its site is marked 
by a triangular stone about five feet high, bearing the following inscription com- 
memorative of the event : — 

" Here stood the oak on which an arrow, shot by Sir Walter Tyrrell at a stag, 
glanced and struck King William II., named Rufus, in the breast, of which he 
instantly died, on the 2d of August a, d. 1100." 

" King William II., sumamed Rufiis, being slain as is before related, was 
laid in a cart belonging to one Purkess,* and drawn from hence to Winchester, 
and was buried in the cathedral church of that city." 

** That where an event so memorable had happened might not hereafter be 
Rnknown, thid stone was set up by John Lord Delaware, who has seen the tree 
growing in this place anno 1745." 

Stoney Cross is visited in smnmer by great numbers of persons from South- 
ampton, Winchester, and the neighbouring towns. 

The New Forest has preserved its ancient boundaries more exactly, and re- 
tains more of the forest than any of our other forests. Part of it is now private 
property, but 65,845 acres belong to the Crown, subject to certain rights of com- 
mon, of pasturage, pannage, and Aiel, belonging to proprietors of estates within 
or adjacent to the forest For local purposes, the forest is divided into nine 
bailiwicks, and these are again subdivided into fifteen walks. The chief officer 
of the forest is the Lord Warden, who is appointed by the crovm during pleasure, 
by letters-patent under the Great Seal, and is generally some person of distinc- 
tion ; imder him are a lieutenant, a bow-bearer, two rangers, a woodward, an 
under-woodward, four verderers, a high-steward, an imder-steward, twelve re- 
garders, nine foresters, and fifteen under-foresters. Besides these ancient ofiScersv 
of the forest, there is one of later institution, called the purveyor, whose business 
is to assign timber for the use of the navy. 

There is a numerous population within the limits of this forest Their moral 
condition, though much improved of late years, is still low. " On the skirts oi 
flie forest," says William Howitt, ** and round its vast heaths, are numbers of 
poor huts, whose inmates have very little visible means of existence, but profess 
ttiemselves to be woodmen, charcoal-burners, and so on ; but it is pretty well 

* Pnrkeas lived at Minitead, and maintained his family by burning charcoal. His male 
^aeendaato have coutinaed to occupy the same house, and to carry on the same trade till very 
'Mntiy. The last of the lineal occupiers c^ the hut died an old man a few years ago. It is 
•>M of this £eunily that they always possessed a horse and cart, but never attained to the po»- 
nion of a team. This tradition is thus referred to in Mr Stewart Rose's ballad of the Red 
Ringt- 

" And stiU so runs our forest creeds- 
Flourish the pious yeoman's seed, 

Ev'n in the self-same spot j 
One horse and cart their Uttle store. 
Like their forefathers, neither mora 
Nur less the children's lot." 



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60 THE NEW FOREST. 

understood that poaching and smugf^lmg are their more probable vocations. 
Some of their cabins are the rudest erections of boughs, turf, and heather. Their 
poles for charcoal-burning are reared in huge pyramids, with the smallest end 
uppermost * * * Many of them, like those in the woods of America, are mere 
squatters ; but the attempt to disturb them is much the same as to disturb a 
homet^s nest Consdoue that there is no strength but in making common cause, 
they are ail up in arms at any attempt to dislodge any of them.** 

Horsed are reared in great numbers in the New Forest They are of a dimi- 
nutive breed, and are supposed to be descended from the Spani^ jenets driven 
ashore on the coast of Hampshire in the dispersion of the Armada. They are 
often seen feeding together in herds of twenty or thirty, and have a ver}' pic- 
turesque appearance amid the forest scen^. Great numbers of them are an- 
nually taken and sold. They are usefiil for any kind of emplojrment, and are 
remarkable for the hardiness of their nature, and for their agility and sureneas 
of foot The forest abounds also with red and fallow deer. It likewise contains 
a breed of hogs, which have about them several of the characteristic ''marks of 
the wild boar. Besides these wild hogs there are many of the domesticated 
breed in the New Forest, who are turned out to feed on acorns and beeclmiaflt 
during the ** pannage** month, which begins about the end of September, and 
lasts for six weeks. The curious mode by which they are collected and ma> 
aaged is described by Gilpin in his Forest Scenery, and is too well known to r^ 
quire to be quoted hereto The New Forest is a district of great int^est both to 
the sportsman and the naturalist, as it abounds in birds of almost every species 
•nd in winter its shores are thronged by aquatic Inrds. Its extensive tracts of 
heath render the forest a &vourite re8<»rt of the honey-bee, which everywhere 
covers the surface of it» and is frequently a source of considerable profit to the 
oottagers. 

The various roads by which the JSew Forest is traversed^ mduding that part 
of the railway from Southampton to Dorchester, which traverses the forest to 
Ringwood, are all accurately delineated in the chart which accompanies this 
description. The tourist may, therefore, choose for himself the route which he 
will pursue, according as his time may permit, or his taste incline. We shall 
briefly point out such objects as are deserving of especial notice. The visitor 
who wishes thoroughly to explore this interesting district would do well to take 
some of the forest towns, such as Lymington, Lyndhurst, Christchurch, &c. as 
central points, and from these places as his headM][Uartet8 knakd excursions Ih 
various directions. 

Taking Southampton as the point of departure, the road passes the i»ettj 
village of Millbrook, the churchyard of which contains a monument to PoUok, 
the author of the " Course of Time,** who died at Shirley, near this place, in 
1827, at the age of twenty-nine. A mile farther on is Redbridge, at the head of 
Southampton Water, a place of great antiquity, which enjoys a considerable trade 
in com, coal, timber, &c A little beyond a road leads off on the left to Lyndhurst, 
the little capital of the Forest, distant about 9 or 10 miles from Southampton. 

A little ^uiher on the road passes Totton, near which is Testwood House, the 



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THE NEW FOREST. 61 

seat of Miss Bourne. Proceeding onward the tourist reaches Cadnam Park, 
distant between 9 and 10 miles from Southampton. From this place a plea- 
sant excursion may be made along the valley of the Avon to Fording bridge ; 
vhcDce the tourist may proceed to Ringwood, a distance of six miles, by 
Blackford Green, and the village of Ibbesley. A short way beyond, to the right 
of the road, is Rufus^s stone, formerly described, and to the left is Cajttle Mal- 
wood. Proceeding onward we reach Stoney Cross, a place much visited in sum- 
mer by large parties from Southampton, Winchester, and the neighbouring towns. 
A little to the left is the sequestered hamlec of Minstead, which stands in one 
of the finest paxts of the forest ** On one side," says W. Howitt, ** are open 
knoUs and ascending woodlands, covered with majestic beeches, and the village 
children playing under them ; on the other, the most rustic cottages, almost 
buried in the midst of their orchard trees, and thatched as Hampshire cot- 
tages only are — ^in such projecting abundance — such flowing lines. * * The 
whole of the cottages thereabout are in equal taste with the roof, so different to 
the red staring square brick houses of manufacturing districts. They seem, as 
no doubt they are, erected in the spirit and under the influence of the geni/ua 
Iki. The bee-hives in their rustic rows, the little crofts, all belong to a primi- 
tive country. I went on, now coming to small groups of such places, now to 
others of superior pretensions, but equally blent with the spirit of the surround- 
ing nature — ^little paradises of cultivated life. As I advanced heathery hiUs stretch- 
ed away on one hand^ woods came down thickly and closely on the other, and 
a windhig road, beneath the shade of large old trees, conducted me to one of the 
most retired and peacefiil of hamlets. It was Minstead. ♦ ♦ * Herds of red- 
deer rose from the fern, and went bounding away, and dashed into the depths of 
the woods ; troops of those grey and long-tailed forest horses turned to gaze as I 
passed down the open glades ; and the red squirrels in hundreds scampered away 
from the ground where they were feeding. * * * Delighted with the true woodland 
wildness and solenmity of beauty, I roved onward through the wildest woods that 
eame in my way. Awaking as from a dream, I saw &r aroimd me one deep 
ihadow, one thick and continuous roof of boughs, and thousands of hoary boles 
landing clothed as it were with the very spirit of silence. I admired the mag- 
Bificeot sweep of some grand old trees as they hung into a glade or ravine, some 
delicious opening in the deep woods, or the grotesque figure of particular trees, 
which seemed to have been blasted into blackness, and contorted into inimitable 
crookedness, by the savage genius of the place." Minstead Manor House is the 
property, of H. C. Compton, Esq. 

Returning to the road, and passing Bolderwood Lodge, a little to the left, we 
■bortly after reach Picked Post, and a short distance beyond it is the pleasant 
village of Ringwood, seated on the banks of the Avon, which spreads near the 
town into a large sheet of water friU of little islands. Ringwood existed during 
the Roman occupation of Britain, and was a place of some importance in the 
Anglo-Saxon times. It contained in 1851, 8984 inhabitants, who are chiefly 
employed in the manufacture of woollen cloths and stockings, and in brewing 



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62 THE NEW FOREST.-CHRISTCHUBCH. 

Rle and strong beer, for which the town has acqmred a considerable name. The 
country around the town is rather flat The roads from Southampton to Poole, 
and from Salisbury to Chiistchurch pass through Ringwood. At the distance of 
nine miles from Ringwood is the town of Christchurch. There are two roads 
parallel to each other which lead to it, with the river Avon flowing between 
them. The road on the left bank of the river passes by Kingsbar, Bistem Park 
(H. C. Compton, Esq.) Avon, Sopley, and Staple's Cross. In the vicinity of the 
latter are the mansions of Hinton House, Hinton Admiral, and High Clifl^. The 
country between Ringwood and Christchxirch is flat, and the lanes close and woody. 
The town of Christchurch takes its name from its church and priorj, founded 
early in the Saxon era for a dean and twenty canons of the order of St Augus- 
tine. William Rufus bestowed the church and convent upon Ranulph Flam- 
bard, Bishop of Durham, who rebuilt the church upon a more superb scale, and 
its revenues were greatly augmented by Richard de Rivers, Earl of Devon, to 
whom the manor was given by Henry I. At the dissolution, the annual income 
was L.544, 6s. Some fragments of the priory walls are still standing. The 
church, which is in the form of a cross, is a very interesting specimen of the 
Norman style, though modem additions have been made to it Within the 
church, there are some curious ancient monuments ; and the tower commands 
a delightful and extensive prospect The town is supposed to have been of Ro- 
man origin, and in Saxon times was called Tweonea, or " the place between the 
rivers.** Near Christchurch are Heron Court (Earl of Malmesbury) and Sand- 
hills (Right Hon. Sir G. H. Rose). It returned two members to Parliament since 
the reign of Elizabeth ; but the number was reduced to one by the Reform Act. 
The population in 1851 of the parliamentary borough was 7476. 

The rivers Stour and Avon, after uniting about 1^ miles below the town, flow 
into Christchurch bay, which is spacious, but shallow and dangerous. ** There 
is a curious circumstance peculiar to this harbour and the neighbouring port of 
Poole in Dorsetshire, — that of the tide producing two high waters ; a phenome- 
non quite inexplicable from the general laws of tides, and only to be accounted 
for by the situation of this coast as regards the Isle of Wight, and from the con- 
traction of the channel by the jutting out of the point of land on which Hurst 
Castle stands.*** 

In the neighbourhood of the town are the remains of a camp and entrench- 
ments, with several tumuli and barrowsi 

Christchurch is about 20 miles distant from Lymington. The intervening 
district is flat, cultivated, and enclosed. The road is parallel to the coast the 
whole of the way. A little to the right of the road is a large house built by 
Lord Bute. It stands on a cliff directly opposite to Cherbourg, from which it 
is about 60 miles distant This cliff, which is termed Hordle Cliff, rises about 
150 feet above the level of the sea. The flatness of the scenery is a little diver- 
sified by various hollows or narrow dells, through each of which a small rivulet 
finds its way to the sea. The most remarkable are those of Chuton, Ashley, and 
♦ Gilpin's Forest Scenery, Vol. ii. p. 146. 



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LYMINGTON.—LYNDHURST. 63 

BlibnL About two or three miles &rther along the coast, stands Hurst Castle, 
baih at the extremity of a remarkable natural causeway, which runs two miles 
into the sea, forming, between the castle and the Isle of Wight, a narrow chan- 
nel, which, at high water, scarcely exceeds 200 yards in breadth. The castle 
m erected in the time of Henry VIII. Here Charles I., after being removed 
from the Isle of Wight, was confined for some time previous to his trial and 
execution. Between Hurst Castle and Lymington is the small village of Mil- 
loid, which commands fine views of Alum Bay and the neighbouring part of 
^ig^t Three miles &rther on is the town of Lymington, agreeably situated 
on the right bank of the river of the same name. It is 9 miles from L3mdhurst, 
id from the Southampton station, and about 90 south-west from London in a 
straight line. Lymington is a neat well built town, and pleasantly situated. It 
is a corporate town and Parliamentary borough, and has returned two memben 
to Parliament since the reign of Elizabeth. The parish church, dedicated tu 
Thomas a Becket, contains many handsome monuments. The population of 
the town and parish in 1851 was 4182, and of parliamentary borough 6282. 

Lymington is subordinate to the port of Southampton. Its foreign trade is 
nnimportant, and the coasting trade is on the decline. Considerable improve- 
ments have, of late years, been made in the town with the view of affording ac- 
commodation to visitors during the bathing season. The chief manufacture in 
the neighbourhood is salt. 

Near Lymington is Cadlands, the seat of A. R. Drommond, Esq., and Wall- 
himpton, the seat of the Rev. Sir G. Burrard, Bart. About two miles from 
Lymington is the village of Bolder, for above twenty years the scene of the pas- 
toral labours of the Rev. William Gilpin, author of " Forest Scenery," and various 
"ther works on the picturesque, ^e built and endowed two schools here out of 
the profits of the sale of his drawings, and lies buried in Bolder churchyard. ITie 
dnirch, which is an ancient and primitive looking structure, stands on the sum- 
mit of a thickly wooded eminence, and commands a variety of interesting views. 
Midway between Lymington and Lyndhurst is Brockenhurst, a pleasant fo- 
reit village, of Saxon origin, and recorded in the Doomsday Book by the name 
rf Broceste. Part of the church was erected before the Conquest, and the font 
» a very antique and curious piece of workmanship. Near the village are 
Brockenhurst Park and Watcombe House. The latter was, for three years, the 
'ttidence of the philanthropic Howard. To the south-west of Brockenhurst 
there is a heath called Sway Common, over which various tumuli are scattered. 
The road from Brockenhurst to Lyndhurst passes through a very interesting part 
«^the forest Near Lyndhurst stands Cuffhells (Sir Edward Poore, Bart.) on a 
rising ground embosomed in trees, and most delightfully situated in the very 
^rt of the forest. It was the property of the late Sir Thomas Tancred, of whose 
^m it was purchased by the late Sir George Rose, who made very considerable 
•Editions to the mansion. The situation of Lyndhurst is very beautiful. It has 
*«n considered as the capital of the New Forest ever smce the era of its forma 



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64 LYMIN6T0N-BEAULIEU ABBEf. 

tion, and the forestal courts are still held here. An ancient stirrup is preserved 
in the hall of the King's House, the official residence of the Lord Warden, which 
is said to have been that used by William Rufus at the time he was shot by Sir 
Walter Tyrrel.* Opposite to the King's House stands a large square building 
called the King's Stables. A fine prospect of the forest may be obtained from 
the tower of the church. Lord Lyndhurst derives his title from this place. Po- 
pulation of parish 1851, 1527. 

From Lyndhurst to Southampton is a distance of between 9 and 10 milesw 
The road joins that which leads to Stoney Cross at the village of Rumbridge. 

Before closing our description of the forest we may direct the attention of the 
tourist to an interesting excursion which may be made to Beaulieu Abbey. This 
spot may be reached by crossing Southampton water to Hythe, and proceeding 
from thence to Beaulieu, a distance of 5 miles. The river Beaulieu is a mere 
forest stream till near the abbey, when it expands into a lake covering many 
acres. The Abbey of Beaulieu was founded by King John in 1204 for monks 
of the Cistertian order. The wall which surrounded the precincts of the abbey 
is nearly entire in several parts, and is finely mantled with ivy. Of the build- 
mgs of the abbey considerable parts remain. The abbots lodge was converted, 
after the dissolution, into a family seat The ancient kitchen and the refectory, 
and a long building supposed to have been the dormitory, are still standing. The 
refectory is now turned into a parish church, and was repaired some years ago at 
the expense of the late Lord Montagu, uncle of the Duke of Buccleuch. Beau- 
lieu Abbey possessed the privilege of sanctuary, and it afforded rf temporary pro- 
tection to Margaret of Anjou, Queen of Henry VI., and her son Prince Edward, 
on her return from the continent, at the time of the Battle of Bamet. It also 
afforded shelter to Perkin Warbeck after the failure of his attempts in the west 
of England. At the dissolution, the manor #f Beaulieu was granted to Thomas 
Wriothesley, afterwards Earl of Southampton. In the reign of William III. this 
estate became the property of Ralph, Lord, afterwards Duke of, Montagu, by his 
marriage with the heiress of the Wriothesleys. His son John, second Duke of 
Montagu, transmitted it to his daughters, Isabella and Mary, from whom, by 
intermarriages, the manor has descended to the Duke of Buccleuch. 

At Beaulieu was also an Hospital of Knights Templars. The ruins of the 
hospital, which are now converted into farm buildings, stand about half a mile 
distant from the water, on a risuag ground which commands extensive views. 

The tourist may vary his route back to Southampton by sailing down the 
Beaulieu or Exe river to Exbury, — a distance of rather more than 3 miles, and 
proceeding from thence across the country to Calshot Castle, about 4i miles 

• ** And still in merry Lyndhurst hall 
Red William's stirrup decks the wall, 

Who lists the slffht may see; 
And a fair stone in green Malwood 
Infomu the traveller where stood 
The memorable tree." — Bed King 



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ISLE OP WIGHT. 65 

from Exbory. From Calshot he may proceed by Fawley to Hythe, and croas 
the water at that spot, or proceed to Dibden aad Eling, and there cross to South- 
ampton. 

ISLE OF WIGHT. 

Southampton is a most convenient spot from which to make an excursion to 
the Isle of Wight The passage from Southampton to Cowes, the usual land- 
ing-place in Wight, is performed by regular steam-boats in little more than an 
hoar. The passage from Portsmouth seldom exceeds half that time. 

The Isle of Wight (the Vecta or Vectis of the Romans) is separated from 
Hampshire by a beautiful channel, called the Solent Sea, the breadth of which 
Taries from four to six miles, but at one point, near Hurst Castle, its breadth is 
only one mile. In this channel, though it contains no harbour of importance, 
there are many places of perfect security, where ships may ride at anchor. The 
best of these is Spithead, the great rendezvous of the British fleet in time of war. 
The form of the island is an irregular ellipsis, measuring 23 miles from east to 
west, and 13 miles from north to south. Its circumference is about 60 miles, 
and its superficial contents have been variously estimated at from 105,000 to 
130,000 acres, of which a great portion is highly jproductive. It is said to have 
been formerly covered with woods, but to have been in a great measure denuded 
b^ its vicinity to Portsmouth, and the great demand of that naval arsenal for 
timber. 

" The fece of the country may be rather described as undulating than as hilly, 
though there is a range of hills, or rather downs, running from east to west 
through the island, with a few points of considerable elevation. There is a 
great variety of rural scenery, adorned with a great diversity of foliage ; and 
though there are few or no woods, yet, as the fields are enclosed within hedge- 
rows, among which fine trees, and especially stately elms, grow most luxuriantly, 
these, added to the beanty of the verdant fields, present to the eye of the tra- 
Teller a sacceasion of most pleasing prospects. The two sides of the island pre- 
Kot each a peculiar character. The northern side is marked by every thing 
diat is rich, lovely, and picturesque ; the southern, or the part called the Bctck 
^ the Island, abounds in bold wild rocks, precipitous projections, ravines, fearfiil 
ehasms, and other features of the imposing, and a few even of the sublime. In 
tome parts, these opposite characters are greatly mingled. There is a peculiar 
ioeoery on the south side of the island, which is so striking to all strangers, as 
to require a special notice. It is a continued sinking of a tract of land, about 
ieren miles in length, and from a-half to a-quarter of a mile in breadth. This 
angular district consists of a series of terraces, formed by fragments of rocks, 
chalk, and sandstone, which have be«i detached from the clifis and hills above, 
ud deposited upon a substratum of white marl This whole tmdercHf, for 
ncfa is its common name, is completely sheltered from the north, north-west, 
tnd west winds, by the nmge of lofty downs or hills of chalk or sandstone, which 
nie boldly from the upper termination of these terraces, on elevations varying 

B 



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66 ISLE OP WIOHT. 

from four to six and seven hundred feet in height The two extremities of the 
range are indeed higher, as St Boniface Down is 800 feet above the level of the 
sea, and St Catherine's Hill on the west nearly 900 feet The protection afforded 
by this mountain barrier is greatly increased, by the very singular and striking 
abruptness with which it terminates on its southern aspect This, in many places, 
consists of the bare perpendicular rock of sandstone ; in othen of chalk, assuming 
ts characteristic rounded form, covered with a fine turf and underwood."* 

The river Medina, which, rising at the foot of St Catherine'^ Down, fells into 
the Solent Channel, at Cowes, divides the island into two hundreds of nearly 
equal extent, called respectively East and West Medina, the former compr^ 
bending 14, the latter, 16 parishes. 

The population of the Isle of Wight in 1851 was about 50,230. Previously 
to the passing of the Reform Bill, the boroughs of Newport, Newton, and Yar- 
mouth, returned each two members to Parliament, but Newton and Yarmouth 
are now disfranchised, and one member is returned for the county, and two for 
the borough of Newport. 

The Isle of Wight was first invaded by the Romans, a. d. 43, in the reign (rf 
the Emperor Claudius, and they retained possession of it till 495, when it was 
reduced by Cedric the Saxon. It suffered severely during the wars of the Saxon 
heptarchy, and was also frequently plundered and devastated by the Danes. It 
was on various occasions invaded by the French, but in ahnost every attack they 
were beaten and driven back to their ships by the islanders, who had made sys- 
tematic preparations for their defence. After the naval superiority of Britain 
was established, this island was completely secured from the calamities of foreiga 
invasion, and durihg the civil war between Charles I. and his Parliament, the 
inhabitants enjoyed comparative freedom from the prevailing commotions. 

The Lordship of the Isle of Wight was conferred by William the Conqueror 
on William Fitz-Osbome, who is known in English history under the title of the 
Earl of Hereford, and for more than two centuries the island continued to be 
governed by its independent lord& But in 1293, Edward I. purchased the rcs 
galities for the sum of L.4000 from Isabella de Fortabus, Lady of Wight, and, 
since that time, the island has been governed by wardens, appointed by tho 
Crown. The office has now become a sinecure, and it is understood that the 
present Governor, Lord Heytesbury, does not receive any salary. 

In the year 1644, the weak and unfortunate Henry VL conferred the title of 
king of Wight on Henry Beauchamp, Duke of Warwick, and crowned him with 
his own hands ; but the empty title expired with the Nobleman who first bore it 

The Isle of Wight derives additional interest from the feet of its having been 
of late years the frequent place of residence of the Queen, as in 1844 Her Ma- 
jesty and Prince Albert purchased the mansion of Osborne, with its park, and 
the adjoining estate of Barton. Osborne House is situated in the immediate 
neighbourhood of East Cowes, and near the north coast of the island. Since 
it has been in the possession of her Majesty and the Prince, the original man- 

Encyc. Brit. vol. xxi. p. 88. 



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ISLE OF WIGHT.— NEWPOET. 67 

mo has beeB greatly enlarged by the addition of a new wing, at the Booth- 
vest comer of which is a massive tower which forms a conspicaoos object for 
miles aroond, and the summit of which conmiands a magnificent and varied pro- 
spect Population of Cowes 1851, 4786. 

On landing at Cowea^ the tourist may proceed by a pleasant road, 44 milen 
in length, to 

NEWPORT, 

tiie capital of tibe island, a neat and thriving town, situated in a pleasant valley 
cbequered with gardens and groves, and well-watered on the east and west by 
copious streams. Newport is the most ancient as well as the largest existing 
town of the ishind, and contained in 1851 a population of 8047 souls. The parish 
dmrcfa is a large plain structure, originally erected in the year 1172. It has, 
Iwwever, been frequently repaired. Here was discovered, in 1793» the cofSn of 
the Princess Elizabeth, who died a prisoner in Carisbrook Castle, about a year 
tnd seven months after the execution of her father, Charles I. It was asserted 
thatCnMDwell had caused her to be poisoned, but Clarendon declares this accusa- 
tion fiilse. The other places of worship in Newport are, several Episcopal chapels, 
vith a Boman Catholic, and other Dissenting chapels. The Grammar School, 
cneted m 1619, is an object of some interest, as the place chosen for the memor- 
able conference between Charles I. and the Parliamentary Commissioners, which 
goes by the name of the Treaty of Newport One of the best public buildings in 
Newport is a public library, called the Isle of Wight Institution, which was built 
bysnbsaiption in 1811, and is now well furnished with books and periodical 
pohHcations. There are also two assembly rooms in the town, a Mechanic's In- 
ititotion, and other societies for the promotion of science and education. 

In the immediate vidnity of Newport is the picturesque village of Carisbrook, 
oiMc the capital of the island under the independ^it Lords of Wight. The 
cbrch is of great antiquity, and is supposed to stand upon the site of a Saxon 
dnnch, built some centuries before the Conquest Adjoining the church are 
tlie remains of a priory of Cistertian Monls, foimded by Fita-Osbome, Earl of 
Hereford, but now converted into sheds and stables. Opposite to it, on a steep 
Ul of nearly a circular fi3im, stand the romantic ruins of Carisbrook Castle. Its 
ivy-clad towers and battlements have an eminently picturesque appearance. At 
tbe north-east angle, on a mount raised much h^her than the other buildings, 
itiads the Keep, the original fortress, supposed to have been built by the Saxons 
IB early as the sixth century. In theeleventh century, the castle was considerably 
colaiged by Fitz-Osbome, who surrounded the whole with a fosse. Various addi- 
tions irere made to it at different times, the last by Queen Elizabeth, when the 
*«ter waUs, which still remain, were made to enclose about twenty acres of 
^ound. 

Among the curiosities pointed out to strangers is a well 200 fbet deep, from 
^^Udiiniterisdrawnupby means of a wheel turned by an ass. Another well, 
^ the centre of the Keep, said to have been 300 feet deep, has been partially 
filed up. 

Tb6 most memorable incident in the history of Carisbrook Castle, is the con- 
finement of Charles L, who took reftige here after his flight from h» 

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68 I8LB OP WIGHT.—WOOTON BBIDGB. 

Court, 5tli November 1647. The Governor, Colonel Hammond, at first trasited 
him as a guest, and placed no restriction on his movements. He was afterwards, 
however, subjected to close imprisonment, during the course of which he made 
several unsuccessful attempts to escape. The apartments in which he was coa- 
fined are now ruinous, but a window is still pointed out as that bj which he 
made the attempts to regain his liberty. 

After Charles's execution, his two youngest children, the Duke of Gloucester 
and the Princess Elizabeth, became inmates of Carisbrook Castle. The latter 
died here, and the former, about two years after the death of his sister, was li- 
berated by the influence and advice of CromwelL 

The old hunting-forest, called Parkhurst, which extended over nearly 4000 
acres, and came close up to Newport and Carisbrook, is now so completely cut 
down, that scarcely any thing remains but brushwood. The walks through it 
are, however, still extremely pleasant 

A delightful excursion may be made from Newport to the north-east, in the 
direction of FemhUl and Wooton Bridge. The mansion at Femhill was built 
by the late Duke of Bolton, when he was governor of the island. Behind it 
there is a plantation of noble trees, and the grounds are laid out in excellent 
taste. Wooton Bridge is a remarkably pretty village, on the left bank of the 
river Wooton, about 3| miles from Newport. About two miles from Wooton 
Bridge, on the shore of the Solent Strait, there is a place called King's Key, 
where King John is said to have landed when he came to the Isle of Wight^ 
after signing Magna Charta on the field of Runnymede. He remained three 
months in concealment in this neighbourhood, devising means to subvert the 
provisions of that charter. In the fine season of the year, a passage-boat goes 
and returns every day between Wooton Bridge and Portsmouth. At no great 
distance from this village is Osborne House, the residence of Her Majesty and 
Prince Albert, and near it, Norrls Castle, and East Cowes Castle (Earl of Shannon). 
Crossing the river Wooton, and passing a beautifiil mount called Kite Hill, 
a delightful walk of 14 miles will bring the tourist to the ruins of Quarr Abbey. 
This once &mous establishment was erected in the twelfth century by Baldwin 
de Rivers and Richard his son, who were both buried within its walls. It was 
dedicated to St Mary Magdalen, and the monks were of the Cistertian order. 
The abbey derived its name from the stone quarries in its neighbourhood, which 
furnished a great part of the stone employed in building Winchester Cathedral. 
Of the abbey scarcely any part now remains except some of the outer walla, 
which are said to have enclosed tWrty acres of ground, and a very small portion 
of the abbey offices, which have been converted into bams and other farm-build- 
ings. Afler the dissolution, Quarr Abbey was purchased by a Mr MiUs of Soutii* 
ampton. His son sold it to the Lord Chief Justice, Sir Thomas Fleming, with 
whose descendants it still remains. 

From QuaiT Abbey, a pleasant footpath leads to the church yard of Binstead ; 
*ud a little &rther on is the town of Ryde, which* eighty years ago, was only a 



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ISLE OP WIGHT-EYDB-APPULDERCOMBB. 69 

fishiog-village, bat is now a considerable and beautifol town, sinronnded with 
grora^ viflas, and cottages. The views from the town and neighboorhood are 
Toy fine. East of Ryde, are Ryde House, St John's, St Clare's, Fairy Hill, and 
the Priory. A little farther on, near the mouth of Brading Haven, is the pretty 
nOage of St Helen's, built round a green near the sea. Striking inland, a plea- 
ant road will convey the tourist to the village of Brading, picturesquely situated 
on the slope of a hill at the bottom of Brading Haven. The church, which is 
supposed to occupy the site of the first church erected in the island in 1704, is an 
interesting building, and contains some antique tombs. Close to the village 
stands the old mansion of Nunwell, the seat of Sir H. Oglander, Bart, the repre- 
KotatiTe of the oldest existing family in the island, whose founder, Richard 
Okelandro, came over with William the Conqueror. Their family chapel and 
Iwiying-place are in the church of Brading. Population of Ryde 1851, 7147. 

A short distance from Brading is the neat village of Yaverland, where there is 
« carious little church of great antiquity. From this point the tourist may return 
to Newport by Sandham Heath, Alverstone, and Ashey Down, from the summit 
of which there is one of the finest views in the island. 

Another excursion, frequently made from Newport, is to Appuldercombe (Earl 
flflarborough), the finest seat in the Isle of Wight, and Ventnor Cove. Pro- 
ceding by Carisbrook the tourist, about 3 miles from Newport, reaches Gat^ 
combe, a handsome modem mansion, pleasantly situated. It was formerly the 
seat of one of the Worsleys. About three miles feirther on is the populous 
^^iUage of Godshill. The church, a large and venerable pile, stands in a very 
pictoresque situation, on the summit of a steep hill that rises in the centre of the 
'iDage, and commands an extensive and beautiful prospect. This church was 
oocof the six in the island which Fitz-Osbome, Earl of Hereford, bestowed 
"long with the Priory of Carisbrook on the great Abbey of Lyra, in Normandy. 
In the interior of the church are the monuments of the Worslejrs, from the 
^fteenth, to the nineteenth century, together with the monuments of some of the 
I^ighs of Derbyshire and the Wight, whose daughters transferred by marriage 
these possessions to the Worsleys, ancestors of Lord Yarborough. In the 
^iOage of Grodshill is a grammar-school, founded above 200 years ago by one 
of the Worsley family. About a mile to the south of the village is Appulder- 
coabe^ which has long been the seat of this ancient and honourable family. 
ItMands on the site of a very old manor-house, and was begun in 1710 by Sir 
B*at Worsley, and finished by his grandson Sir Richard. The mansion has 
fco regular fronts of the Corinthian order, and a handsome colonade facing the 
■ootlL It contains a large collection of paintings, drawings, and statues, some 
tfiWch were in the old manor-house for many generations;. The sculptures 
^ drawings were collected by Sir Richard, the last Baronet, during the course 
rf«i extensive tour through Egypt, Turkey, Italy, and Greece, during the years 
1786-7. The grounds, which are extensive, are laid out in admirable style, and 
*^onied with fine beech trees and venerable oalcs. On the most elevated point. 



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70 



ISLE OP WIGHT.— UNDBBCLIPP.—VKNTNOB COVE. 



there is an obeHsk 70 feet high, erected to the memory of Sir Robert Worriey 
the fomider of the present mansion. The ruins of a castle, called Cookes* Castle^ 
stand on the summit of a rocky hill about a mile distant Sir Richard Worsley, 
the last Baronet, died here in 1813, and his niece, by her marriage, carried the 
mansion and estates to the first Earl of Tarborough. 

It was in Appuldercombe that Worsley's History, of the Isle of Wight was 
written. It was began by Sir Robert, who died in 1747, continued by his son 
Sir Thomas, and finished and published by his grandson Sir Richard in 1781. 

Appuldercombe can be visited only by tickets, to be had at the office of the 
steward, in the town of Newport ; and the days for strangers yiewing it are 
Tuesdays and Fridays between the hours of 11 and 4 o'clock. 

A short distance from Appuldercombe is the Underclilf * and the village at 
Ventnor Cove, which, so late as 1830, was little more than a hamlet, but has 
now become a populous village, in consequence of being greatly resorted to as 
a winter residence for invalids^ The scenery in the immediate neighbourhood 
is very delightful Ventnor Cove is well deserving of a visit, on account of its 
picturesqueness and beauty. A little to the south-west of the Cove is Steephill, 
and about a mile and a half further on, the romantic village of St Lawrence, 
which contains the smallest church in Great Britain, it being only 20 feet long 
and 12 wide. From the heights behind the village, the beauties of the Under- 
cliff are seen to great advantage. A pleasant road leads along the coast through 
l^iirables to Sand Rock, where there is an excellent hoteL A romantic path 
leads from the hotel to a chalybeate spring, situated in the face of a bold gloomy 
cliffy, about 1 30 feet above the level of the sea. Over the spring there is a pretty 
cottage, erected by Mr Waterworth, a surgeon of Newport, who discovered its 
virtues in 1809. According to the analysis of Dr Marcet, the Sand Rock spring 
contains a larger proportion of alum and iron than any other mineral water yet 
discovered. It has been found very useful in the cure of those disorders which 
arise from nervous affections and debility. A short distance from the spring is 
Black-Gang Chine, a gloomy fissure in the rock, formed by the action of a 
stream of water, running seaward from the interior of the island. In some 
places the cli£& on either side of it are 500 feet high. The rocks are almost 
black in colour. There is scarcely a trace of vegetation, and the scenery is wild 

* The Undercliffls a itrip of land about sbc miloB long and fh>m a quarter to half a mile \n 
breadth, which seems to have settled down and slipped towards the sea, exhibiting a jumble of 
rocks, overturned and broken mounds of earth, deep hollows, and numerous springs, fbnning 
fUls of water, ooUecting into po(^, and harrying to the tea. (M. SimoQd). It appeua that the i 
Underdiff has been formed by a succession of landslips. One of these took place in the year 
1799, when a large tract of the high cliff, extending to from 80 to 90 acres, near Niton, waa,OQ 
a sudden, seen sinking and sliding towards the sea. Another of these landslips happened in the . 
whiter of 181(V-1811, doae to BonchunA, and there was another in 1818. Sir Jamea Churk is 
of oi^nion, that Torquay, in Devonshire, and the Underdiff, in the Isle of Wight, are the twe 
places on the English coast best suited to penons threatened with consumption. 



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ISLE OP WIGHT.— LUSCOMBB CHINE.-THE NEEDLES. 71 

and suUime. A large and commodious hotel stands immediately at the head of 
the chasm. A short distance from this is the pretty village of Niton, at the foot 
of St Catherine''s Down, where there is a comfortable little inn, which may serve 
as a resting place and centre of observation for days, as all the most beautiful 
«id striking scenes of the island are within short distances. 

Returning to Ventnor, a short distance to the east, is Bonchurch, a lovely spot 
abounding in tasteful villas* The little parish church is of Saxon or early Nor- 
num constiruction. The Undercliff commences at Bonchurch, and the tract be- 
tween this place and Niton is by far the most interesting part of the island. A 
short way far on is Luscombe Chine, and about a mile beyond it is Shanklin 
Chine,* the most beautiful and most frequently visited of all those ciuious rar 
vines, which form one of the most characteristic features of the coast of this island. 
Its appearance from below is as if the solid cliff had been rent in twain from top 
to bottom. The sides of the chasm present a striking contrast, — the one is almost 
perpendicular, with comparatively little vegetation, — the other is more shelving, 
and is shaded with tall trees or wild brushwood, and enlivened by some cottages 
most picturesquely situated. The descent to the Chine is by a rude winding path 
in the sea-clififs, near a quiet little inn. Population of Yentnor 1851, 2569* 

To vary the road the tourist may return to Newport by the villages of New- 
church and Arreton. On the Downs of Arreton are two large sepulchral bar- 
rows, which are generally referred to the period of the Danish invasion. 

Another delightful excursion, and the last we shall notice, is to the north-west 
of the island, in the direction of Freshwater Bay and the Needleaf 

About four miles from Newport is a beautiful spot called Park Cross, which 
combines some of the finest features of a gentle rural landscape. A mile &r- 
ther on is Swainston, the fine country seat of Sir R. G. Simeon, Bart, which occu- 
pies the site of an ancient palace of the Bishops of Winchester. A little beyond is 
the small village of Calboum, with its antiquated little church, and near it is West- 
over, the fine mansion of the Hon. W. H. A. A*Court Holmes. Passing through 
t succession of shelving downs and quiet valleys we reach the river Yar, on the 
opposite bank of which is Freshwater village, the birth-place of the celebrated 
philosopher. Dr. Robert Hooke. At the western extremity of the singular pen- 
insula formed by the Yar are the Needles, and the stupendous rocks and cliffs of 
Scratchell's, Alum and Tolland Bays. The Yar takes its rise just behind a creek 
called Freshwater Gate, in the centre of Freshwater Bay, and running due north, 
right across this end of the island, falls into the Solent Strait at Yarmouth. 
Near Freshwater is Norton Lodge, the seat of Admiral Sir G. £. Hamond, Bart., 
K.C.B. In Freshwater Bay there are two very remarkable isolated rocks — one 

• Sir Richard Worsley says the term " chine" is applied to the backbone of an animal, which 
forms the highest ridge of the body. Hence the word chine may be thought peculiarly expies- 
■ve of a high ridge of land cleft abruptly down. 

t The word Needles is supposed to be a corruption of Nieder/elt, and signifies UnderdifiV, 
thus showing that precisely the same process took place with regard to the Needles that is now 
going on at St Catherine's Point— that these rocks were origfaially a landslip which has been 
•aAei. by the action of the sea into its present shape. 



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72 SCRATCHELL'S BAY.— THE NEEDLES.— POBTSMOUTH. 

of rather a conical form, and the other a bold rugged arch, which is now nearly 
600 feet from the cliffs of the island, of which it once formed a solid part. 
Freshwater Cave is a romantic cayem, about 120 feet in depth. The view from 
the interior, looking seaward, is at once curious and beautiful A little beyond 
it are three other caves of less magnitude. Scratchell^ Bay is often visited b j 
tourists. Its towering chalk precipices of the most dazzling whiteness are very 
remarkable for their narrow streaks of black flint, which make them resemble 
" a ruled sheet of paper." The great object of attraction, however, is an im- 
mense cave, which is entered by a magnificent arch 150 feet in height The 
cliifs on this part of the coast are, in many places, 400 feet high, and affi>rd 
shelter to the sea-fowl, which congregate here in prodigious numbers. Scratch- 
all^s Bay is bounded on the north by the celebrated Needle rocks, which are 
five in nimiber, though only three of them now stand boldly out of the water. 
They have been formed by the action of the sea on the sharp point of land at 
the western end of the island. They are white, with a black base, and curiously 
streaked with the alternate strata of flints. The tallest of these rocks, which 
was about 120 feet high, disappeared in the year 1764, its base having been worn 
through by the continual action of the sea. It is evident, that, from the opera- 
tion of the same cause, the present Needles will, at no distant period, wholly 
disappear, and that others will be formed in their stead out of the narrow extre- 
mity of the island. A lighthouse is built on the highest point of this western 
part of the island, at an elevation of 715 feet above the level of the sea. At the 
Needles the tide rises only eight feet, while at Cowes it rises fifteen feet North- 
ward of the Needles is Alum Bay, which derives its name from the circum- 
stance of that mineral being frequently picked up on the beach. This bay pre- 
sents one of the most striking scenes on this coast The cliff on one side con- 
sists of a vast precipice of chalk ; on the other it is beautifvilly variegated by a 
succession of strata of different coloured sands and earths, — ^white, black, red, 
blue, and yellow ; in some parts pure an4 unbroken, and in others blending into 
every variety of tint 

A very interesting voyage may be made round tlje island, and the mhgnificent 
scenery just noticed is seen to much greater advantage from the sea than from 
the land. The order in which the various places along the coast present them- 
selves in the course of this trip, may be learned by consulting the chart which 
accompanies this description. 

PORTSMOUTH. 
From Cowes the tourist may proceed to Portsmouth. The passage between 
these places seldom exceeds half an hour. Portsmouth is 73 miles from the Grene- 
ral Post Office, London, by the old mail road; and 18 miles from Southampton. 
It stands on an island, divided from the mainland by a small creek or arm 
of the sea. This island, called Portsea, is about fifteen miles in circumfe- 
rence, and contains nearly 5100 acres of land of great fertility. The Romans 



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PORTSMOUTH. 73 

kd a station at ^nchester, on its northern shore ; and it is supposed that the 
ILamsa name for a harbour, Portus, has been transmitted to the modem Port' 
duster, Portaea, Portsmouth, Portsdown, and Gosport Portsmouth is first no- 
ticed in the Saxon Chronicle, a. d. 501. Its &Tourable situation as a naval 
menal led at an early period to the works that have since distinguished it 
Richard I. granted a charter to the town ; and it haa lately been ascertained 
that there was a naval station here in the reign of John. Portsmouth was burnt 
I7 the French in the time of Richard II. It was fortified by Edward IV., Ri- 
chard IIL, and Henry YII. ; and in the reign of Henry VIII. became the prin- 
cipal station of the English navy. During the great civil war, the town was 
prrisoned for the Parliament Great additions have been made to its fortifica- 
tum, especially in the reigns of Charles II., William III., and George III. ; and 
it is now believed to be impregnable. The ruins of Porchester Castle are fine. 
(See p. 36.) 

One of the great advantages of this place is that very fine anchorage known 
bj the name of Spithead, which lies about half-way between the mainland and 
the Isle of Wight, but nearer to the latter. It is protected by the high land of the 
Bland from southerly winds, and firom northerly and easterly winds by the main 
knd. The entrance to the harbour of Portsmouth is very narrow, but with suf- 
ficient depth of water for the laigest ships. The channels by which vessels ap- 
pn)ach the mouth of the harbour are conunanded by batteries of such power 
that an enemy's fleet, however strong, would be annihilated before it could reach 
eren the entrance. Within the narrow gut at the entrance, on one side of which 
is Portsmouth, and on the other side Gosport, the water spreads out into a wide 
baan, in which those ships of war that are under repair or preparing for sea are 
riding. About a mile and a-half from the entrance, the water branches off in 
various directions, and, by the help of the tide, is navigable to Famham and to 
Porchester Castle, a pile of antiquity that will reward the curiosity of a visitor. 
As the town of Portsmouth is surrounded with walls, the streets are, for the most 
part, narrow, and consist of houses of inferior appearance. Some of the buildings 
are of ancient date : one especially, in the High Street, is worthy of notice, as 
being the dwelling in which Yilliers, Duke of Buckingham was assassinated by 
Pdton in the reign of Charles I. The walls which surround the town are shaded 
by trees, and afiSord a good promenade for the inhabitants. 

The parish church is a venerable object, and is said to have been originally 
erected in 1220 ; but the chancel is the only part left of the original building. 
Its mterior is very beautiful At the west end is the tower, added in 1693, 
idiich is 120 feet in height The walls of the church are adorned with a variety 
of handsome monuments. In the parish register is to be seen the registration 
of the marriage of King Charles II. with the Infanta of Portugal, 22d May 1662. 
Portsea stands to the north of Portsmouth, and contains the dockyard ani 
the principal establishments connected with it. It is considerably larger than 
Portsmouth, and, like it, is strongly fortified. Outside the fortifications of these 
two towns are extensive suburbs, containing some handsome houses. 



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74 PORTSMOUTH. 

The dockjard at Portsmouth may be regarded as the grand naval araennl of 
Britain, and the head-quarters or general rendezrous of the British fleet The 
dock3rard, accordingly, is the largest in the kingdom, corering nearly 120 acres, 
and every possible attention is paid to its extension and improvement. On the 
land side it is completely separated from the town by a waU 14 feet hig^ ; and 
along the harbour it has a wharf-wall of nearly three-quarters of a mile. Strangers 
are admitted to the dockyard without any formal introduction. 

In the centre of the wharf-wall, &cing the harbour, is the entrance into the 
great basin, the dimensions of which are 380 by 260 feet, and its area 2 4 acrea 
Into this basin open four excellent dry docks ; and on each side is another dry 
dock, all capable of receiving ships of the jargest class. Besides these, there is 
a double dock for frigates. There are also six building-slips, two of which ar« 
ciq>able of receiving the largest vessels. The dockyard contains all the offices 
necessary for the construction and equipment of vessels. The block machinery 
invented by the late Sir Marc Isambart Brunei (the engineer of the Thames 
Tunnel) is especially deserving of notice. The machinery, which is impelled by 
steam, is capable of producing 1400 blocks daily, and supplies the whole of the 
British navy. The number of men employed in Portsmouth dockyard during thfi 
war was considerably above 4000, of whom about 1500 were shipwrights and 
caulkers, the remainder were joiners, smiths, sawyers, sailmakers, ropemakerg, 
&c On the eastern extremity oi the dockyard are the houses and gardens of the 
Commissioner and principal officers of the yard, the chapel, the Royal Naval 
College, and the School of Naval Architecture. The dockyard has several Hmw 
suffered considerable injury from fire. In 1776, it was set on fire by the notorious 
incendiary, Jack the Painter, who was executed for the crime at Winchester in 
1777. The gun-whar^ adjacent to the dockyard, is an immense arsenal, consist- 
ing of various ranges of buildings for the reception of military and naval stores 
and artillery. The small armoury which contains upwards of 20,000 stand of 
arms, is a spacious building, and the great object of admiration. The victual! ing 
department has recently been removed to the opposite side of the harbour. The 
expense of this depository is said to have amounted to half a million of money. 
The storehouses are of vast dimensions. A special object of curiosity at this 
establishment, is the machinery substituted for manual labour in making biscuit. 
A fine new steam corn-mill, recently built at an expense of L.76,000, is also an 
object worthy of attention. On the same side of the harbour is the noble building 
for the reception of sick and wounded seamen. 

Portsmouth and Portsea, with their suburbs, contain nine places of wordup in 
connection with the Establishmeut ; and those of Protestant Dissenters are still 
more numerous. There are also a Roman Catholic chapel and a Jewish styna- 
gogue. 

^ Portsmouth enjoys a considerable foreign and coasting trade. The groai 
amount of custom^ duty collected in 1850 waa L.50A2Q Is. 5d. 



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CHICHS8TSR. 75 

The earliest known charter of the borough was conferred bj Richard I^ but 
the corporation is said to have been estabHshed by Heniy I. It first returned 
members to Parliament 23d Edward L The borough limits formerly included 
the town and parish of Portsmouth, but they were greatly extended by the Re- 
ibrm Act. The enlarged borough returns two members to Parliament 

The population of Portsmouth in 1831 was 8083 ; and of Portsea, 42,306 ; 
together, 50,389. In 1841, 53,058, and m 1861, 72,096. 

On the western side of Portsmouth harbour is the market-town of Qosport 
Early in 1840, a floating bridge was established, which plies across the harbour 
between these places every half hour. The distance is about a mile, and the 
passage is made under ten minutes. A second bridge is intended to be estsr 
btished. The population of the town of Gosp<»*t in 1851 was 7414. 

The tourist may return to London either by the branch railway from Gosport, 
which joins the South-Westem Railway at Bishopstoke, or by the South 
Coast Railway, by way of Brighton. (See chapters xzxiv. and zxzv.) 

At the distance of 17} miles from Portsmouth is the city of 

CHICHESTER, 
an Episcopal residence, and a place of very great antiquity. Chichester is situat- 
ed about seven miles ttom the western extremity of the county of Sussex. Its 
distance from London is 62 miles, south-west by south. It is placed near an 
aim of the sea, on a gentle ^nence, nearly surrounded by the little river La- 
Tsnt Its site is supposed to be identical with that of the Roman R^gnum. At 
the period of the Conquest, it was conferred on Roger de Montgomery, Earl ot 
Alencon, who built a castle within the city walls. This fort was demolished in 
the first year of Henry I., and no traces of it now remain but an artificial mount 
of moderate height During the great civil war, Chichester was held for the 
King by Sir Edward Ford, High Sheriff of the county ; but it was taken by Sit 
William Waller in 1642, after a siege of ten days. The cathedral and bishop> 
pahice, together with several of the churches, suffered severely from the ravages 
of the Parliamentary soldiers. The city remained in the hands of the Parlia- 
ment during the remainder of the war ; and Algernon Sidney was governor in 
1645. 

The city consists principally of four spacious streets, named after the four 
cardinal points, and meeting in one common centre, at which is an ancient oc- 
tangular cross, one of the most elegant structures of the kind m England. Chi- 
chester is surrounded by an ancient stone wall, for the most part in a state of 
excellent repair. Two public walks, planted with fine trees, have been formed 
on the artificial mound of earth thrown up within the walls. The cathedral wafi 
erected in the twelfth century, but has undergone frequent repairs. It is adorned 
^th a beautifril steeple, and contains portraits of all the kings of England down 
to George I., and of the bishops of Selsea and Chichester till the Reformation. 



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76 CHICHESTER.~MroHURST.--PETWORTH. 

Here are also to be seen some finely carved oak stalls ; the chantry of St Richard, 
an exquisite specimen of Grothic workmanship ; and a monument, by Flaxman, to 
the memory of the poet Collins, who was bom in this city in 1720 or 1721, and died 
here in 1756. Chillingworth, famed for doubtmg, was chancellor of this diocese, 
and was buried in the cloisters in 1644. The other buildings worthy of notice 
are, the Bishop's Palace, the Deanery erected by Bishop Sherlock, the (Council- 
room, the Guildhall, formerly the chapel of a monastery, and the Theatre. Chi- 
chester has seven parish churches, several meeting-houses, and charitable institu- 
tions. The present corporation is established under a charter of James I., but it 
has been a borough from time immemorial. It has sent two representatives to 
Parliament since 23d Edward I. a.d. 1295. Population (1831) 8270 ; (1841) 
8512; (1851) 8662. 

At a short dbtance from Chichester is Goodwood, the splendid seat of the 
Duke of Bichmond. It is of an oriel form, consisting of a centre and two wings. 
The principal front is 166 feet long, and each of the wings 106 feet. The park is 
nearly six miles in circumference, and is adorned with fine trees. Races are 
annually held here in July, and much resorted to. The course is singularly 
picturesque. The house contains a collection of valuable paintings and statues. 
The views from difiSerent parts of the grounds are rich and extensive. 

Within the demesnes of Goodwood were lately the ruins of Halnaker House, 
an interesting structure of considerable antiquity ; but of late years it fell so fast 
into decay, that it became unsafe to visit parts of the ruins, and the greater part 
of these have now been taken down and sold. H%lf a mile to the south of Hal- 
naker are the ruins of the Priory of Boxgrove, founded by Robert de Haia in the 
reign of Henry I. The church and the refectory are the only remains of the 
conventual buildings. 

About nine miles from Goodwood is the pleasant watering-place of Bognor. 

Twelve miles from Chichester, on the London Road, is Midhurst, pleasantly 
situated near the Arun. It was an ancient borough by prescription, having re- 
turned representatives to Parliament since 4th Edward II. Since the Reform 
Bill, it has returned one member to Parliament The population of the Pari, 
borough in 1851 amounted to 7021. Near the town, in the midst of a beautiful 
and extensive park, are the ruins of Cowdray House, once the magnificent seat of 
the noble femily of Montagu. It was destroyed by fire 24th September 1793. 
The eighth Lord Montagu perished about the same time in the falls of Lauffen in 
Switzerland ; and his only sister and heir married the late W. S. Poyntz, Esq., 
who erected a new house in the park, about a mile from the ruins. The latter is 
now in possession of the Earl of Egmont From Midhurst a road leads by Hasle- 
mere, Grodalming, Guildford, and Kingston to London. 

About 6i miles east of Midhurst, 12 north of Arundel, 14 north-east from 
Chichester, and 49 south-west from London, is the town of Petworth, situated on 
a branch of the Anm. The church contains the remains of many of the Percies, 
Earls of Northumberland. Close beside the town is Petworth House, the magni- 
fioent mansion of Col. Wyndham, erected by the proud Duke of Somerset The 



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CHICHE8TER--ABUNDEL.-W0RTHING. 77 

interior contains one of the finest collections of books, pictures, statues, and busts 
in the kingdom. Several of the rooms are hung with tapestrj. Here is pre- 
«er?ed the sword used by Hotspur at the Battle of Shrewsbury. The park wall 
is about twelve miles in circumference. The enclosure is beautifully undulated 
and graced with trees of the noblest growth. In front of the mansion is a sheet 
^ water of considerable extent. 

EleTcn miles from Chichester is the town of Arundel, situated on the south- 
em declivity of the South Downs, at the base of which runs the river Arun. It 
i8 56 miles distant from London, and 21 from Brighton. The town was incor- 
porated by charter of Elizabeth, and has returned members to Parliament since 
the reign of Edward I. The Reform Bill took away one of its representatives. 
Arundel is a place of great antiquity, and is mentioned in the will of Alfred the 
Great At the Conquest, the earldom of Arundel was conferred upon Roger 
Montgomery, who made it his place of residence. From the Montgomerys it 
paaeed into the possession of the family of Albini ; from them to the Fitzalans ; 
ind from them, by marriage, to the Howard femily, its present possessors. The 
principal object of attraction is the splendid baronial castle, the residence of the 
Duke of Norfolk. It is of very remote antiquity, and must have existed in the 
Saxon times, as Castrum Harvmdd is assessed in Doomsday Book. It is a quad- 
angular Gothic building, enclosing about five acres and a-half of ground, the 
tails being from five to twelve feet in thickness, and the ground plan very nearly 
membling that of Windsor Castle, with a circiJar keep in the middle, raised on 
amount 110 feet in height from the fosse below on the outside. It proudly 
orerlooks the whole castle, and is a conspicuous object from the surrounding 
country. It is in perfect preservation, but is almost entirely overgrown with 
iTy. The castle has undergone various sieges, during the last of which, in 1 64^-4, 
it suffered so severely from the Parliamentary troops under Sir William Wal- 
ler, that it ceased to be the residence of its noble possessors till the time of 
Charles, eleventh duke, by whom it was restored to its ancient magnificence. Its 
internal arrangements and decorations are eminently calculated to exhibit 
the talent and taste of that nobleman. Among the many specimens of the 
arts with which it is adorned, are several curious paintings of the Howard 
fiunily ; a large window of painted glass in the dining-room ; and the Baron^s 
fiall, ornamented with a painted window of the signing of Magna Charta. Arun- 
del Castle enjoys the peculiar privilege of conferring the dignity of earl on the 
ponesBor without any patent or creatior from the Crown ; a privilege not enjoyed 
by any other place in the kingdom. The Church of St Nicholas, a handsome 
Go^c edifice, contains some splendid monuments of the Earls of Arundel A 
noble town-hall has lately been erected by the Duke of Norfolk. The river 
Aran is £Eunous for the rich and delicate mullet which it produces. It is con- 
nected with Portsmouth by means of the Porstmouth and Arundel Canal Arun- 
del is a bonding port The trade is principally in timber, coal, and com. The 
population in 1861 was 2748. It returns one M.P. 



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78 NEW SHOREHAM->STBYNINO. 

South-east from Arundel, on the coast, is the watering-place of Worthing 
which, from an obscure village, has within the space of a few years risen to 
great popularity as a searbathing place. It is 10 miles west of Brighton, 20 
east of Chichester, and 57 south of London. It possesses ihe advantage of a 
fine, firm, level sand, affording the utmost fiicility for bathing, even in the 
most tempestuous weather ; and opportunities for exercise, either on horse or 
ibot, for several miles. The climate is so mild, that myrtles and fig-trees grow 
in it to great perfection. The scenery in the neighbourhood is remarkably 
picturesque. The town contains a chapel-of-ease and four dissenting chapels. 
The houses, though not Ufge, are commodious ; and it is well supplied with 
libraries, baths, and other accommodations for visitors. Population in 1841, 4702, 
and in 1851, 5370. 

A few miles to the east of Worthing is the borough of New Shoreham, at 
the mouth of the Adur. It has the best harbour on this part of the coast, 
and carries on an extensive foreign and coasting trade. A noble suspension- 
bridge was built over the Adur in 1833, at the expense of the Duke of Nor- 
folk, which has considerably shortened the distance between Worthing and 
Brighton. The church is an ancient and interesting building, supposed to 
have been erected in the twelfth century : it was repaired and beautified in 
18*22. The proportions and decorations of its interior are particularly elegant 
and gracefiil. The borough returned two members to Parliament from 23o 
Edward I. till 1770, when an act passed extending the right of election to all 
persons possessing freehold property to the annual value of L.2 within the rape 
of Bramber, except what is included in the borough oi Horsham. New Shore- 
ham is six miles distant from Brighton, with which town it is connected by the 
South Coast Railway. The population, in 1851, of the Pari, borough was 30,553. 

About six miles to the north of New Shoreham is Steyning, at the foot of a 
hill near the Adur. It was a borou^^ by prescription, and returned two mem- 
bers to Parliament from the 26th Edward I., but is now disfranchised. The 
town has been recently much improved, both in buildings and in general ap- 
pearance. The church is very ancient, and is considered a fine specimen of 
Saxon architecture. In 1841 the population was 1495. In its immediate vi- 
cinity is the insignificant borough of Bramber, now also disfranchised. Here 
are some remains of a castle which seems to have once been a place of great 
strength and size. 

About ten miles from Steyning is the town of Brighton. 



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XXXIV. LONDON TO POBT8M0UTH, BY BBIOHTON AND SOUTH 79 
COAST RAILWAYS, 96 MUet. 




From London Bridge 
to Brighton (p. 23). 50* 



Portslade ; on the 
Downs to the Borthward 
ii the DcTil's Dyke, a vaat 
natoral amphitheatre in 
Ha hills, much resorted 
to by viutoTS from, 
Bi^ton, 6 miles distant. 
The smnmit of the sd- 
jaeent hiU commands a 
■ost extensive, splendid, 
and varied prospect. 

Portslade House. 

Kingston House. 

Buckingham Home, H. 
C. Bridger, Esq. 



nrunber,3 milesdistant, 
on the east bank ; and, 1 
mile beyond, Stevning, on 
the west bank, of the river 
Adnr. 



43i 



40i 



m 



il; 



ON LEFT FROM LOND 



Tunnel under Windmill 
HiU, 20U yards. 

Hove St 

The line here runs na 
jm embankment, with a 
view of the English Chan- 
nel on the left. 



61i 



Sompting. 

Broadwater. 

Cisbury HiU, 2| miles 
dbtant, & the site of a Ro- 
nu encampment. 

Hlghdown HiU, 4 miles 
to the north-west of 
Wwthing (on the summit 
of which Is the tomb of an 

oentric mUler), deserves 
J- visit, on account of 
die beautiful prospect 
which it commands, and 
whidi indudes Chancton- 
bury Waxg, also the site of 
sBofloancamp. 

Castle Goring, Sir 6. R. 
Brooke Pechell, Bart. 

Mschelgrove Park. 
Pding. 



36i 



34 



Southwick St 64} 



Kingston St. Wi 

The line here runs akmg 
the north side of the inlet 
which forms Shoreham 
harbour. 

Shoreham St ^H 



■^ cr. river Adur. 

Lancing St 5B| 



WORTHING (p. 77). 61 
The station is but ashort 
distance irom the town. 
The entrance into the 
latter is remarkably pleas- 
ing. 



Ruins of Aldrington 
church, probably the site 
of the Roman Portu$ 
Adwmi. 



Kingston has a wharf, 
with some trade, and ex- 
hibtu an active appear- 



31i Goring St 

Angmering St 



63} 
66 



Heene. 



Gorh3g. 
East Preston. 
Busth^ton. 



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80 



LONDON TO POBTSftOUTH— Cbn^totiftf. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Badworth Park. 

The town of Anmdel is 
2 milfs distant from the 
station, to and from which 
passenprers are conveyed 
by omnibuses (see p. 77). 

Arundel Castle (Duke 
of Norfolk). 



Tortington. 
Madehurst Lodge, 3i 
miles. 



Walberton House, R. 
Prime, Esq. Slindon 
Lodge, Countess of New- 
burgh. Dale Park, J. Abel 
Smith, Esq. Avisford 
House, Lady ReynelL 



Aldingboume House, R. 
Hasler, Esq. 



Oving. 

Boxgrove 
miles. 



Priory, 2i 



Halnaker House, 3 miles* 



Ooodwood Park, Smiles, 
Duke of Richmond (see p. 
76>. 

Rumbold's Wyke. 

Salt Hill, F.Smith, Esq.; 
Northlands ; Oakwood, J. 
Baring, Esq. ; Stoke 
House, Sir Henry Roper; 
6 miles distant, west 
Dean House, Rev. V. 
Harcourt. 

Funtington. 

Racton. 

Westbome ;--l } mile be- 
yond. Woodlands, and 
Stanstead House. 



il 



264 



25 



234 



21 



Bognor St 

Bognor, 3 miles distant, 
is a retired watering-place, 
frequented during the 
batning 



18 



16 



13 



Arundel and Little- 
hampton St 

■^^ cr. river Arun. 



Ford St 



Yapton St 



Drayton St 

(The point of departur 

for Goodwood). 



CHICHESTER (p. 76). 



Bosham St 



Emsworth St. 




70 



714 



74 



77 



79 



Littlehampton is a re- 
tired and pretty watering- 
place at the mouth of the 
Arun : it is 4 miles distant 
by road from Arundel. 



Bamham. 



Arundel and Ports- 
mouth Canal. 



At Bognor 
Lodge. 



is Arran 



Fishboume. 
Chichester Harbour. 



82 

The village of Ems- 
worth is situated on the 
north side of an extensive 
inlet of the coast, partly 
occupied by Thomey and 
86 HayUng Islands, the latter 
of which is resorted to 
by visitors during thf 
(summer. 



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LONDON TO PORTSMOUTH— Oim«»i««l. 



81 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



WiiUingtOQ. 

BedhamptDD. 

Parfington. 

Porbrook Hcmse. 

Two and a-half miles 

rl Harant is branch 
y (by Cosliam) to 
Fkrefaam, on the €k)sport 
Jooction line (see below). 
Hillsea. 
lingstoo. 

Portsmouth Harbour. 
Pordiester Cantle, rains. 






Havant St. 

Havant is a small anil 
neat market town< Popu- 
lation, 2101. 



Along north side of 
Langston Harbour. 

Enter Portsea Island. 
PORTSMOUTH. 



88 



95 



OK LEFT FROM LOND. 



Adjacent to Portsmouth 
on the south-east is South- 
sea, resorted to as a bath- 
ing-place during the tum- 



XXXV. LONDON TO PORTSMOUTH (GOSPORT), BY SOUTH WESTERN 
RAILWAY, 90 Miles. 



OM RIGHT FROM LOND. 


H 




0*0 


ON LEFT FROM LOND. 




*o 


From Waterloo Road 












The railway between 


16 


to Bishopstoke St. 


74 


Leave main line to 


Bihopstoke and Gosport 






Southampton. 


uiverses a richly wooded 




(p. do). . 


Allington. 


ad raried Uact of coun- 
tiy, adorned with nume- 




Cross valley of Itchen 




Durley. 


rous seats and villager 




by Allington viaduct 
J^ cr. river Hamble. 












Bodey. 


10 


Botiey and Bishop*s 
Waltham St 


80 


Bishop's Waltham, 3| 
miles (p. 40). 
Wickham, im. /p. 37) ; 


Funtley. 




Tapnage Tunnel, 
200 yards. 




near it, Park Place, and 
Rookesbury, W. Gamier, 
Esq. 


Blackbrook, 




^^ cr. Titchfield riv. 




UpUnf'B 'R^ou'^p. .1. 
Beardmore, Esq.— Roche 


Heathfield. 




Fareham Tunnol, 
60O yards. 




Court, Sir J. B. W. Smythe 
Gardiner, Bart. 


Titchfield, 2 raUes. 


5 


Fareham St. (p. 37). 


85 


From Fareham a branch 
railway proceeds eastward 
to Portsmouth,pa8sing (bv 
Porchester and Cosham) 
along the base of Ports- 






Along west side of 




Foxbury. 




Portsmouth Harbour 




down, and round the east 








side of Portsmouth har- 


Bowner. 








bour. The distance f^om 








Fareham to Portsmouth 


Aherstoke. 








by this route is 9 miles, 
making the total from 


Haslar Hosuitel, for the 
inception of sick and 
hrotrnded seamen : it is 




GOSPORT. 


90 


London 9i miles. 




On opposite side of 
harbour is 




Pleetlaiid House; and, 
on opposite side of har- 








bour, Cams House, H. P. 


»«W0 men at one time. 




PORTSMOUTH. 




Delm6, Esq. 



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Sit 



XXXVI. LONDON TO GUILDFORD AND FARNHAM, BY SOUTH- 
WESTERN RAILWAY, 4U MUes. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Leaye main Hne to Win- 
chester and Soutbamptcm. 



Worplesdon. 



Henley Park. 



Branch to Reading, pass- 
ing by FarnboTOUgh St. on 
the South Western line 
(see p. 185). 



Famham CasUe, Bishop 
of Winchester. 



164 



u 



H 



From Waterloo 
Road to Woking St. 
(p. 51). 

Cross small feeders of 
river Wey. 

GUILDFORD (p. 34). 



The line between Guild- 
ford and Ash is also used 
as part of the Reading. 
Guildford, and Reigate 
line (See p. 185). 
Ash St. 

Cross coach road from 
Guildford to Fam- 
ham. 
FARNHAM (p. 37) 






26 



304 



37 



41] 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



Village of Woking, 1ft 
miles. 

Ripley, 4 miles ; near it, 
Ockham Place, Earl of 
Lovelace. 

Send, 2 miles ; near it« 
Sutton Place.— Stock PL 

Clandon Park, Earl On- 
slow, 2 miles. 
Branch to 6odalmine,4m . 

Line of chalk nills, 
forming part of the North 
Downs, here called the 
Ho^'s Back, on the top of 
which runs the coach road 
between Guildford and 
Famham. Near this road 
is Hampton Lodge (H. L. 
Lonpr, Esq.) 

Poyle Park. 

Near Famham is Moor 
Park (see p. 37, 88), and 
1} mile distant, Waverley 
Abbey, the seat of the late 
Lord Sydenham. 



XXXVn. LONDON TO SALISBURY, BY SOUTH-WESTERN RAILWAY, 
96 Miles. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND, 



Hursley Park, Sir W. 
Heathcote, Bart., 2 miles. 

Amfield Wood. 

Timsbury. 

Michaebnarsh. 

MottisfoDt, Bev. Sir J. 
Barker MiU, Bart. 

East and West Tyther- 
ley; near the latter, T^- 
therley House: bevoud, 
Norman Court, C. B. 
Wall, Esq. 

East Grimstead. 

Clarendon Lodge, SirF. 
H. H. Bathurst, Bart, (tee 
p. 42). 

Laverstock House, a In- 
natic aaylnm. 



From Waterloo Road 
to Bishopstoke St. 
(p. 56). 
Chandler's Ford St 

•^@ cr. Andover Can. 
Romsey St. 

^ cr. riyer Anton, 
which condnues to the 
rijght of the line fbr so 
distance. 

Dunhridge St 

Enter Wiltshire, 

Dean St 



SALISBURY (p. 4S). 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



Leave main line 
Southampton. 

Chilworth,!! miles; near 
it, Chilworth House. 
Baddesley House. 

For account of Romsey, 
Be p. 104. 



East Dean. 

West Grimstead. 

Alderbury House. 

Longford Castle (Earl 
of BAdnor), U mile ; and 
near it. New HalL 



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XXXVin. LONDON TO POOLE. WAREHaM, AND D0BCHB8TBB, BY 
SOUTH WESTERN RAILWAY. 141 MUes. 



83 




Bannister House. 
Vreemantle Park, SirG. 
E Hewett, Bart. 



Slurley House, Sir C. 
EBich^Bart. 
MiUbrook. 



T^shrood House, Miss 
Boarae. 



Lyndhuist, 2i in. (p.63). 

Lyndhurst, 3} miles. 
WiHerley House. 

Barley Park. 

Uddings. £. H. Great- 
bed, Esq^ and 2 m. beyond. 
Grant's House, Sir R. P. 
6^ Bart.; further to 
n^t. Horton Park. 

Wimbome Minster. 1 m. 
&Umt. is a nuurket-town 
of great antiquity, situated 
flB the banks or the river 
Stonr. A nunnery was 
otsblished here in the be- 
0iuune of the 8th century, 
« the site of which the 
ainster, or .collegiate 
ikoidi, was afterwards 
featH. Ethelred. brother 
oTKhiff Alfted. was buried 
kre. Pop. 1851, 3295. 
2 DL beyond is Kingston 
Liqr, B(.Hon. G. Baukes. 

If erley House. 

Hmbury House, 2| m. 

iMchet Minster, Sir C. 
£. Scott, Bart. 

South Lytchet House. 

Charborongh House, J. 
9. W. S.£.Drax, E8q.,6 m. 



20 



15 



From Waterloo Road 

to Southampton (p. 

56). 

Pass along shore of 

Southampton Water. 

Blechendyn St 
:^cr.head of South- 
ampton Water at 
mouth of river Test. 

Redbridge St. 
Enter New Forest (see 

p. 68). 
Lyndhurst Road St. 

Beaulieu Road St. 
^^ cr. Jiymington 
Water. 
Brockenhurst St 
Cross Lymington and 
Ringwood turnpike 
road. 
Chnstchurch Road St 

Leave New Forest 
Ringwood St (p. 6*1). 
-^^ cross river Avon, 
and 3 m. beyond, en- 
ter Dorsetshire. 

^^ cr. river Stour. 
Wimbome St 




Lytchet Common. 

Poole Junction St 

Pass along shore of 
Wareham Harbour. 
^^ cr. river Piddle. 

WAREHAM ST. 
I Wareham is a small and 
nndent borough, situated 
tbetwi>en the rivers Frome* 



80 
82 

85 

88 
91 

96 

100 
106 

115 



121 



126 



On opposite bank of 
Southampton Water, 
Marchwood House. 



Ellng. 



Ashurst Lodge. 
Beaulieu (DiSce of Buc- 
deuch), 4 m. (p. 64). 
Brockenhurst Park. 

Lrmington, 4 miles. 
Wallhampton, Rev. Sir 
G. Burrard, Bart. 

Christchurch, 7^ miles 
(p. 62), and near it Sand- 
hills, Right Hon. Sir G. 
H. Rose; and Heron 
Court, Earl of Malmes- 
burv. 

Holmesley Lodge. 



Canford Magna. 
Canford House, Sir J. 
J. Guest, Bart. 



Branch to Foole, 2 m., 
and 5 m. from Poole,Stud- 
land (Right Hon. G. 
Bankes), m the Isle of 
Purbeck. 

Corfe Castle, 4| m. dis- 
tant, is a small town situ- 
ated in the district called 
the Isle of Purbeck. The 



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84 LONDON TO POOLE, WAREHAM, AND DORCHESTER- CwiMnwd. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 


II 


and Piddle, across each of 
which is a bridge. It had 
fonnerly 8 churches, now 
reduced to 3. Here was 
formerly a priory, found- 
ed in the 8th century. 
Much of the day dug in 
the Isle of Purbeck b 
brought to this place and 

sliipped for the Stafford- 
shire potteries. Wareham 
returns one M.P. Pop. of 
Pari. bor. 1851, 7218. 
Along valley of 
river Frome. 

Wool St. 
Moreton St 

DORCHESTER (p. 44). 


fl 


ON LEFT FROM LOND. 


Stokeford. 

Moreton. 
Woodsford. 
Ilsington House. 
Kingston House. 
Stinsford. 


10 
5 


131 
136 

141 


castle fh>m which its nanae 
is derived is now in ruins. 
The inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in the neigh- 
bouring clay -works and 
stone quarries. Corfe Cas- 
tle is now included in the 
borough of Wareham. 
Pop- 1946. Near Corfe 
Castle is Encombe, a seat 
oftheEarlofEldon. 

Holme. 

Isle of Purbeck. 

Bindon Abbey. 

Lulworth Castle, J. 
Weld, Esq., 3 miles. 

Weymouth, 10^ miles. 

West Knighton. 

Whitcombe. 

Came Abbey, Right 
Hon. G. L. Dawson Damer. 



XXXIX. HASTINGS TO ASHPORD BY COACH, and thence to CANTERBURY 
AND MARGATE BY RAILWAY, 62 Miles. 



ON RlUHT FROM HAST. 


hj 


The road trom Hastings 
is extremely beautiful, and 
oonunands extensive pro- 
spects ; it passes over Faii> 
light Down, the highest 
pSrt of which is fi09 feet 
above the sea. 


if 


ON LEFT FROM HAST. 


Fairlight. 

GuesUing. 

Bromham Park, Rev. 
Sir J. Ashburnliam, Bart. 






ImUe beyond Hastings, 
road to BatUe« 5i miles. 




68 


Guestling Thom. 


4 


Westfield, 3 miles. 




56 


Icklesham. 


6 


Udimore, 2 miles. 


Winchelsea Castle, in 
ruins. 


544 
52 


WINCHELSEA (p. 29). 

RYE (p. 29). 

Playden Turnpike. 

^0 cr. river Rother. 


74 

10 




Walling Marsh, and be- 
yond Dunge Marsh. 


46 


^e cr. Kent Ditch, 
and enter Kent 

Brookland. 


16 


Paiifleld. 


To New Romnev 5 
miles; and Lydd7AmtIes. 

Romney Marsh. 


45 


Brenzet Comer. 
Brenzet. 


17 


To Tenterden9J miles, 
by Snargateand Apple- 
dore- 

Tenterden is a small 



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HASTINGS TO ASHFOBD, Ac— Continued, 



85 



OVUGHTFROM HAST. 


1^1 


Snave. 

^e cr. Royal Mili- 
tary Canal, 


I 


ON LEFT FROM HAST. 


IvyChuidu 


43 


li) 


market town, 22 mUei 
south-west of Canterbury. 
Population, 1851,8901. 


RudiiDee. 




eut diiring the late war 
for the purpose of imped- 
ing the progress of an 

Sandgate in Kent, past 
Hythe, and round Rom- 
ney Walling and Dnnge 
Marshes, to the coast near 
Rye Harbour in Sussex. 






Bourne Wood. 




Ham Street 


211 


Longrobe Wood. 


Odestone. 




Bromley Green. 




Shadoxhurst. 


Gflberf • Wood. 


364 


Kingsnorth. 


25i 






34 


ASHFOBD. 

Here join the South 

Eastern Railway, and 

proceed to 


28 









MARGATE, as hi p. 10. 


62 





XL. HASTINGS TO BRIGHTON, CHICHESTER, SOUTHAMPTON, AND 
DORCHESTER, BY RAILWAY, 157 MUes. 



OH BIGHT FROM HAST. 



Brandi to Hayward's 
Heath, on the Brighton 
^ (p. 84). 



, Lewes and Hastings 
Ciini{nke road. 



Lewea race oouTse. 



FUmer. 



From Hastings (St 
1321 Leonards) to Lewes, 
as in p. 26. 

The line between Lewes 
and Brighton passes be- 
tween the ranges of chalk 
hills, with several deep 
cuttings. 



Kingston Tunnel, 
90 yards. 

1281 Falmer St 



241 



281 



ON LEFT FROM HAST. 



Kingston. 



y Google 



86 



HASTINGS TO BRIGHTON, CHICHESTER, Suu—Continved. 



ON RIGHT FROM HAST. 



Stanmer Park, £ari of 
Chicheater. 



The viaduct by which 
the Hastings branch 
joins the main line is de- 
servedly admired : it 
consists of 27 arches, of 
which that which crosses 
the London road is d- 
liptical, with a span of 
50 feet, and at a neight 
above the ground of 73 
feet The other arches 
are semicircular, and of 
30 feet span. The total 
length of the viaduct it 
400 yards. 



Bedhampton, and Bel- 
lont Castle. 

Farlington. 

Purbrook House, 1 mUe. 



Wimmering. 

Southwick Park, T. 
Thistlethwayte, Eiq., S 
miles. 

Nelson's MoDument, on 
top of Portsdown. 



Branch to Salisbury, 82 
miles (see p. 82). 



Slinsford. 



lal 



Falmer Hill Tunnel, 
502 yards. 

Cross Brighton and 
Lewes turnpike road. 

Ditchling Road 
Tunnel, 
60 yards. 

Cross London road hy 
curved Tiaduct, 330 
yards long, and enter 
1244 BRIGHTON. 

Thence by South Coast 
Railway, past Worth- 
ing, Arundel, and 
Chichester, to 
87 Havant St (p. 81). 

The line here runs along 
the base of Portidown, 
447 feet high (aee p. 36). 

83 Cosham St 

81 Porchester St 

78 Fareham St 

From Fareham to 

Bishopstoke (as in 

p. 81). 

67 Bishopstoke St 

61 SOUTHAMPTON, 
(p. 56). 

Thence to Dorchester, 
as in pp. 83-84. 

DORCHESTER. 



la 



ON LBFT FROM HA8T. 



BiigbtoB Barraeka. 



324 



70 



90 



2| miles beyond Ha- 
vant, line to PorUmoutfa 
off (see p. 81). 



Langston Harbour. 
Portsea Island. 

Portsmouth, by roaa, 31 
miles. 

Portsmouth Harbour. 

Pordiester Castle, pro- 
bably the site of a Roman 
station (see p 73). 

Cams House, H. P. 
Dehn6,£8q. 



167 



Came Abbey, Bight 
Hon. 6. L. Dawson 
Damer. 



y Google 



ILL PORTSMOUTH <OR GOSPORT) TO SALISBURY, BY RAILWAY, 87 
42 or 38 Miles. 



OK RWHT PROM PORTa 


IS 
£3 


From Portsmouth to 
Cosham St 


i| 


ON LBPT FROM PORTS. 


Bailway to Chichester, 

13 miles. 


38 


4 


Portsmouth Harbour. 




33 
22 


Thence to 
Fareham St. (p. 81). 

Thence to 
Bi8hopstokeSt.(p.81) 

Thence to 

SALISBURY (p. 82). 

(or by Gosport 

branch). 


9 

20 
42 
38 


Junction of line from 
Gosport, 5 miles. 



XLII. LONDON TO RICHMOND, STAINES, AND WINDSOR, BY SOUTH 
WESTERN RAILWAY, 98Mile«. 




In the distance, Chel- 
sea Hospital, on the 
farther bank of the 
Thames. 

Battersea Park. 



River Thamc8,and be- 
yond, Yillas of Lady Shel- 
ley, Rt. Hon. L. Sulivan, 

Putney College, lately 
osed as a school for en- 
gineers, but now empty. 

On the opposite side 
of the Thames, IHilham 
Palace (Bishop of London.) 



Barnes Elms Park, Lady 
SfaadweU. 

Barnes, i mile distant, 
is a pleasant village on 
tbebanki of the Thames. 



21 



20 



19 



From "Waterloo Road 

to Yauxhall St 

(p. 60.) 



Wandsworth St 

Viaduct across river 
Wandle, 1000 feet 

Putney St 

Putney, which is con- 
nected by a wooden bridge 
with Fulham, on the op- 
posite bank of the Thames, 
was the birth-place ot 
Thomas Cromwell, and 
also of Gibbon the histo- 
rian. Pop. of parish 1861, 

Across Barnes Com- 
mon to 

Barnes St. 



ON LEFT 7R0H LOND. 



A short distance be- 
fore Wandsworth station, 
leave main line to South- 
ampton. 

Handsome and exten- 
sive almshouses of the 
Fishmongers* Co. 

Wandsworth. 



Putney Park, Earl of 
Ripon, and beyond, Wim- 
bledon Common and 
Wimbledon Park, Earl 
Spencer. 



East Sheen. 
Roehampton, 1 mile. 
The Priory (Rt. Hon- 
Sir J. L. Knight Bruce). 



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88 LONDON TO RICHMOXD, STAINES, AND WnUDSOR—ConHnued. 




Kew Gardens, 1 20 acres 
in extent, coatain a choice 
collection of exotic plants, 
and are laid out with 
much taste. The con- 
servatory is the largest in 
the empire. They are 
open to the public, and 
form a favourite place of 
-esortto the people of the 
netropolis. Here are also 
H royal palace, the fa- 
vourite residence of Geo. 
III., and an observatoiy. 

Kew, 1} mile. 



Kew Park. 



Twickenham Park. 

St. Margaret's, Earl of 
Kilmorey. 

Isleworth and Sion 
House (Duke of Nor- 
thumberland), li mile. 

Whitton Dean House. 

Kneller Hall. 

Whitton Park. 

Two miles beyond 
Twickenham station, the 
loop line from Barnes re- 
joins the main line. 

Hounslow, 1 mile dis- 
tant (see p. 97*. Popu- 
lation, 1851, 3514. 

Hounslow Heath. 



14J 



U 



A loop line here branches 
off on the right, and, cross- 
ing the Thames, rejoins the 
main line near Hounslow, 
after pfissiue by Chiswick, 
Kew, Brentford, and Isle- 
worth. 



Mortlake St 
RICHMOND, 

noted for the beaatv of (he smv 
roundinif scenery; the view trom 
Richmond Hill is probably the 
finest in the vicinity of London 
Here the Star and Garter Hotfl 
occupies a renuu-kabl v fine rito*. 
tion, and is fAmous alike for the 
prospect it commands, and tlie 
dinners It affbrds. The view 
from the windows extends over 
a country almost unequalled in 
beauty, and rendered clasitio by 
Pope, and Thomson, and Horace 
Walpole. Richmond Park, one 
of the mo^t charminjr of the 
Roval domains, U much resorted 
to by Londoners. This Park is 
8 miles in circuit, and contains 
nSS acres. Pop. of Richmond 
(it)61)»065. 

J?^ cr. river Thames, 
and enter Middlesex. 

Twickenham St. 

Twickenham, a village on the 
Blidiilesez banlc. of the Thames, 
presents some pretty scenery, 
and possesses interest from hav- 
ing been the residence of Pope, 
whose villa han, however, b«»en 
taken down : the frrotlo which 
he Constructed in the grounds 
still remains, with an obelisk 
which he erected to the memory 
of hix mother. Pope was buried 
in Twickenham church, and 
(here is a monument tu him in 
one of the (ralleries Here too 
is Orleans House, occupied fin- 
some time by the late Kinfr 
of the French while Duke of 
Orleans, and first a reAigee in 
this country. It is now the pro- 
perty of the Earl of KUmorer, 
who has trreatly improved this 
noble residence. Pop. of parish 
;18«l)«aai. 



FdthamSt 




10 



Ui 



15 



Sheen common; and, 
beyond, Riclunond Park. 
In the latter are White 
Lodge, occupied by the 
Ranjcer, H. B. H. the 
Duchess of Gloucester, 
and Pembroke Lod?e, 
held for life by Lord John 
Bussell. 



Here the line skirts 
Richmond Green and the 
remains of the old palace 
of Richmond. 

Queensberry Villa, Sir 
J. B. Dundas, Bart. 



Bichmond Bridge, and, 
bevond, on the Surrey 
siae. Queensberry House 
(Duke of Buccleuch.) 

Marble Hill, Colonel 
Jonathan Peel. 

To Hampton Court, 
through Bushy Park S^m. 

On the farther bank of 
the river, opposite Twick- 
enham, is Ham House 
(EarlofDysart). 

Btuhy Park was occupied 
-r his late Mi^e'V' ^^'>ani 
IV., when Duke of Clart- nee, 
and afterwards by his wid<>w, 
the late Queen DuwaKer 
I( contains a ma«rnific«>nt 
avenue of hor-e^hesnut 
trees, planteil under the di- 
rection of WUUam ill. 

Strawbernr Hill, 1 n 
once the residence of Horace 
Walpole (Karl of Orford). 
whose celebrated collection 
of paintintcB. sculptures, and 
TanoQS otjeou of interest, 
was dispersed by public auc 
(ion in 18«S. si the instance 
Of (he flh £«rl Waldegnre. 

Hanworth Park, 1 mile. 

Kenton Park, 2 miles. 



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LONDON TO RICHMOND, STAINES, AND WINDSOR— ConMnwd. 



80 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 


il 




g| 


ON LEFT PROM LOND 


SntBedfbnt 








Feltham Park. 


Stanwen, U m. ; and 
StanweU Place, Sir J. 










6ibboM.Bart. 


8 


Adiford St 
Over Shortwood 


18 


Ashford Lodge. 


8t«ineg is a market town 




conmion. 






on the banks of the 










Thames, near the western 


6J 


STAINES. 


191 


Laleham,Earl of Lucan. 


boundary of Middlesex 




Duncroft House. 


An ancient stone near the 










djurch, which bears the 
date of 1280, marks the 
Bmit of the jurisdiction 
powessed by the corpora- 




■^^ cr river Coin, 




On the opposite side of 
the Thames is Egham, 
and near it the famous 

R.iinnPTnPflp. n aYinrf Aia- 


tion of London over that 
portion of the Thames 




and enter Bucking- 


I tance beyond which is an 1 
Island hi the river (called 1 


vhich is to the westward 




hamshire. 


ofthemetropoUs. Popw 






Magna Charta Island).! 


ktion of town (1851) 
«30. 


4 


Wraysbury (or 
Wyrardisbury) St. 


22 


where the y^rtat charter 
was signed in 1215. 
Old Windsor. 


Horton. 










Ditton Park, lady 


2 


Datchet St 


24 


The villas of Datchet b si- 


Uontagn. 






Itaated amongut beautiftil mea- 
.dowM. The admirer of Shiik- 
' tpew^ wlU naturally aaMdate 
with thii place the immortal 






j^cr. river Thames. 


Eton, (see pp. 90 and 

98) 




WINDSOR. 


no humorous retaliation of the 
^0 |"JtterryWiTe8 of Windsor." 

1 



Windsor is an ancient borough situated on the south bank of the Thames, 16 
miles east of Reading, and 22 miles distant from London by the load through 
Brentford, Hounslow, and Cohibrook. It possesses an ancient church, a theatre, 
barracks, and a good free school, and returns two members to Parliament The 
town has no manufactures, and possesses in itself little to interest the stranger ; 
but the attractions of the adjacent castle make it the frequent resort of visitors^ 
specially since the facility of communication afforded by the opening of the 
nUwayg. Population, 1861, 9596. 

Windsor Castle has been the principal seat of British royalty for nearly eight 
eenturiea The Saxon kings had a palace at Old Windsor long previous to the 
Conquest The present castle was founded by William the Conqueror, but was 
almost rebuilt by Edward III., with the assistance of the celebrated William of 
Wykeham, who was made clerk of the works. Great alterations were made by 
Sir Jeffry WyatviUe during the reign of George IV. St George's Chapel is a 
^lendid specimen of florid Gothic architecture. It contains the stalls of the 
Knights of the Garter; and here the ceremony of installation takes place. At 
the east end of the chapel is the royal vault, where the remains of George III. 
and his Queen, George IV., the Princess Charlote, the Duke of Kent, the Duke 
of York, William IV. and his Queen, &c., are deposited. Edward IV. and his 
Queen. Henry VI., Henry VIII. and Jane Seymour, and Charles I., are also 



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90 WINDSOR.-ETON. 

interred here. The monmnent to the Princess Charlotte is particularly fine, and 
the tombs of the Beaufort fomily are very gorgeous. The keep or round tower in 
the centre of the castle is perhaps the most remarkable part of the building. 
Here James I. of Scotland was confined. The terrace is supposed to be the 
noblest walk of its kind in Europe. A fine flight of steps leads firom the east 
terrace to the new garden, a beautiful spot, adorned wi^h many statues, both of 
bronze and marble. The little park which extends round the east and north sides 
of the castle is about four miles in circumferenc^. Here is the tree supposed to 
be <* Heme's Oak," immortalised by Shakspeare. The great park is situated on 
the south side of the castle, and includes the beautiful avenue of trees, nearly three 
miles in length, called the Long Walk. It is terminated by the colossal eques- 
trian statue of George III., in bronze, by Westmacott. The drive through the 
park to Virginia Water is exceedingly striking. The interior of the Castle is 
remarkably magnificent The corridor or gallery, 520 feet in length, which 
leads along the south and east sides of the court, and is richly adorned with 
bronzes, marbles, pictures, &c., excites great admiration. The state-rooms are 
fitted up in a very superb style, and the difiierent apartments are adorned by a great 
number of paintings by the most eminent masters. These can be seen by any one 
possessing an order, which is easily procurable in London, at the shop of Messrs. 
Colnaghie, printsellers, Pall-Mail, East. Her Majesty's private apartments can 
only be seen during the absence of the Court firom Windsor, by virtue of a special 
order from the Lord Chamberlain. 

Half a mile firom Windsor is Frogmore, the favourite residence of Her late 
Majesty, Queen Charlotte, and now occupied by Her Royal Highness the Duchess 
of Kent Six miles distant is Ascot Heath, where races are annually held in 
June, under the especial patronage of royalty. 

Opposite to Windsor, on the north side of the Thames, is Eton, celebrated 
for its college, which was founded in 1440, by Henry VI., for the education of 
70 scholars. Besides these, there are generally several hundreds of the sons of 
the nobility and gentry receiving their education there. The total number has 
usually amounted to about 500. The chapel is a fine old Gothic structure, con- 
taining a monument to Sir Henry Wotton, who was long provost of the college. 
At the west end of the ante-chapel there is a beautiful marble statue of the 
founder, Henry VI., in his royal robes ; and there is another statue of the 
founder, in bronze, in the centre of the principal court The library contains a 
curious and valuable collection of books, an excellent assortment of Oriental 
MSS., and some beautifully illuminated missals. Eton was until lately the scene 
of a curious triennial pageant, called the Eton Montera, which is now abolished. 
Amongst other great men who were educated at Eton, may be enumerated Sir 
Robert Walpole, Harley Earl of Oxford, Lord Bolingbroke, Earl Camden, the 
famous Earl of Chatham, Outred the mathematician, Boyle the philosopher. Lord 
Lyttelton, Gray, Horace Walpole, West, Waller, Fox, Cannmg, the Marquis of 
Wellesley, HaUam the historian, and the Duke of Wellington. Pop. of pariah 
(including the college) in 1851, 8796. 



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XLm. LONDON TO BATH THEOUGH MAIDENHEAD, BEADING. NEW- 
BUBY, MABLB0B0U6H, and DEVISES, 107^ MUes. 



91 



OR BIGHT TBOH LOHD. 


II 




i| 


OK LEFT FBOM LOND. ^ 


Hyde Park, Site of the 






Old Brompton. 


CiTBtal Palace. 


106| 


Kensington. 


li 




Kensington Palace (p. 
Holland House, Lord 










lOBJ 


Hammersmith. 


4 




Holland, (p. 40). 


1021 


Tumham Green. 


6 


Chiswlck Hou8e,Dnke 








of Devonshire. Here the 


the Baron BothschUd. 








fomous horticnltural 


Sion HiB House, and 


lOOJ 


Brentford. 


7 


flutes are held. 


Boston House. 




Here are the enormous 




Richmond, 2} miles 


Wyke House. 




distilleries of the late Sir 




distant. (See p. 88.) 


Osterley Park, Earl of 
Jersey. 




Felix Booth, Bart 




Sion House, Duke of 
Northumberland, lies 
low, but is a very mas- 
sive and extensive build- 
ing. Its enormous size 
conveys an idea of 
grandeur, which excites 
a peculiar feeling of res- 


Spring Grove. 


98J 


SmaUboiy Green. 


9 


pect. The park and 
grounds are laid out with 
great taste, and orna- 
mented with a profusion 
ofwood and water. The 
house is said to contain 
366 windows, to equal 
in number the days in a 




97i 


Honnslow. 


91 






(The road here leads to 




year. 






Staines on the left;. 




Worton House. 


Heston and Heston 
Hooae 








Whitton Dean. 
. Whitton Park. 


Cranford Park, Earl 
Rtzhardinge. 


86 


Cranford Bridge. 


m 


Sunbury, 8* miles. 
Hatton. 


Harlington. 
Sipson. 


m 


The Magpies. 


14 


Heath Bow. 
StanwellPlaoe,SIr J. 










Gibbons, Bart. 




93 


Longford. 
.^^ cr. river Cohi. 


13J 






90i 


Colnbrook. 


17 




Iver Grove. 




To Windsor by Datchet, 






lAngiey Lodge, J. 
Jackson, Esq. 




Similes. 




Ditton Park, Lady 


Langley Marsh, and 








Montagu. 


ata little distance, Lang- 
ley Park. 
Wexham. 








Datchet. 


861 


Slough. 


20J 


Upton. 


Stoke Place. 




1 mQe distant is Stoke 




Chalvey Grove. 


Baylis House (Lord 




Poges, where the poet Gray 




Bumham Grove. 


Godolphfai) once the seat 




is buried, and a monument 




Eton and "mndsor. 


of Phmp Dormer, Earl 




is erected to his memory 






of Chesterfield. It is 




in Stoke Park, one of the 






now used as a Roman 




finest seats in Bucks, and 






CathoUc School 




the propertyof the Rt.Hon. 
H. Labouchere. It for- 
merly belonged to the des- 

Pennsylvania. 







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92 LONDON TO BATH THROUGH NEWBURY, &c.-ClMi««iwd. 



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lONDOK TO BATH THEOUGH MARLBOROUGH AND DEVIZEP--Cpia<*M««f. 93 




Bpnhain House* 



WooDuanpton House, 
^sconnt Falinoiith. 
Midgham Hotiiie. 

Dunstan Pazk. 



Shaw was the head- 
QuartOB of Charles I. at 
thelast battle of Newbury. 
In the wainscot of one 
of the rooms is a hole, 
said to be that of a musket- 
ihot fired throu^ one of 
the windows at the King, 
while standini; near it. 

Near SpeeD,Donnin^on 
Castle, famous for its re- 
sistance to the Parliament, 
cud for being the residence 
of Chaucer durm^ the lat- 
ter part of his lim. 

Fleet Park. 

Avington. 
Denfbrd House, O. H. 
Cherry, Esq. 
Chilton Lodge. 

Chilton House, 

To Oxford, 30 milei. 



Somerset Hospital, so 
caDed from its founder, the 
Dudiess of Somerset, for 
die accommodation of the 
widows of 50 clergymea, 
md of 30 laymen. 

littlecott Park, E. W. 
L Popham, Esq. 

Bamsbuiy Manor, Sir 
&. Bxirdett, Bart. 



62 Jack's Booth. 



58 Woolhampton. 

54} Thatcham. 

5U NEWBUBY. 

^ This town waf formerly 
£unou8 for its woollen ma- 
nufactiu«, which gave 
celebrity to John wW 
chomb, commonly called 
Jack of Newbury. It was 
the scene of two dreadful 
actions between Charles 
and the Parliament, the 
King commanding in per- 
son on both occasions. 
Population 1851, 6574. 



47} Halfway House. 
-^S cr. river Kennet 



42} Hungerford 

is situated on the Kennet, 
and carries on a consider- 
able trade by means of 
that river and the Avon 
canal. In the Town-hall 
is preserved theHungerfbrd 
horn, given along with a 
charter by John of Gaunt 
to this town. 

J^ cr. Kennet and 

Avon Canal 

Froxfield, Wilts. 

Cross Ford. 

354 Savemake Forest, 
at the extremity of which» 
on the 1^, is Tottenham 
Park, Marmiess of Ailes- 
bury, who u also the pro- 
prietor of the forest, re- 
markable as the only one 
in the kingdom belongii^ 
to a subject In the pari 
was erected in 1781, by 
Thomas, Earl of Ailes- 
bury, a column in hcmour 




49J 

53 
56 



Sulhampstead Bannto- 
j. 
Padworth, 



Aldermaston Park, W. 
Congieve, Esq. 
WasiDg House. 

Crookham Houae. 

Gxeenham House, J. 
L Croft, Esq. 



60 



64i 



Church S 
Benham Place. 

Hampftead Park, 



Kintburv. 

Barton Court, R. Admi- 
nl J. W. D. Doudas. 



Hungerford Park. 
Inglewood House. 



674 

69 

71J 



Little Bedwin. 

Great Bedwin, 2| miles, 
a small town, of very an- 
cient origin. The church 
is an ancient and curious 
structure, and contains 
many interesting monu- 
ments. P<^. 1000. 



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94 



LONDON TO BATH THROUGH DEVIZBS, &c-<7<mMnued. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



To Wootton Basset, 17 m. 
To Swindon, 11 m. 



Calue is an ancient bo- 
rough, returning 1 M. P. 
Pop. 6128. 

Two miles distant is Bo- 
wood, the noble mansion 
of the Marquis of Lans- 
downe. 2 m. fh>mCabie, 
in a diflferent direction, is 
Compton Basset, the seat 
of G. H. W. Heneage, Esq. 

Round way Park, Ed- 
ward Colston, Esq. 



To Chippenham, lOi ro, 



Rovrde. 



&i 



32} 



301 



274 
261 



26 



224 
184 



of his uncle, Charles, Earl 

of Ailesbury, from whom 

he inherited the estate. 

MARLBOEOUGH, 

•a aDCient town on river Keom 
net, and oonsbthur prindpally 
of one street. It behieflr sup- 
ported by its market and road 
brade. ns remarkable bulld- 
in«;s are, St MarVs Church, St 
Peter's, the Market House, and 
a commodious prison, em^ 
pkgred as a county bridewell 
and gaoL Hie Castle Inn, (on 
site of the Castle, was once 
the residence of the Earl of 
Hertford, and in its grotto, 
Thomson composed his Sea- 
sons. It now constitutes a 
portion of the building of Mari- 
borough College, incorporated 
bj Royal (barter in 18A& 
Marlborough returns two MJP. 
Pop. 1851,Tl9S. 



Fyfield. 
Overton. 

West Kennet. 
Silbury HilL 
Here are the remains of 
British barrow: it is 170 
feet high, its diameter at 
the base is 500 feet, at the 
top 105 feet Near this 
place also, (at Avebury) 
there are the remains of 
one of the most ^^antic 
Druidical mommients in 
the world. 

Beckhompton Inn. 
A road here leads to Bathi 
through Cable, and Chip- 
penham, 24$ m. 



Wansdyke. 



DEVIZES 
is a borough of consider- 
able antiquity, situated hi 
the centre of Wiltshire. 
Its chief ttade consists in 
woollenraanu£u!ture. The 
dmrch of St John's is m- 
terestuig on account of its 
various spedmens of ar- 
chitecture. Devizes re- 
turns two M. P. Pop. 
1861, 6554. 



744 



77 



8li 



84| 
88| 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



To Andover, 23^ m. 
Hanton. 

Bainscombe House. 
Care House, Eev. 1 
Goodman. 
Stowdl Lodge, 



Lockeridge House. 



Kennet House. 



Four miles fh>m Chip- 
penham isCorshamHouse, 
the seat of Lord Methuen, 
celebrated for its choice 
collection of pictures. 



Bishop's Canninn. 
South Broom House, 
R. Parry Nisbet, Esq. 
Potteme. 
EastweU, T. H. Grubbe, 

To Luggershall, 20 m. 

To Salisbury, 22 m. 

To East Lavington, 4 m. 
and beyond. West Laving' 
ton. Lord Chnrchbill. 

Poulshot. 



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LONDON TO BATH THROUGH DEVISES, ka^O(mU$ttted, 



95 



Rl tlHlhllTW ^ 



To Chippenham, 7k m. 

Between MelkBham & 
Cbippenham is Lacock 
AbbCT.theseatof W. H. 
Fox Talbot, Esq. 



Neston, J. B. Fuller, 

Box. 
Sbockerwick. 



Swainswick. 
Cliorlcombe. 



16i 
"J 



If 



81 



Summerham Bridge. 

Melksham 
consists of one long street, 
and the houses are chiefly 
constructed of freestone. 
In the vicinity are two mi- 
neral springs, whose wa- 
ters have attracted much 
popularity. 

Shaw Hill. 

Atford. 

Kingsdown Hill. 



Bathford, Somerset 
A little farther on riglit, 
the Soman road to Ciren- 
cester. 

Bath Easton. 

BATH. 



91J 
96 



99^ 
103 



104 



Seend. 

Seend Lodge, W. H. 
Ludlow Bruges, Esq. 
To Bradford, 6 m. 



Shaw House. 
Cottles House. 

MonktonFarleigh, and 
Monkton Farleign Ho., 



John Long, Esq. 
Warleign House, 



H. 



Skrine, Esq. 

Bathford House. 

Claverton, and Claver- 
ton Ho., G. Vivian, Esq. 

Bathampton. 

107i Bathwick. 



Bath, a city in Somersetshire, is noted for the beauty of its buildings. These, 
wnastmg almost entirely of stone, present a finer appearance than those of any 
other city in England. The river Avon runs through the midst of it. There is 
u elegant bridge over the river, and it has been made navigable as &r as BristoL 
Bath owes its celebrity to its medicinal springs. These must have been discovered 
^ early, as we find that the Romans had fixed a station, and erected baths here 
A Jx 43. Many of these have been discovered in a very perfect state. Their 
Rpatation has continually increased since the middle of the 16th century, and 
invalids now resort to them firom all quarters.* The principal springs are those 
caBed the King's and Queen's. The temperature of the coolest is 97^ of the 
vumest, 117^ of Fahrenheit. The medicinal properties in all are nearly the same, 
^ia also frequented by great numbers for pleasure as well as health. For these 
^ nnmerous public buildings and hotels afford ample accommodation. Of the 
^er the pump-room, beside the King's Bath, and the Assembly Rooms, said to 
^ the best adapted for the purpose of any in the kingdom, are the most con- 
fl>icaou8. The Abbey Church, or Cathedral, is a fine building. It was founded 
^ Bishop King in 1495, but not finished till 1582. It sufiered much on the dis- 
*^ntion of religioos houses, but was restored by Bishop Montague in 1606, 
It has lately been repaired. In the east end of the church Prior Birde's 
^^id presents a beautiful specimen of tracery. Amongst the numerous monu- 
n»ent8, with which in fact the church is encumbered, are those of Sir W. Waller, 

* ^^7s> with all his peculiar quaintness, describes a visit he paid to Bath in 1668. See 
^1 ToL iv, pp. 468-474. Ed. 1851. 



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96 BMDPORD.-TEOWBRI])GE.— WESTBURY.— FROME, 8m;. 

the Parliamentary General, and his wife ; Qoin the actor ; Beau Nash, styled kin^ 
of Bath in his day, and the great improver of the place ;* and Dr. Haweis, one 
of the founders of the Church Missionary Society, claim attention. In a cemetery 
formed out of his own grounds, lies Wilh'am Beckford, the author of Vathek. The 
Guildhall, situated in the High Street, is a noble building. Close to it is the 
market, which is abundantly supplied with provisions of every kind, but espe- 
cially with fish. In Bath there are twenty-four churches and chapels, belonging 
to the Established Church, and sixteeu Dissenting chapels. There are several 
hospitals, alms-houses, and charity schools. There is a well managed theatre also. 
Four newspapers are published here. The city is divided for municipal purposes 
into seven wards, and is governed by a mayor, fourteen aldermen, and forty-one 
councillors. It returns two members to Parliament Bath and Wells form a 
diocese extending over the county of Somerset, and containing 388 parishes. The 
Thames and Severn are united by a canal called the Kennet and Avon, which 
passes from Bath to Newburgh. The population in 1851 was 64,240. 

About 8J miles from Bath is Bradford, the inhabitants of which are chiefly en- 
gaged in the manufacture of fine broad cloths. The church is an ancient edifice 
containing several handsome monuments. Pop. 1851, 4240. About two miles 
farther is Trowbridge, of which Crabbe the poet was rector. There is a monu- 
ment to his memory in the church. It is celebrated for the manufacture of the 
best kerseymeres in the kingdom. Population 1851, 10,157. 

Three miles firom Trowbridge, and 14^ from Batb, is Westbury, a town of con- 
siderable antiquity, with a venerable church containing monuments. Pop. of 
ParL bor. 1851, 7029. Some distance beyond Westbury is Erie Stoke Park, the 
seat of Lord Broughton. Nine miles from Trowbridge, in another direction, and 13 
from Bath, is the large and populous town of Frome, situated on the river of the 
same name. It is noted for its ale. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the 
woollen manufacture. It returns one member to Parliament Near Frome is 
Marston Hall, the seat of the Earl of Cork and Orrery. Pop. of town 1851, 10,148. 

Nearly 12 miles from Frome, and 18f from Bath, is Shepton Mallet, which carries 
on an extensive manufacture of knit-stockings, and woollen goods. The market 
cross, erected in 1500, is a curious structure, consisting of five arches supported by 
pentagonal columns, and adorned with sculpture. Population 1851, 3885. 

About 4^ miles from Shepton Mallet, 18 from Bath, and 17 from Bristol, is the 
ancient city of Wells, forming a bishop's see jointly with Bath. It derived its 
origin from a collegiate church erected in 704. The cathedral is a spacious Gothic 
structure, and is reckoned one of the most splendid specimens of this order of 
architecture in England. The west front, in particular, is much admired. The 
Cathedral is open to the public. In the Episcopal palace Bishop Kidder and his 
lady were killed by a portion of the building falling in during the great storm in 
1703. The chapter house and St Cuthbert's Church are also worth notice. Wells 
returns two members to Parliament Annual races are held here. Pop. 1851, 4736. 

• See Oliver Goldsmith's Life of Nash. 



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OBBAT WBSTBBN RAILWAY tO fiAtH AND BRISTOL. 



97 



About 54 mileB from Wells is the town of Glastonbury, where stood the &moui 
Abbej of that name, one of the richest and most poweifiLl monastic institutions 
in England. The last abbot was hanged on accoimt of his refusal to surrender 
the abbey to Henry YIIL The ruins of the monastery contain the ashes of King. 
Arthur, King Edgar, and many illustrious nobles and prelates, but their monu- 
ments are now de&ced or demolished. The only parts of the monastery in to- 
leable preservation are the chapel of St Joseph, and the abboVs kitchen. In 
the centre of the town stands the cross, a venerable but decaying structure. The 
dnirch of St John is a handsome building, surmounted by a beautiful tower, and 
that of St Benedict is a venerable edifice erected by Abbot Beer. On a hill nortb- 
ent of the town is the Tor or St MichaePs Tower, the only remaining portion of a 
eburcb and monastery whicl^ formerly stood there. The Qeorge Inn was formerly 
uhospital for pilgrims to the shrine of St Joseph. Population 1851, 3125. 

XUV. OBBAT WBSTBBN BAILWAY TO BATH AND BRISTOL, 118i Mikt. 




Proceeding Arom the 
tflnninu^ the traveller 
the beautiful 
of the Kensal 
^««» Conetery, en- 
donng ft space of 60 
Here the Duke of 
vvMVA and the Princess 
Sophia, two of Sir Walter 
Scotf sdauKhtera, Sydney 
Smith, Allan Cunning' 
\am. Tom Hood, be. 8u!, 
WRDoried. 
There is a tower on 
Hill which com- 

a most extensive 

id dianning viewi 
Hanwell ^k. 



lOBtliaUFark. 



1121 



111 



lOH 



HaMS, and beyond, 
ffiBingdon House (The 
[^RUstDeSalis). 



Paddington Station 
is situated near the end of 
Praed Street. It is every 
way suited for the purpose 
to which it is appropriated ; 
and, from its proximity to 
the canal, affords every fa- 
diiW for conveying goods 
to the Thames. 



Ealing Station. 
At some distance from 
the station is the Wham- 
diffe Viaduct, so called in 
compliment to Lord Wharn- 
diffe. Chairman of Com- 
mittee of House of Lords 
on the Incorporation Act. 
The erection is over the 
Brent, and is 900 feet long. 
Hanwell Station. 



Southall Station. 

The railway now crosses 

the Grand Junction CanaL 




6i 



7i 



Kensington Gardens 
and Palace. 



Acton, a suburban pa- 
rish. Berrymead Priorv. 

About a mUe from the 
station, and upon the left, 
is Ealing, a suburban out- 
work of the metropolis. 

Ealing Park, W. Law- 
rence, Esq. 

The Middlesex Lunatic 
Asylum is a magnificent 
building.remarkable both 
for the convenience of its 
arrangement and the en- 
lightenment of its sys* 
tem. 

Heston, 2 miles. 

Brentford. 3 m. Here Ed- 
muud Ironnde defeated tb« 
Danes in 1010. The Chapel oi 
Eaae for New Brentford 
reckoned among its former 
incnmbenta the celebrated 
Dhllologist,' John Home 
Tooke. Foiv 1851,8870. 



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98 GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY TO BATH AND BVlSftOL-ConHnned, 



ON BIOBT FKOM LOXD. 



At a distance on the 
right is Uxbridge, an an- 
cient boroQgh, and pol- 
Iin|; place fur Ididdlesex. 
It IS famous for its com- 
market. It gives the 
title of Earl to the Mar- 
quis of Anglesey. Fop. 
(1861) 8236. 

Chalfont St. Giles 
where Milton finished 
Paradise Lost. 

Stoke, Fa. Rt. Hon. H. 
Labonchere. 

Stoke Foges, the spot 
where Gray finished 
several of his poems. 
Here Sir Ed. Coke enter- 
tained Elizabeth in 1001, 
and presented her with 
jewels to the amount of 
£1000. And at a distance 
Beaconsfield, the resi- 
dence of Waller and 
Edmund Burke. 

Dropmore Lodge. 

Heosor Lo. Ld. Boston. 



1051 



102^ 
100 



i| 



West Drayton Station. 

On the right Iver Court 

and ^er Grove. 



Langley Station. 
Slon^h Station. 
Slough is distinguished 
as the residence of Sir John 
Herschell, whose father, 
the late Sir William Her 
schell, also made many 
of his most important dis- 
coveries here. (See a' 

p.w.) 



18 



ON LEVT raOM LOND. 



Near Arlington are 
some remains of D'Oyley 
House, the seat of the 
famous Henry St. John 
Viscount Bolingbroke. 

Staines. 

At Rnnnemede, near 
Egham, Magna Charta 
was forced from King 
John in 1216. 

Colnbroo)^ a small an- 
cient market-town. 

Pitton Fark, the seat 
of lAdy Mcmtagn, famous 
for its ancient oaks. 

Eton.* (See also p.90). 

Windsor, to which a 
branch line, 3 miles in 
length, is now opened. 
(See p. 89.) 



• Eton College was fbunded in 1440, by Henry VI., for the educatkm of TOscholazs. Beridce 
these, there are generally several hundreds of the scms of the nobility and gentry receiving their 
education there. The total number hasusually amounted to about 500. The chapel is a fine 
old Gothic structure, containing a monument to Shr Henry Wotton, who was lon^" Provost of 
the (College. At the west end of the ante-chapel is a beautifal marble statue of the founder, 
Henry Y I. and in the centre of the principal court is another in bronze. The library contains 
a curious and valuable collection of booki^ an excellent assortment of Oriental MSS., and 
some beautifully illuminated missals, Eton was till lately the scene of a curious tri^iniat 
pageant, called the Eton Montem. It has been discontinued since 1848. Among the 
many great men who were educated at Eton may be mentioned, Sir Robert Walpole, Har<- 
ley Earl of Oxford, Lord Bolingbroke, Earl Camden, the famous Earl of Chatham, Outred 
the mathematician, Boyle the philosopher, Lord Lyttelton, Gray, Horace Walpole, West, 
Waller, Fox, Canning, the Marquis Wellesley, Hallam the historian, and the Duke of Wel> 
lington. Fop. of parish (including the college) in 1851, 3796. 

Two m. (hnn Slough Station is the town of Windsor, on the Thames, haying an ancient 
church, a theatre, barracks, and a good free schooL It returns 2 M.F. Fop. 1851, 9596. 

Windsor Castle has been the principal seat of British Royalty for nearly elg^t centuries. 
The Saxon kings had a palace at Old Windsor long previous to the Conquest The pre- 
sent castle was founded by William the Conqueror, but was almost rebuilt by Edward 
III., with the assistance of the celebrated William of Wykeham, who was made clerk of 
the works. Great alterations were made by Shr Jefi^ Wyatville during the reign of 
George IV. St George's Chapel is a splendid specimen of florid Gothic architecture. 
It contains the stalls of the Knights of the Garter; and here the ceremony of instal- 
lation takes place. Beneath it are the remains of Edward IV. and his Queen, Henry 
VI., Henry VLU. and Jane Seymour, (Charles I., George III. and Queen, George IV., the 
Frincess Charlotte, Duke of Kent, Duke of York, William IV., &c. The keep or round 
tower in the centre of the castle is perhaps the most remarkable part of the build- 
''*•«:. Here James L of Scotland was confined. In the little park is a tree supposed to 



Digitized by 



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GftE/LT WESTERN BAILWAY TO BATH AND BRISTOL— Cbn/tiMi^rf. 99 



be ** Heme's Oak,** immortalised by Sbakspeare. The great park is sitaated on the south 
aide of the castle, and inclades the beautiful arenne of trees, nearly tliree miles in length, 
caDed the Long Walk. It is terminated by the colossal equestrian statue of George III., in 
bronze, by Westmacott. The drive tlurough the park to Virginia Water is exceedingly 
striking. The interior of the castle is magnificent. The corridor or gallery, 620 feet in 
leogth, leading along the south and east sides of the court, Is richly adorned with bronzes, 
marblea,idctnre8, &c. The state-rooms are gorgeously fitted up, and contain many paint- 
ings by the most eminent masters. Tickets to view these rooms may be had in London 
of Messrs. Colnaghi, Fall-mall East. Her MiO^sty's private apartments can only be seen 
dming the absence of the Court firom Windsor by virtue of a special order from the Lord 
Cbsmberlidn. 

Half a mile firom Windsor is Frogmore, the favourite residence of her late Majesty 
Qneen Charlotte, and now that of H. R H. the Duchess of Kent. Six miles distant is 
Afcoot Heath, where races are annually held in June. 



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100 GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY TO BATH AKD BRISTOL-(7ow«ii««t 




41i 



44i 



Coley Park, J. B. 
Moncke, Esq. 
Southcot House. 
Callcot Park. 
Tilehmst. 
Ik'orthcot 
Belle-isle House. 



Parley HaU. 

Basildon Pa., James 
Morrison, Esq. 



^ 



60 



South Bridge. 



Goring ii united by a 
bridge over the Thames 
to Streatley in Berks. 



The road to Oxford 
passes through Walling- 
tord. 

Aston Tirrold. 

North Moreton. 

SatweU. 

BrightwelL 

Arcungton. In the 
church 18 a monument 
to Vernon, the founder 
of the Vernon GaUery. 

Wantage, celebrated as 
the birth-place of Alfred 
the Great; and also ot 
Bishop Buller. Pop. 
(1861) 2951. 

TJfiington Castle, sup- 
posed to be the work ol 
the Britons, afterwards 
occupied by the Romans. 
At a short distance is the 
celebrated figure of a 
white horse cut in the 
chalk hill. Warland 
Smith's forge is auo in 
the neighbourhood. 

Compton House, and 
beyond Ashdown Park 
(Earl Craven). 

Bonrton. 



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GEEAT WESTERN RAILWAY TO BATH AND BJSJSTOL— Continued. 101 




Higliworth, a market- 
tovn. Fop. of par. 4372. 
It is Bitcui^ on an emi- 
jc near the vak of 
the WMte Hone. On 
Bhmsden Castle Hill are 
tbe renudnB of a Roman 
auampmant. NearHlKh- 
worth IS Coleshill, a fine 
mansioa bdcmging to the 
Earl of Radnor. 

Stratton. 

Lj^diard Park,Vi8eoant 
B(riuigbroke. 

Ivy House. 

Bhnkw(Krth. 

Daontsey. 



Christifm Malford. 
LangLey BorrelL 
10 m. to the riffht from 
Chippenham is Malmes- 
biirj,£unoiu as the birth- 
place of William of 
MaimesbuTy, the histo- 
ian, and Hobbes the 
philosopher. 
Himih Park.' 
Gorsham, j^he birth- 
place of Sir Richard 
Blaekmore. Corsham 
House, the seat of Lord 
Methuen, contains a 
splendid collection of 
paintings. _ 

Bath-Easton. The 
tower of its Gothic 
church contains twelve 
bells. 

At a distance, Marsh- 
field, and beyond, Dod- 
ington Park, C. W. Cod- 
ringtoQ, Esq. Farther 
oi^ near Acton TorviUe, 
ai^ 10 miles from Chip* 
PCTrt»M», is Badminton, 
tiie noble seat of the 
Duke of Beaufort. 

KelstoD Park, Joseph 
Neeid,Esq. 

Ke^ham is supposed 
to deme its name from 
K^foee, dauehter of a 
prinee ofBrecknockshire, 

I who is said to have f omid- 
ed the town in a wild 
(brest. 



47 



41i 



m 



ShTiyenhain Station. 



Here the lineproceeds 

Surallel to the Wilts and 
erksCanaL 

Swindon Janction St 

Swindon is a market town 
Wilts, pleasantly slta- 
ated. 
Wootton Basset St 
Wootton Basset sent two 
members to Parliament 
from the 26th of Henry VI. 
till the passing of the Re- 
form BliU, when it way dis- 
franchised. 

Here is an inclined plane 
1 mile 30 chains long. 



24) 



77 



ON LEFT YBOM LOKD. 



lU 



4)hippeDham Station. 
Chippenham is a borough 
by prescription, incorpo- 
rated by Queen Mary, and 
has returned 2 M.P.'s since 
the time of Edward I. Pop. 
1851,6288. 

Corsham Station. 

Box Station. 

Box Tunnel, 
the first on the Kne, from 
London a distsmce of 96 
miles. Its length is 1| 
miles; height, 80 feet; 
width, 30 feet. Box has a 
neat Gothic church. Here 
is a medicinal Spring. 

Bath Station. 



98* 



Swindon Lawn, A. L. 
Goddard, Esq., is a mo- 
dem seat, with a fine 
lawn attached to it. 

Tockenham. 

Lyneham. 

Foxham. 

Rellaways. I 

BremhilL 

Monkton House. 

Six miles to t.e left, 
on the Marian, is the an- 
cient borough of Calne« 
which returns one M.P. 
The church is an ancient 
building with a beautiful 
carred roof. Here, in 
977, the celebrated Synod 
was held to settle the 
dispute concerning celi- 
bacy. Pop. 1861, 6195. 



961 

1011 



106{ 



Twerton Station. 

Saltford Station. 
Eeynsham Station. 

Brislington Tunnel, 
five eighths of a mile in 
length. We next reach the 
Gruid Tunnel, 330 yards 
bug, 60 feet high, and 30 
wide. 

BRISTOL. 



106 

llOf 
113i 



Bowood Park, Marquis 
of LaDsdowne. 

Compton House, G.H. 
Walker Heneage, Esq. 



Prior Pa., once the 
favourite resort of Pope, 
and the property of 
Bishop Warourton, now 

Roman CathoUc Coll. 

Midford Castle. 

Newton Park, W. H. 
P. Gore Langton, Esq. 
In Twerton is the cottage 
of Pielding, in which 
Tom Jones is supposed 
to have been written. 

Hanham, formerly 
Roman station. 

Bitton, fiunons for its 
iron ore. 



y Google 



102 BRISTOL. 

Bristol lies partly in the county of Somerset, partly in that of Gloncester, and 
was by Edward IIL erected into an independent city and a county of itself. 
The riyers Avon and Frome run through it. The ground on which the city 
stands is very unequal. It is nearly 8 miles in circumference, and is supposed 
to cover about 1600 acres. The city, with its suburbs, contains between 700 and 
800 streets, squares, and lanes, 10 markets for various commodities, and upwards 
of 400 licensed public houses. Bristol is a city of great antiquity. It is supposed 
to have been an inhabited place so early as the time of the Roman Invasion* 
About the time of the Norman Conquest, a strong fortress was erected there by 
the Earls of Gloucester, which, after it had stood about six centuries, was demo* 
lished by orders of Oliver CromwelL During the Civil wars, it was garrisoned for 
the Parliament, but was stormed by King Charles, July 24, 1643. After the defeat 
of Charles at Naseby, Bristol surrendered to Fairfax after a siege of twenty-one 
days. During the excitement created by the Reform Bill, Bristol was the scene 
of a violent tumult, in which many lives were lost, and property destroyed to the 
value of nearly £70,000. 

Bristol contains upwards of 20 churches and chapels of ease, besides a consider- 
able number of chapels belonging to various bodies of Dissenters. The cathedral 
was originally a monastery dedicated to St Augustine. The only vestige of the 
original structure is a beautiful gateway. Bristol was erected into a bishop's see 
by Henry YIII., who annexed to its jurisdiction the whole of Dorsetshire^ part 
of Gloucestershire, and three churches formerly in the see of Wells* In 1836» 
the sees of Gloucester and Bristol were conjoined. Seeker, Butler, Newton, and 
other eminent men have hekl the o£Sce of Bishop of BristoL Bishop Warburton 
was once Dean of this cathedral, as was also Dr. Josiah Tucker, the politico-econo- 
mical writer. It was in the church of St Mary Raddifie, that Chatterton pretended 
to have found the papers which he endeavoured to pass off as the MSS. of Rowley. 
The Exchange, erected in 1740-41, cost nearly £50^,000. The city abounds in pub- 
lic schools and in hospitals, alms-houses, and other charitable instituticnis. Bristol 
carries on a considerable foreign trade to the West Indies, America, Newfound- 
land, and also to Spain and Portugal. The net amount of customs' duties for 
the year 1851, was £1,051,892 : 10 : 5. A considerable quantity of foreign pro- 
duce is conveyed to Bristol coastwise under bond. Bristol has also a considerable 
inland trade, especially with the western counties, and with North and South 
Wales. The principal manufactures of Bristol are, glass, sugar, iron, brass, 
copper, lead, zinc, floorcloth, leather, earthenware, tobacco, &c 

The Bristol Docks were formed in 1804-9, by changing the course of the rivers 
Avon and Fnmie, and placing gates or locks at the extremity of the old chan- 
nel They were materially improved in 1849, and the accommodation will 
admit of any extension which the increase of trade may require. The works 
were formed by a proprietary body, at an expense of £600,000, but in 1848* 
they were transferred to the corporation. Amount of Dock dues odlected in 1849| 
£28,699:6:8. 



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BRISTOL. 



103 



Bristol is divided, fbr monicipal purposes, into ton wards, and its government 
is vested in a mayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 councillors. It returns two members 
to Parliament. The population, in 1841, amounted to 140,158, and in 1851, to 
137,328. About a mile from Bristol is Clifton, a beautiful suburb of the city. 
Here are baths, springs, hot wells, assembly rooms, &c. In the neighbourhood 
of Bristol there are a number of fine mansions. 

XLV. BATH TO SOUTHAMPTON THBOUGH SALISBURY, 61 Miles. 



ON RIGHT FROM BATH. 


II 


South Stoke. 


II 


ON LEFT PROM BATH. 




59 


2 


Prior Park. 










Midford Castle, C. T. 




56 


Charterhouse Hinton. 


5 


ConoUy,Esq. 


' 


54 


Norton St Philip. 
^^ cr. Frome Canal. 


7 


Farley Castle, J. T.Honl- 
ton,£sqt 


Ordiardleigli, and Har- 


51 


Beckington. 


10 




iinstcttPark, Locd Folti. 










note. 










Berkeley House. 












50 


Standerwick. 


11 


Standerwick Court. H. 
E.Edgell,E8q. 
Charicott House. 










ieent^^the MarqK 


444 


WARMINSTER, 


164 




a town of great antiquity on 






Bath.ToShaftesbury,16m. 
To Mese, 10 nules; near 




the Will^, earning on a 






it is Maiden-Bradley, a 
seat of the Duke of Somer- 


404 


Pop. 1851, 4220. 
Heytesbury. 


204 


Heytesbury Park, Lord 
Heytesbury. 


set 


39 


Upton LovelL 


22 


Ashton House. 


37i 


Codford St Peter. 


23f 




Stockton Hous^ H. 










Biggs. Esq. 


34J 


Deptford. 


26J 


Two miles distant. Yam- 
bury Camp, an ancient for- 
tification. 




32i 
30 


Steeple Langford. 


28} 






Stapleford. 


30; 






28 


South Newton. 


33 




To ymtan, 11 mUe (see 


26 


St Peter. 


35 




P.28.) 
WiUon House, the cele- 




Fugglestone. 














brated seat of the Earl of 










Pembroke. Itwasformerly 
so abbey for Benedictine 


23i 


SALISBURY (see p. 42.) 


37J 


The College, J. Campbell 
Wyndham,Esa. 
Laverstock Honsef now 


nuns; but at the dissolu- 








tion the site and buildings 








were granted to Sir W. Her- 








ahuatic asylimi. 












of Pembroke. 










Moat House, 


20| 


Alderbury. 


40} 


darendon Park, Sir F. 
H.H.Bathurst,Bart., be- 


Longfoid Castle, Earl of 








yond whii^ is Norman 


Badnor. 








{jourt,C.B. Wall Esq. 



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104 BATH TO SOUTHAMPTON THBOUGH SALlSBTTSLY-CkmHttned. 



ON BIOHT ntOX BATH. 



Alderbory House. 

Two miles distant, 
Trafalgar House, Earl 
Nelson. 

To Sontharanton by 
Shoe Inn, Plaitford, 15J 
miles. To Lymington 
by Cadnam, 2^ miles. 

Melchet Park, Hon, 
and Rev. F. Baring. 

BroxmcNre Park, R 
Bristowe, Esq. 

Embley Park, W. E. 
Nightingale, Esq.; Ower 
Paulton's, Wm. Sloane 
Stanley, Esq. 

BroadlandSy Ylsoount 
Palmerston. 



Lee Park. 



Testwood Home, 
Miss Bourne; Testwood 
Lodge, Sir H. C. Paulet, 
Bart.; Shirley House, 
Sir C. H. Blch, Bart. ; 
and 1 mile farther, Fre- 
inantle, SirG.H.Hewett, 
Bart. 



II 



m 

Mi 
17 



H 



Whaddon. 

White Parish. 

Gowsfidd. 
Sherfield English. 



ROMSET (Hank), 
a lai^ and ancient town, 
watered by the Test or An- 
ton. Sir W. Petty was 
bom here. The church, 
formerly attached to a 
nunnery, is a Yenerable 
edifice, adcnmedwith seve- 
ral monuments. A lai^ 
sum has lately been ex- 
pended in its restoration. 
Pop. 1861, 2080. 
^^ cr. AndoTer Canal. 

Nnrsling. 

Shirley. 

Jnnction of the Road. 

SOUTHAMPTON. 

(See p. 56). 



II 
46| 

4^ 



63i 



57i 



61 



ON LSFT 7E0M BATH. 



Brickworth House. 



Cowsfield House, and 
Sherfield House, beyond 
which is Mottisfont Ha, 
Sir J. B. Mill, Bart. 



To Stoekbiidge, 9\ m. 
To Andover, 18 m. 
To Whichester, 11 m. 



ChDworth Home, J. 
Fleming, Esq. 
Upton Lo^^ 



Bannister Lodge. 
Portswood House. 
Bellevue. 



XLVI. BATH TO POOLE THROUGH WARMINSTER, SHAFTESBURY, 


BLANDFORD, 66} Miles. 


ON BIGHT TKOM BATH. 


II 

40} 


TO WARMINSTER, 

Wilts, (P. 103). 

Crokerton. 


Is 


ON LSFT FKOM BATH. 




16} 






88} 


18i 




Bath. 


86} 


LoUgbridge, Deverill. 


20 




Clouds House. 

To Wlncanton, 11 m. 


30} 


£a8tEjK)yle. 


26} 


8 mfles distant, Font. 
hiU Abbey, Marquis of 


To Sherborne, 16 m. 
Pensbury House. 
Motcombe Ho., Mar- 
quis of Westminster. 








Pyt House, J. Benett, 


26} 


SHAFTESBURT, Dor- 
getshire, (P. 48). 


ai* 


To Salisbury, 20 mfles. 


Iweme House, T. B. 


21} 


Fontmell Magna. 


86} 




Bower, Esq. 
Shroton House. 


20} 


Sutton Waldron. 


86} 




Ranston House, SirE. 
B. Baker, Bart 


19} 


Iweme Bfmster. 87} 


Hanford House, H. 


Steepleton Houee. 


16} 


Stouipain. 


40t 


K. Seymer, Esq. 



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BATH TO POOLE THBOUOH WAXMrntPrEBr-^Joniinued. 



105 



<m UGHT FROM BATH. 


li 


BlandfoEdySee page 43. 


II 


ON LIFT F1U»C BATH. 


Bryanttone Hoiue, Lord 
Pbitman. 
Down Houae. Sir John 


14 


ToSaUsbunr^fSmiks. 
LaugtoD House, 


Jtmes Smith, Bart. 










lb Dorchester, 16 milee. 




1^ cr. river Stour. 








12 


Charlton MarahaU. 


44f 




Qiarboroogfa House, J. 


11 


Spetisbury. 


45J 




aW.8.E.Drax,E8q. 










Lower Henbtuy House. 
Coombe Aimer. 


54 


Corfe Mullen. 


61i 


fm.dist. Kingston Hall, 
W. J. Bankes, Esq. 
Merley House. 


HMier Henbury House, 
W. 0. Paxton, Esq. 












21 


Junction of the road. 


544 


To Wimbome Sfinster, 
3} miles. 


On Brownsea Island, 




POOLE. 


56} 




Brownsea Castle, 









Poole deriyes its name from the pool or bay on the north side of which it is 
sitaated. The harbour is reckoned the best and safest in the channel, and will 
admit vessels of 14 feet draught. Formerly, the principal branch of business 
was the Newfoundland fishery, but the inhabitants are now largely engaged in 
the import and export trade to the Baltic^ America, Portugal, &c Poole has an 
ancient church, several meeting-houses, free and charity schools, besides charit- 
able institutions. It returns 2 members to Parliament Pop. 1851, 9255. Midway 
between Poole and Christchurch is the new watering-place of Bournemouth. 

XLVH.FROM BATH TO WEYMOUTH THROUGH FROME, (SiMUv. 




Marston House, Earl ( 
Cot and Orrery. 



01491 



ToSliapton Mallet, 7 m. 



39} 




BATH. 
From Bath to Beokington, 

seepage 108. 
^^ cr. river Frome. 

FROME 
is a laige and populous 
town, the inhabitants of 
which are diiefly employed 
in the woollen manufacture. 
OneM.P. Pop.1851, 10,14a 



Bruton. 
The objects most worthy of 
notice are the churdi, a 
curious ancient hexagonal 
cross in the market-place, 
the market-houie, the hos- 
pital, and the free school. 
Pop. ofpar. 18U5. 



10 
13 

23} 



Westcombe House, 

To Warminstor, 16i m. 
To Amesbury, 15} m. 
To Hindcm, ia| m. 
To Wincanton, 4f m., 
thence to Sherborne, 9 m. 



y Google 



106 



FBOM BATH TO WEYMOUTH THBOUOH VBOUBr-^otUinued, 




Hadspen House, Bight 
Hon. H. Hobhouae. 
Cadbury Hoiue. 

To Castle Gary, through 261 
Murkford, 11} m., and *'^ * 
'eovU. Sk m. 



Sparl 
Yeov 



8i 

ICaiden Castle, one of| 5) 
the strongest and most 

eztensiye British camps i 

in Bngland* ' 



PitcoBibe. 



Shethome*{DoriaeUik.) 

^^ cr. river Frome. 
DORCHESTER, p. 44. 

Mcrnktoiu 

MELCOMBE REGIS. 
Pop. of ParLbor. of Mel- 
combe and Weymonth, 
1851, 9458. 

■^ cr. riv. Wey. 

WEYMOUTH, 
(See p. 44.) 




At a distance, Redlynch 
Park, Earl of Ilchester. 
To Shaftesbury, 15} m. 



54i 

67 

62} 



62} 



Game Abbey,Rigfat Hon. 
O. L. Dawson Darner. 

Herringston Lodge, £. 
W. imUiains, Esq. 



Lnlworth Castle, J. 
Weld, Esq., 16 m. firom 
Weymonth, is frequently 
▼isited by strangers. 



* Sherborne is situated on a branch of the Teo, which diyides it into two parts, 
called Sherborne and Castieton. In the latter are the mins of a castle, the 
last place that held out for King Charles. The principal object of attention 
is the church, which was a cathedral till the see was removed to Old Sarum in 
1075. It was then converted into an abbey church, and is now one of the finest 
in the west of England, containing specimens of various styles of architecture, 
from the time of the Normans to that of Henry YIL In the south transept is a 
splendid monument to the memory of John, Earl of Bristol, who died in 1698. 
Near this is a tablet with lines by Pope, to the memory of a son and daughter 
of William Lord Digby. Here also Sir Thomas Wyatt the poet was buried. 
The abbey is now occupied as a silk manu£Eu:tory. Pop. 1851, 3878. Adjoin- 
ing the town is Sherborne Castle, the seat of Earl Digby. The centre was built 
by Sir Walter Baleigh» whose £unily were robbed of the estate by James I. 

XLVIIL BATH TO BRIDPORT THROUGH SHEPTON MALLET, ILCHESTER, 
AND CREWKERNE, 54i Miles. 



ON RIGHT niOM BATH. 


It 


Dunkerton. 
Radstock. 


£09 


ON LBPT PROM BATH. 


Camerton Park, J. Jar- 

jett, Esq. 


46} 


4 

7i 


Combhay. 



y Google 



BATH TO BEIDPOBS THBOUOR 8BEPT0N MAILET, &e-M7^<lniie(t. 107 



m RIGHT FROM ,BATH. 


11 


Stratton on the Foose. 


li 


ON LIFT FROM BATH. 


CIifloompton,and Smiles 
dbtaot. Stone Baston, Sir 


43} 


104 




J. 8. Hippesley, Bait. 








Downside. 




40i 


" OakhilL 


134 


^ Ashwlck Grove, R. 


Tb WeUs, '5} mUei, to 
Qlntontaury, 9 m. 


38f 


SHEPTON MALLET 
carries on an extensive ma- 

principal curiosity is the 
market-cross, erected in 
1500. Pop. 1851, 8886. 


154 


Stnichey, Esq. 
To Fxome, 12 m. 


PjDe House. 


36 


Street on the Fosseway. 


18i 




3iDilesdist.King*fWes. 
looHaiue, F. H. Dickiiifon, 


30i 


WertLydford. 


231 






^S cr. river Brue. 










^^ cr. river Yeo. 






Tb Yeovil, iim. 


24 


ILCHESTER, 

on the ■oath bank of the Ink, 


304 






18i 


Junction of the road to 
Crewkeme. 


354 




mntan 8t George, Earl 
PttUett. 
XbCrewkenie«9|m. 


134 


CREWKERNE, 
in a valley watered by the 
Axe and the Parret The 
church is a noble Gothic 
structure, richly adorned 
with carved work. Pop. 
1851,8808. *^ 


40i 


To Chard, 8 m. 
To Ilminster, 8 m. 
To Axminster, 13} m. 
To Lyme Regis, 16 m. 




12i 


Misterton. 


42 






10; 


MoBterton, DoraeUh. 


44 




Pmham. ffir H. Oirlan- 


6; 


BEAMINSTER. 
a town of oonsideiable anti- 


48 


To Dorefaerter, m m. 


te.Bait. * 
XoAxminfter* Urn. 




miity, on the banks of the 
Brit. It has several manu- 
















factories for saiJ-cloth. Iti 
ehnroh is adorned with 
eurious carving, and con- 
tains several monuments^ 
Pop. 1861, 2085. 








H 


Bradpole. 


53 








BRIDPORT,8eep.44. 1541 





XLIX. BATH TO EXETER THROUGH SHEPTON MALLET, ILMINSTER 
AND HONITON, 75 Miles. 



OS EIGHT FBOlf BATH. 


i| 


Dunkerton. 
Badstock. 


II 


ON LBPT FROM BATH. 


Ganertoo Park. 


71 
674 


4 
74 


Combhay. 
Woodbanow House. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



108 BATH TO EXETER THROUGH SHEPTON MALLET, dccv-GonKtHMd 



ON RIGHT FBOM BATH. 



b^ 



East I^imard Park, Sir 
J. D. Paul, Bart. 



Sm. distant, Kinff*iWe8> 
ton Houie,F. H. Dickinson, 
Esq. 



63^ 
60j 

59i 
57i 

55; 

54: 

5ai 



43} 
31i 
16i 



Stratton on the Fosse. 
OakhilL 

cross the Mendip Hills. 
SHEPTON MALLET, 

(p. 107.) , 
Carmard's Grave Inn. 
Street on the Fosseway . 
WraxhaU. 

West Lydford. 

.^g cr. river Brae. 

ILCHESTER, (p. 107.) 

ILMINSTER. 
HONITON,(p. 4a.) 
EXETER, (p. 110.) 



144 
164 

174 

m 

21J 
24f 

311 
434 
584 
75 



.fitratton House. 

Ashwiek Grove, 
Strachey, Esq. 



ON LEFT F&OM BATH. 



L. BATH TO EXETER THROUGH BRIDGEWATHR, AND TAUNTON. 
BH Miles. 



ON BIOHT FROM BATH. 



Camerton Park. 



74i 
73S 



2 miles distant. Stone 70} 
Easton Park, Sir J. ® * 
Hippesley, Bart 

2 mu distant, Chewton 
Priory. 
Haydon Seat. 



To Bristol, 21 mUes. 

U m. distant is Wokey 
Hole, a romantic cavern, 
the approach to which is 
mnarkably picturesque. 



63 

574 

55} 





11 


ON LEFT PEOM BATH. 




Prior Park. Fielding 


Dunkerton. 


4 


laid the scene of the early 
years of Tom Jones at thfi 
place J and its former oc- 
cupant, Mr Allan, ia the 
All worthy of his noveL 


Radstock. 


7i 


To Frome, 7^ milea. 

Woodbarrow House. 

Ammerdown, J. T. Jd- 
liffe, Esq., and near it Har- 
dington Park, Lord Pom- 


Chilcampton. 


lOi 


more. 
Norton Hall. 
Stratton House. 


Old Down Inn. 


12 




Emborrow. 


124 


Masbeiry Castle. 


^^ cr. Mendip Hflls, 






which command fine 






views. 






WELLS, (p. 98.) 


18J 


To Shepton Mallet, 5 m. 


GLASTONBURY, (p. 970 


23} 


To Shepton Mallet, 8im. 


Street 


2Si 


ToSomertoa,7mi]et. ' 



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BATH TO SXETEB THROl^GH BMDGEWATER, SLC^ConHnued. 



109 




1 m. dist Pyrland Hall, 
>irW.W. Yea, Bart. 
roMii)efaead,28m. 
IbWivelisooinbe, 12 



Heatherton Park, A. 
ddr, Esq. 
SoMilTerton, 4 milok 



32i 
30f 

29 
28} 
24} 
23} 



^EokJOOibeOo., P. Bluett, 



loTlferton, 6| miles. 




Walton. 27i 

Piper-8 Inn. 284 

Ashcott. 294 

Over Polden Hill to 

Bawdrip. 354 

-^ cr. river Parret „^, 

BRIDOEWATER, p. II7. 394 

North Petherton. 42} 

Thurloxton. ^H 

Walford Bridge. ^H 

Bath Pool ^8i 

4^ cr. river Tone. 

TAUNTON, p. 118. 504 

Bishop's HnlL 

Rumwell 

Chilson. 
WELLINGTON 

(See also p. 118) 
hM mannfketoriea of earthen- 
ware, serges, and dnurffeta. 
The ehnrch. a handsome Dtdld- 
iu/c of Gothic archHectnre, con- 
tains the monnment of Sir John 
Pophiun, a liheral patron of this 
town, whose honse was garri- 
soned for the Parliament 

in the time of Charles I. 
from this place that the Duke 
of Wellinfrton derives his title t 
and in his domain is alofW stone 
eolumn on Blackdown Hill ovei^ 
looking the town, erected to 
oommemorate his rietories. 
Pop. 1861,3836. 



J91 
171 

131 

12 



To Balli through Ola.- 
tonbur; ud Wdli, 41i m. 



It 

564 
674 



Batt8Hou«ie,SirG.B.B, 
Robinson. Bart. 2 m. diet. 
AmberdHouie. 



Rockwell Green. 

Maiden Down (Devon). 
South Appledore. 

Welland. 

CULLOMPTON, 
(See also p. 118) 
on the Cnlme, carries on a con- 
niderable woollen nuurafactare. 
The church is an ancient and 
Tenerable straotare. consistinff 
of three aisles, one of which is 
a beautiAil specimen of Gothic 
archltectnre. Near the font are 
two enrtouslr carved pieces of 
odb Pop. 1801. 3700. 

Bradninch. 



584 

62 
64 

674 
69J^; 



72i 



Bridwell House. 
Bradfield, B.B. Walrond, 

To Honiton« lOi miles. 



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1 10 BATH TO EXBTEB THBOUOH BBIDGBWATER, ^c,-<kmtiMied 




KUlerton Park. Sir T.D. 
AcliUid»B«rt.>M.P. 



Broad Clist. 

Langaton. 
EXETER. 




Wear H(ra8e.(Sir J. T. B. 
DuckwOTth, iiart.,) near 
Topsham. 

Exeter, the capital of Devanahire, on the bankrf of the Exe, is a large city, ex- 
tending about three miles in circmnfereDce. It is intersected by four principal 
streets, which meet in the centre. A handsome bridge has been thrown over 
the river at an expense of L.20,000. The cathedral of St Peter is a magnificent 
structure, and contains numerous monuments of its bishops and of the Bohun 
and Courtenay funilies. Its western window is much admired, and the Bishop's 
Throne is remarkable for its height and elaborate carving. The north tower con- 
tains a clock curiously ornamented, and an immense bell (the great Tom of Exeter), 
weighing 12,600 lbs., both the gifts of Bishop Courtenay. Near the cathedral 
(and south-east) is the Bishop's Palace, a venerable building. On the north- 
east of the city are the ruins of Bougemont Castle, said to have been erected in 
the time of Julius Caesar, and formerly the residence of the West Saxon kings. 
The guildhall, in High Street, rebuilt in 1464, contains several raluable por- 
traits. A commodious custom-house has been erected on the quay. Northern- 
hay, a public garden, well wooded and beautifully laid out, is the fashionable 
promenade, and commands a series of fine prospects. Formerly, Exeter was the 
emporium of thin woollen goods, such as serges, &c., spun and woven in the 
neighbouring towns, but finished in the city previous to exportation. The in- 
vention of machinery has, however, nearly destroyed these branches of trade, 
with the exception of that to India, which is still considerable. As Exe- 
ter is a kind of metropolis for Devon and Cornwall, it receives the produce of 
these counties in exchange for foreign commodities. The country around Exe- 
ter is very fertile, affording good pasture, com, dairy, and &ttening land, and 
abounding in fruit, e^edally apples, which yield plenty of the best cider. The 
river Exe is so far navigable, that by means of locks, vessels of 150 tons burden 
can come up to the city ; those that are larger remain at Topsham, and the 
largest at Exmouth ; the mouth of the river three miles lower. The diocese 
includes nearly the whole of Devon and ComwalL In Exeter, there is a consi- 
derable niunber of churches belonging to the Establishment ; several chapels 
of ease, and a few dissenting meeting-houses ; numerous charitable institutionB, 
and a neat theatre. The city is divided, for municipal purposes, into six wajrds, 
and is governed by a mayor, twelve aldermen, and thirty-five councillora It 
returns two members to Parliament The markets are held on Wednesday and 
Friday, and there is a good fish-market daily. The population in 1841 amount- 
ed to 31,312, and in 1851, to 40,688. 



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CKEDm)K.-«OUTH M0LT0N.~BABN8TAPLB.-BIDE¥0B]), ke. Ill 

From Exeter to Tiverton is 18 miles— Gredtton, 7}— Chnlmleigh, 21|— South 
Molton, 29^Banistaple, 37i— Bideford, 39^. 

Oediton is an ancient and populous town situated on the Greedy, between two 
Inlls. It has twice suffered severely from fire. The church is an elegant Gothic 
s^ctnre, in which is a beautiful altar-piece. Pop. 1851, 8934. Near Grediton 
are Downes, (J. W. Buller, Esq.) Greedy House, (Sir H. R. Ferguson Davie, Bart.) 
and Fulford Park, (B. Fulford, Esq.) ' 

South Holton is an ancient market and borough-town situated on an eminence 
near the west side of the river Mole. It has a guildhall, a spacious church con- 
taining several monuments and a good altar-piece, a free school, a charity 
school, &c Pop. 1851, 44S2. Between South Molton and Barnstaple is Gastle 
Hfl], the splendid mansion of Earl Fortescue, Lord-Lieutenant of the county. 
Barnstaple is an ancient place situated on the Taw, and is one of the neatest 
towns in Devonshire. Prt^vious to the Gonquest, it was a royal demesne, and is 
said to have been constituted a borough by King Athelstan, who buOt a castle 
here, of which nothing now remains except a high artificial mound. The wool- 
Im trade, which the town once possessed, has declined, but it still carries on a 
trade in timb^, baize, silk stockings, and waistcoats. It has a spacious church, 
a guildhall, a theatre, charity, national, and free grammar schools. The poet 
Gay was bom in the vicinity, and received his education at the grammar-school 
here. Barnstaple returns two members to Parliament. Pop. 1851, 11,871. A 
few miles from Barnstaple is Tawstock Gourt, the seat of Sur B. P. Wrey, Bart, 
beautifully situated and surrounded by extensive woods and grounds. The 
church contains a number of handsome monuments. Eight and a half miles from 
Barnstaple is Bideford, pleasantly situated on the banks of the Torridge, over 
which is an ancient bridge of twenty-four arches. The view above the bridge is 
remarkably picturesque. Bideford has greatly increased in importance within a 
few years, and now carries on an extensive trade. Pop. 1851, 5775. Near the 
town is Moreton House, L. W. Buck, Esq. Thirteen miles and a half from Bide- 
ford is Hartland, a small searport town, bleakly situated on a neck of land cat 
led Hartland Point Pop. of par. 2223. The church, a large and handsome 
Mnicture, forms a landmark to mariners. About 6^ miles from Bideford, and 
45 from Exeter, is Tonington, a populous and fiourishing town, finely situated 
on Uie east bank of the Torridge. A bowling-green now occupies the site of the 
aodent castle. The views from the two bridges in the yicinity of the town are 
extremely picturesque. Pop. of par. 3419. Ten miles and a half from Torring, 
too, and 28 from Exeter, is Hatherleigh, an ancient but inconsiderable market 
and borough town, situated on a branch of the Torridge. The manor anciently 
belonged to the Abbot of Tavistock. Population, 1882. About 21 miles from 
Hatherleigh, and in Gomwall, is Stratton, famous as the place where the Par- 
liamentary forces under the Earl of Stamford were defeated by the Gomish Roy- 
•lista under Sir Beville Granville. Two miles from Stratton is Bude, a conside- 
nble watering-place, Five miles from Stratton is Kilkhampton, where thete is 



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112 



BXETBR TO TEI0NM0T7TH, TORQUAY, AND DABTMOtTTE. 



a fine old church containing several ancient monuments, among others, one to 
the memory of Sir Beville Granville, who ivas killed at the battle of Lansdown. 
The church-yard was the scene of Hervey's ** Meditations among the Tombs." 



LL EXETER TO TEIGNMOUTH, TORQUAY. AND DARTMOUTH. 


ON RIGHT FROM BXBT. 


y 


Alphington. 


feg 


ON LEFT PEOM BXET. 




14 


2 






12 


Exminster. 


4 






9 


Kenton. 


7 


Powderhara Castle (Earl 




7 


Star-Cross. 


9 


of Devon ) , a noble mansion. 


Staplake House, and, 8 
miles distant. Mamhead, 
Sir B. L. Newman, Bart. 


Cockwood. 




adorned with numerous 
paintings. The park and, 
plantations are about 10 










Cockwood House. 




H 


Shutton Bridge. 


11} 




li m. distant !• Lusoombe 


3 


Dawlish. 


13 


Dawlish, a small but in> 
creasing village^ much fre- 
quented for sea-bathing. 


Castle. 




Pop. 1861, 2671. 








TEIGNMOUTH. 


16 


Teignmouth is a town of 






Another road leads firom 




great antiquity, and one of 


The villas in the imme- 




Haldon HiU ; but it is one 




the most fashionable water- 


diate vicinity of Teign- 






ing places on the coast. 






mile longer than the present 




the climate being very 


On the opposite side of 




route. 




temperate. There is a pub- 


the river is the village of 








lic promenade, command- 


Shaldon, much frequented 








ing varied and beautiful 


in summer. 








views. Pop. 1861,6018. 



Eight miles from Teignmouth is the much admired and rapidly-increasmg 
watering-place of Torquay, beautifully situated on the north side of Torbay. 
Here there are several caverns in the clifis, and close to the town is Torr Abbey, 
the seat of R. S. S. Gary, Esq., and in the vicinity is Bishopstowe, a seat of the 
Bishop of Exeter. The port of Torbay is, during war, the principal rendezvous 
of Her Majesty's shipping. 

Twelve miles from Torquay is Dartmouth, a considerable sea-port town, situated 
at the month of the Dart, which here forms a spacious harbour, capable of accom- 
modating 500 saiL The Parish Church, of great antiquii;y, contains a curiously 
painted screen and pulpit. One of the doors is remarkably quaint. The bay is 
one of the most beautiful on this beautiful coast— the banks consisting of lofty 
wooded hills shelving down to the water. The Dart is navigable from this place 
to Totness, a distance of 10 miles, and a sail from the one point to the other will 
charm any lover of fine scenery. The town returns one member to Parliament. 
Pop. 1851, 4508. In the immediate vicinity of Dartmouth is Mount Boone, the 
seat of Sir H. P. Scale, Bart 

Five miles fh>m Dartmouth is the busy fishing town of Brixham, remarkable 
as the landing-place of William III. in 1688. 4^ miles from Dartmouth, near 
Galmpton, is Lupton House, the beautiful seat of Sir J. B. Y. Bnller, Bart 



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in. EXETER TO PLYMOUTH AND DEVONPORT THROUGH TOTNESS, 
47 Bfiles. 



113 




Peamore, S. T. Keke- 
wich. 



43 



Ugbrooke Hoate (Lord 
Clifford), a sapeib man- 
tion of a quadrangular 
form, situated in a very 
beaatifnl park. It con- 
tains a good library and 
a valua^e collection of 
pictures. 

Ogwell House, Col. 
Taylor. 



Dartingtoo Ha, Henry 
Champemowne, Esq., 
prettily situated on the 
rigtit bank of the river 
above Totness. 



There is another road 
leading from Totness to 
Flymonth by Wonton, 5i 
m., New Br. 1 m., Venn- 
Cross, 1} m., Bittaford 
Br. 2^ m., Ivy Br. 2 m., 
thence to Plymouth, as 
on p. 11& 

Venn. 



Modbnry, an ancient 
town, consisting princi- 
pally of four streets. 
Many of the inhabitants 
are employed in the 
woollen trader Pop. 2018. 



35 



32^ 



Lynehom. 



24} 



Alphington. 

AjBDIOrCL 




18 
16i 

13 



lOJ 



Sandy-Gate. 
J^ cr. river Teign. 

Newton-Buahel. 
To Cludleigh, 6 miles. 
To Ashburton, 7^ miles. 

Two-Mile Oak. 

Bow-Bridge. 

^^ cr. river Dart. 



TOTNESS, 
a very ancient town, ^ely 
situated. Here are the re- 
mains of a castle erected in 
the time of William the 
Conqueror. The church is 
a handsome structure. The 
town returns two M.P.'s. 
Pop. 1851, 4419. 
New-Bridge. 
.^^ cr. river Avon. 
Venn-Cross. 



Modbary. 
Another road leads from 
Totness to Modbury 
through Inglebum, Luck- 
bridge, and Brownstone— 
distance equal. 



Sequers Bridge. 

.^g cr. river Erme. 

i^ cr. river Yealm. 

Tealmpton. 

H 



12 



14} 



18 



22} 



29 
30} 

84 



Kenbury. 



Oxton House. 

HaldonHiU, 1618 feet 
above level of the sea. It 
commands a fine view of 
Exeter and other places 
in the neighbourhood, 
and of Haldon House, 
(Shr L. V. Palk, Bart.) 
Here is Castle Law- 
rence, built in honour of 
the late Gen. Lawrence. 

Lyndridge. 

To Teignmouth, 9 m. 

To Teignmouth, 6 m. 

Ford, and beyond, 
Haccombe House, Sir 
W. P. Caww, Bart. 



40 



Pasliaeh, Her. J. Tonce. I 

Mpmblaad Huuse. I 

KlUey, £. R. r. BasUrd,! 

Esq. I 



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114 EXETER TO PLYMOUTH AND DEVONPORT, Sui.—Ooiittnued. 



- 

Oir BIOBT Faox XXKrXB. 


■^1 


Brixton. 

Elburton. 

Plymstock. 

1^ cr. Laira Br. 

PLYMOUTH. 


II 


ON Urr FBOK XZXTXR. 


Howe, Ewl of MorleT. It 
eontaiu » ehoioe pictun- 
Mllerr. Qom to the houM 
rnCbaboiiMeadowisaprettT 
course tued for Plyinoath 
races. 


3 


47 


Coffleet 

Radford, Col. Harris. 



Plymouth, a sea-port town, lies 192 miles in a direct line west-south-west of 
St. Paul's, London, 216 miles from the Greneral Post Office, London, by the 
nearest mail road, and 247 miles by railway from Paddington. It derives its 
name from the river Plym, which here meets the Tamar, forming by then* junc- 
tion an excellent harbour, divided into three parts. The town was incorporated 
by charter in 1438, in the reign of Henry YI. In the reign of Elizabeth a new 
charter was bestowed on the corporation, on the solicitation of Sir Francis Drake, 
who also brought water to the town from Dartmouth, by a winding channel 24 
miles in length. Plymouth suffered much from the plague in a.d. 1579 and 
1581. It again broke out in 1626, and carried off two thousand persons. In 
the civil wars Plymouth embraced the Parliamentary side, and was several 
times besieged by the royalists, but without success. The town is ill laid out» 
and the streets are narrow and inconvenient, except those near the public pro- 
menade called the ^oe. The principal buildings are, the noble Ionic structure 
in Greorge Street, containing the Theatre, Assembly Rooms, and the Royal Hotel ; 
the Athenaeum, the Public Library, the Custom-house, the royal baths, the new 
hospital, the Guildhall, the Freemasons' Hall, the Mechanics' Institute, &c The 
church of St. Andrew is spadous, containing, among other monuments, one to 
the memory of Charles Matthews the comedian. Here are also numerous meet- 
ing-houses, and charitable and educational institutions. Plymouth is one of 
the principal sea-ports in England, and is defended by a citadel and fortifica- 
tions on the mainland, as well as on Drake's Island, &c. The harbour compre- 
hends the Sound and its various arms. The estuary of the Tamar forms the 
harbour for the ships of war, and is called Hamoaze. This noble basin is four 
miles long, has moorings for neariy 100 sail of the line, and is usually studded 
with ships of war. The estuaiy of the Plym, called Catwater, forms another 
harbour, chiefly used for merchant vessels, and is capable of contiuning 1000 sail. 
An Act of Parliament was obtained, in 1840, for the erection of a pier in Mill 
Bay for the accommodation of the largest class of steam-ships at all times of the 
tide. The breakwater, commenced in 1 812« is one of the most stupendous works 
of modem times. Its base is about a mile long, and the top forms a promenade, 
at the end of which there is a lighthouse 68 feet above the level of the break- 
water. Plymouth carries on a considerable trade with the West Indies, the Baltic, 
and the Mediterranean, and coastwise with London and other places ; and there 
is an active fishery, especially of whiting and hake. The imports are timber and 



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EXETEE TO PLYMOUTH AND DEVONPORT THROUGH A8HBURT0N. 116 



West India prodaoe; the exports, manganese to Scotland, wool to Hull, and 
lead to London and BristoL Here are an extensive sail-doth manufactory, a 
sogar-refinery, a glass-honse, a very large soap-Cactory, and a starch-fioctory. 
Races are held twice a-year on Cbelson Meadow, and there is an annual re- 
ga^ in the Sound. In August^ the scenery on the rivers Tamar, Tavey, St. 
Germans, and Yealm, is charming heyond description, and several weeks may be 
most agreeably consumed in excursions from Plymouth. Eddystone Lighthouse 
18 14 miles from the town, and is visible in dear weather. Plymouth returns two 
members to Parliament Pop. in 1851, 52,22L (See also Devonport, p. 116.) 



un. 



EXETER TO PLYMOUTH AND DEVONPORT THROUGH 
A8HBURT0N, 45 MUes. 



ON UOHT FBOM SXETEB. 



Ha]doiiHo.,SirL. y. 
Palk,Bart. 

One-half mile distant 
is Chudlelgh Rock, a 
MTig q ^f iy and romantic 
dif^ which is acurious 
cavern. 

Canonteign ( Visooont 
£zmouth) 2 m. 

GolTer House. 



AshtOQ House. 

Two m. distant, Bagtor 
House and Simdridge 
Park, Lord Cranstoun. 

TO Tavistock, 19 m. 



Buckfost Abbey. 

At a distance Spitch- 
wide 

Bnckland, E. R. P. Bas- 
tard, Iteq., and Holne 
Caiase, a beautiful hunt- 
ing seat of Sir B. P. 
Wrey, Bart. The drive 
from Ashburton round 
the diaae affords a fine 
view of sylvan scenery. 

Stowford, situated at 
the foot of a Mil called 
the West Beacon, from 
the summit of which 
there is an extensive and 
beautiful prospect. 



II 



34 



30 



Alphington. 

Shillingford. 

Clopton Bridge. 

4^ cross river Sen. 

Over Hall-down to 

Chudleigh. 
Here was formerly a Be- 
nedictine monastery, and a 
palace of Bishop of Exeter. 
Knighton. 
Jews Bridge. 
■^^ cross liver Teign. 
Hey-Tor-Railroad. 
Bickington. 
Love-Lane. 

ASHBURTON 
isaneat town, with ahand- 
some church, formerly col- 
legiate. Atone time it sent 
2 M.P.'s but now only 1. 
In the vicinity are tin and 
copper mines. Pop. 1851, 
3482. 

^^ cross, river Dart 

BuckfiEistleigh. 

Dean-Prior. 

Brent, Harberton-ford. 

South Brent. 

^^ cross river Avon. 

Cherston. 

Bittaford Bridge. 

Ivy Bridge, 

beautifully situated in a ro- 

oianticdeUjderivesitB name 

from a bTid^e,with one arch 

covered with ivy, which 

here stretches across the 

river Enne. 

Woodland. 



To Newton-Bushel, 3 
miles. 
Ingsdon House. 
To Totness, 8 miles. 



Dean Church. 



To Modbury, 5 miliis, 



y Google 



116 



EXETER TO PLYMOUTH AND DEVOKPORT, kc.-^CmHnued. 




Blachford, Sir Frederic 

[«er8f Bart. 

Goodamoor, P. 0. 
Treby, Esq. 

Beediwood, R. Ros- 
dew^Eaq. 

Hemerdon Hall, 6. 
Woolcombe, Esq. 

Chaddlewood, Mrs Sy- 
mons. 

Newnham Park, 6. 
Strode, Esq. 

Great Efford,E. Clark, 
Esq. 



11 



CacDeigli. 

3 cr. river Tealm. 
LaeMIU. 



Ridgeway, 

Or to Plympton-Earle, 

38^ miles. 

^^ cr. river Hym. 

PLYMOUTH. 

To Saltash, by the Ferry, 

4} miles. 

DEVONPORT. 



OK LBTT nOM XXSTZX. 



Fonr mfles distant, at 
Brixtoii,Kitley, E.R. P. 
Bastard, Esq. 

Saltram, Earl of Mor- 
ley. See p. 114. 



Devonport owes its present importance to a naval arsenal established here in 
the reign of William III., and called Plymouth Dock till 1824. It was first 
fortified in the reign of George II. ; but the fortifications have since been con- 
siderably enlarged and improved. A wall twelve feet high defends the town on 
the nOTfh-east and south-west; and the heavy batteries on Mount Wise pro- 
tect the entrance from the sea. Devonport is well built, and contains several 
Episcopal chapels, meeting-houses, and schools, a town-hall, a small theatre, an 
assembly-room, a large mechanics* institute, a'^ beautiful promenade, called 
Bichmond Walk, &c. The dockyard is one of the finest in the world, and 
comprises an area of seventy-one acres. It contains many objects of great 
mterest, such as the blacksmith's shop, containing a huge ste&m hammer, the 
rigging-house, the boiling-house, the mast-house, the mast-pond, and the rope- 
houses. Thhiy-two telegraphic stations connect this place with the Admiralty 
in London, but the electric telegraph has almost superseded them. The victnid- 
ling-yard at Stonehouse, completed in 1835, is on a gigantic scale^ and cost a 
million and a hal£ The steam-dock yard lately formed by Grovemment at 
Morricetown, is most capacious, and will repay a visit. Devonport returns 2 
M.P. Pop. in 1861, 60,150. 

Beyond the Crimble Passage is Mount Edgcnmbe, the seat of the Eari of that 
name, a magnificent mansion, finely situated, and commanding most beautiful 
and varied prospects. Every Monday, during the summer months, the grounds 
attached to this charming place are thrown .open to the public, but strangeis can 
obtain admissioa at any time on application. On the Devonport side most 
extensive views of the Sound and surrounding country may be obtained from 
the Blockhouse, an old fortification, or from the top of Devonport cohumu 
Looking across the Hamoaze may be seen Thanks (Lord Graves), and Anthony 
Pai^ (W. H. P. Carew, Esq.) At this point a steam-floating bridge connects 
the counties of Devon and Cornwall. 



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UV. BBISTOL TO EXETER AND PLYMOUTH, BY RAILWAY, 128| Miles. 117 





a a 




Bi 




OK UOHT nU>K BUST. 


ll 


A mile from Bristol the 


M 


ON LXR F&OM BUST. 


Lnng-Asbton, Ashton 


Bedminster. 


Court: and, 2 m. diBtant, 




Bristol and Exeter RaU- 




Dundry, with its bea- 


Leigh Court, W. MUes, 




way branches o£f from the 




con, 700 feet above the 


Gaq., and CoombeHoose. 




Great Western on the 
right. 

Pass through a tnnnd, 100 
yards in length. 




level of the sea, and com- 
manding one of the most 
extensive and beautifnl 
prospects in the west of 
En^d. 

Barrow Onmey. 


FUa-Boorton. 


1201 


NailBea Station. 


8 


Fariey. 
Chelvey. 


At a Utae distance 


116} 


Yatton aevedon Junc- 


12 


Brockley. 


iTom the station la 




tion Station. 






:barleton House. 










Branch to Clevedon, 
i miles, a yilla^^ on the 
chores of the Bristol 




The line, nearly as for 
as Bridgewater, lies along 
the shore of Bristol Chan- 






CbanneL 




fhl and romantie scenery. 






Woris. 




^^cr. therirerYeo. 








118 


Banwell Station. 


16* 


On the left Ues the 
Mendip Hills, with the 
bone caves of Banwell, 




110 


Weston Super Mare 
Station. 

A branch, 1\ m. on the 
right, runs off to the wa- 
tering place of Weston- 
Saper-Mare. 


18i 


and springs of Cheddar. 
Loddng. 
Hutton. 


Bieane. 








Berrow* 








Bleadoa. 


Bnrnham, the scenery 
of which is maoh ad- 












^^ cr. the river Axe. 






mired. 








I^rmpsham. 




lOH 


High1»idge,near Bom- 
ham Station. 
J^ cr. river Brue, 


27 


East-Brent 
South-Brent. 


HnntsfdU. 




to the sea. 






Pawiett. 








Puriton. 
Bawdrip. 




96i 


Bridgewater Station. 


88 










The Duke of Mon- 






on the river Parret. It 




mouth was prodahned 






was incorporated as a 




Khigat Bridgewater,and 






boroosfh by King John, 
who built a castle here. 




lodged some time in tha 








castle. He was defeated 






It has a good coasting 




by the royal army on 






trade, and returns two 




Sedgmoor, near Weston, 
8 miles distant, where 


• 




members to Parliament. 





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118 



BRISTOL TO EXETER Ain) PLYMOUTH— C4Mi/i«««iL 



ION BIOHT TBOM BRISTOL 



North Petherton, and 2 
mUes distant, Halswell 
tf ouse, C. J. K Tynte, 
Esq. 

Nortb Newton. 

St. Michael Church. 

Dniflton. 

West Monkton. 

Hestercombe. 

Cheddon Fltzpaine. 



Stapl^irove. 
Norton Rtzwanen. 
Hillfarrance. 
Nynehead. 



Bnuidi to lirenoa M the 
rifrht i mUes. 

TiTwrtonis • town of eon- 
lidemUe antiqnitj, pleasant- 
ly sUaated on the slope of a 
hill. The principal buiklinga 
are the oastle, ofanrch, and 
free snunmar sehooL The 
oharai is an inteieetiag strno- 
tore^ containing sereral oott- 
1t monoments. The riew 
from the ehareh.7ard is 
strUdaglypleturesque. Tha« 
is an unp<nrtaat lace mann- 
ftu!tory in the town. Tiveiv 
ton retnms two BMmben to 
Parliament. Pop. 1801. UAH. 

Collompton b a market- 
iown of great antigattr. It 
was a demesne of the Saxon 
kings, and bequeathed by 
Alfred the Great to his son 
Ethelward. The ehiorch is a 
large and Tenerable stnws 
tore, consisting of three 
aisles. Near the ftmt are 
two curiously carred pieces 
ofoHk. The tower is a beau- 
tiftil bonding, 100 feet high. 



II 



83| 



7^ 



67} 
65} 



The church is a hindsome 
spacious stractore, and the 
spire tiie loftiest in the 
county. Pop. 1861, 10,817. 
4^ cross riyer Parret 



Approach the river Tone, 
and^en ascend its valley 
to Taunton. 



Taunton Station. 
Taunton, a town of ereat 
antiquity, and one of the 
principal in Somersetshhu 
There are some remains 
of a castle, supposed to 
have been erected about 
700 AJ). Oneofits churches 
is an edifice at great ele- 
gance and splendour, and 
has a beautifully carved 
desk and pulpit. The hi- 
terior of the roof is verv 
curious. Pop. 1861, 14,176. 

Wellington Station. 

Wellington is a neat 
town, and contains many 
good houses. Through the 
inteijacent country mns 
the Preetorian highway, 
called Watling Street. The 
inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in woridng coal 
and lime. (See p. 109). 

About 4 miles tnaa the 
station we enter Devon- 
shire, and pass titrongh 
the principal tunnel on the 
line, five-dg^ths of a mile 
in length. We then de- 
scend through a deep cut- 
ting into the valley of the 
river Culma 

Tiverton Janction 
Station. 

Cnllonipton. 
The principal trade is 
the woollen manufacture. 
(See p. 100). 



44| 



611 



60} 
63 



ON LSn IBOX BBISTOL. 



1000 were killed, and 
1600 taken prisoners. 

Dnnwear. 

The scenery of the 
river Tone, which runs 
on the left of the raU- 
way for above 8 m., is 
very interesting, and in 
some places romantic. 

North Cvary. 

Rushton. 

Taunton sends two 
members Uy Parliament, 
and has a weekly market 
on Wednesday and Sa- 
turday. It was the 
scene of many iniquitous 
executions in the time 
of James U. under the 
direction of Kirk and 
JefiOreys. 

Bishop's Hun. 
Bradford. 

Heatherton Park, W. 
Adair, Esq. 



Burlescombe. 
Uffcuhne. 



We now descend the 
(^me, (lunous for its 
trout and eels. 

Welland. 



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BBI8T0L TO EXETER AND VLmOVm-OonHnutd, 



119 



OR BIGHT VSOH BUST. 



U 



Bndninchi aa old town, 
formeriy of considermble 
note. Pop. 1714. 



Sflverton. 
Alphingtom. 



Shiflingford Abbot, 2 
mflcfl, and Kenbury Ho. 

£zmioster. 



Povderham Castle, 
EailofDevon(p.ll2) 

Kenton. 
Staplake Hoone. 

Mamhead, Sir R. L. 
Neirman, Bart., 2 milea. 

LasGombe, 1^ miles. 
Cockwood. 



HaldonHm, 1818 feet, 
(Kep.llB). 



Biahopstdgnton. 

Lyndridgcu 

Ugbnwke House (Ld. 
Clifford), 2^ m. (see p. 
113), and beyond Canon- 
leign (Viscount Ex- 
nurath). 



Newton Bushel, a 
•mall market town. 



The Hue still oontinaes 
in the valley of the 
Cnlme. 

Hele Station. 

Exeter Station. 

EXETER (p. 110). 

i^ cr. river Exe, and 
continue along its right 
back. 



44} 



40} 



37} 



Starcross Station. 



Contuiue along sea- 
shore to 

Dawlish St. (p. 112). 

Continue along shore 
to 

TEIGNMOUTH (p. 112). 

The line throuehont 
from Exeter to Teign- 
mouth, affords the Tourist 
an endless variety of ex- 
cursions. The peeps of 
the sea and of the sur^ 
rounding counti^, are be* 
yond description fine. 
After reachingTeignmouth 
the line continue^ nearly 
along the north bank of the 
river TeigWChere from one- 
half to three-quarters of a 
mile wide), which it crosses 
before reaching 



Newton St 



67 
76} 



84} 



87} 



90} 



ON LBFT nOX BUST. 



Killerton, Sir T. D. 
Acland,Bait 



Broad Clist, 1( mile 
bevond, Poltimore, Lord 
mtimore. 

T^sham, on the op- 
posite bank of the Exe, 
w situated at the con- 
fluence of the little river 
Clist It has a spadoua 
and ccnnmodious qU'iy, 
and ship-building is car- 
ried on to some extent. 
Pop. 1861, 2717. The 
estuary of the Exe is 
h^e above a mile broad. 

2 m. from Topsham is 
Nutwell Ck)urt, Sir T. 
r. F. E. Brake, Bart, 

CourtUnd, Sir T. 
Roberts, Bart. 

MarpoolHaH. 

Exmoutb (p. 49). 

The Sea. 



H. 



Estuary of the Teign, 
the bridge at the mouth 
of which is the lonj^est 
in the kingdom. It is 
1671 feet in length, and 
consists of 84 arches, 
made partly of wood and 
partly of iron. A swing 
bridge opens in the cen- 
95} I tre to permit the passage 
of vessels. 



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120 



BBISTOL TO EXETER AND TLYUOVTB-'OoitiSmiud, 



ON BIOHT ntOM BBinOL. 


M 


One mile beyond, on 
the left, is a branch to 


i| 


ON UETT ntOM BBISfTOL. 


Stover Lodge, Duke 
of Somerset, 2|m. 








Woolborongh. 




Torquay, 6 miles. 






Abbot* 8 EersewelL 








King's Kersewell. 


Ipplcpen. 








CockingtoA, 2 miles. 


Broad Hempston. 










St&Terton. 
Dartington House, H. 








Berry Pomeroy Casfle 




J^ cross river Dart 




Duke of Somerset, (p. 










Little HempstoD. 
Dartmouth, 8 milef^ 




24 


T0TNE8S ST. (p. 118). 

The line here turns 
westward, and approaches 


104i 


(see p. 112). 

Follaton House, 0. 
Stanley Gary, Esq. 


Ratterr. 

Dean Prior, If miles. 




the elevated region of 
Dartmoor Forest. 




LisbDrne. 




17 


Brent St. 


111* 


South Brent 


BnttertonHilLoneof 








Moreldgh. 


the highest points of 
Dartmoor, 1203 feet 


16 


Ejngsbridge Boad St 


113i 


Kingsbridge, 9 miles 
distant, is a small mar- 


^• 




The line skirts the 




ket-town, situated at 
the head of an estuary, 


Harfbrd. 




south-east extremity of 
Dartmoor. 




which affords a harbour 
for boats. Pop., 1564. 


Stowford House. 












11} 


Ivy Bridge St 


im 


Ivy Bridge (seep. 116). 






'^aduct across the river 






vond. Blachford, Sir F. 




Erme. Seen ftrom below. 






Rogers, Bart. 




this has a very imposing 






Goodamoor, P. 0. 




eflTeot 




Cbaddlewood. 


Treby, Esq. 










Newnham Park, G. 




.^g cr. i^er Yealm. 






Strode, Esq. 










Elfordleigh. 










Boringdon Park, Earl 
of Morley, and beyond, 
Maristow, Sir R. Lopes, 


6 


Plympton St 


1231 


PlymptoB-Earle, one 
mile distant, is a small 
market-town, with a 


Bart. 








well endowed f^ree 


Egg Bnckland. 








scho(d. Sir Joshua Rey- 


Whitleigh. 








nolds was a native of 
this place, and his por- 


Manadon House. 








trait, painted by him- 
self, is contained in the 






Jg>8 cr. river Plym. 




A portion of the Une 
of railway between Exe- 
ter and Plymouth was 
for some time worked 






guildhall. Plympton 








wasdisfranchised by the 




Cross Dartmoor rail- 




Reform Bill, previous to 
which it returned 2 


on the atmospheric sys- 




way. 




members to Parliament. 


tem ; but this has for 








Pop. 933. 


some time been aban- 




PLYMOUTH (p. 114). 


1281 


Saltram House (Eari 


doned. 








of Morley). 



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IV. EXETEU TO TAVISTOCK, CALMNGTON, USKBABD, 121 

LOSTWITHIEL, AND TBUEO, 88| Iffles. 



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122 BXBTEB TO TAVISTOCK, CALLINOTON, LISKBABD* ^e.-^<mtinued 




3 miles diitant is St Cleer, 
.je church of which has a 
lound Saxon doorway. In 
the vicinity is St Cleer's 
wdl and a stone cross. At 
lome distance bejrond is the 
Cheese Wrinff» anatural pile 
of rude rocKs, 32 feet in 
height, resting upon a small 
base. On an eminence at 
lome distance is the Crom- 
Itch or Trerethy stone. 



361 



To Bodmin, 7im. 



To Bodmin, < m. 

1 m. dist Pen^nite, and, 
<m the Fowey nvcr, Bea- 
tormel House, J. Hext, 
Esq., and the rains of Bea- 
tormel Castle, once a royal 
residence, and one of the 
principal seats of the Earli 
of Cornwall. The great 
Lord Erakine was Baron of 
Beatormel, but had no land 
in the county. B^ond 
this is Lanhydrock, T. J. 
Agar Bohartesi Esq. 



LISKEABD, 
an andent and irrKularly 
built town, partly situated 
on rocky hills, and partly 
iaavale. The church is a 
handsome building, erected 
in 1687. The town former- 
ly returned 8 M. P. but now 
only 1. It carries <m a consi- 
derable trade in tairainir. 
Fop. 1861, 6204, 4m. N.W. 
of liskeardis St Neot, hav- 
ing one of the finest parish 
churches in the kingdom. 
It is of date 1480, and oc- 
cupies the site of a monas- 
tery that stood theie in the 
time of Bdward the Gon- 



22 



New Bridge. 
i^ cr. river Lynher 
orStG^mans. 

Stive. 

•^ cr. river Tidi. 

Pengover. 




44} 

47 
48| 



Dobwalk. 

Tap-house. 

4§^ cr. river Fowey. 



LOSTWITHIEL, 61 i 
an andent town, on the 
beautiflil river Fowey, has a 
considerable woollen-trade. 
The parish diurdi, erected 
in the fourteenth century, 
is adorned with a fine spire. 
It was used as a barrack by 
the parliament army, and 
was iiOured by an explodon 
of gunpowder. It ccmtains 
a cunous fimt To the 
south of the church are the 
mina of a building called 
the palace, said to have 
been the rendence of the 
Dukes of Cornwall, but now 
a Stannary prison. The 
borough fonnerly returned 
2 M. P., but b now disftanr" 
iQhiied. Popbllgfi. 



Newton Park. 



To Bevonport by Tor- 
point, 16} m. 

To Soltash, 14 m. 

To St Germans, 9 m. 

The dinrch of St Ger- 
mans was once the cathe- 
dral of the biahoprick of 
CornwalL It contains the 
orinnat prebcndal stalk, 
and several monuments to 
members of the Eliot fa- 
mily. In the immediate 
vidni^, and almost at- 
tadied to the church, is 
Port Eliot, the seat of the 
Barl of St Germans, on the 
lite of an andent priory. 
On the coast, 10 qiiles from 
Idskeard, are the small 
towns of East and West 
Looe, chiefly remarkable 
fiir their nictnresqne ap- 
pearance. Near the former 
u Trenant Park, H. T. 



Auvuuuwv, Kat of the late 
Lord Grenville, containing 
some very curicHufumiture. 
In the grounds is an obelisk 
to the memory of Sir Bich- 
ard Lyttleton. Booonnoo 
was formerly the proper- 
^ of the grandtather ci 

le great Earl of Chatham. 
The church dates its erec> 
tion ttom the time of Henry 
VL 



Pelyn. 5} m. dist. is 
fhe fishing town of Fowey, 
in a higUy romantic ntua- 
tion. llie surronndine 
scenery is very beantifoL 
It was once a place of im- 
portance. The contingent 
to the fleet of Edward II. 
on the expedition to Calais^ 
from Fowey was greater 
in ships than that of any 
other port in the king- 
dom. Near it is MenabiUy 
(W. Bashleigh, Esq.), con- 
taining a most valuable 
collection of minerals. 

Prideaux, Sir J. G. Bash- 
Idgh, Bart, 1 m dist. 



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XZETEB TO TAVISTOCK, CALLIN«TON, TBUBO, Sit.-^JonUnwd, 123 



ON BIGHT FROM BXBT. 


II 


li 


ON LEFT FROM BXKT. 




181 


St Blayzey. 65 




Trevanii^ 


144 


StAosteU 69 


Txcgvri'lOk. 


StMewan. The cfaurch 




(tands almost m the centre 
jfthe county, and has se- 
veral thi nunesand quarries 


8m.di8t.Daporth. 
Penrice. 


of this parish i» very old. 
Hers isahm called Mewan 




rf porcelain earth in its 
isa nandsomefabricand its 








Beacon, crowned with a 






mgalar mass of crags. 




tower is fiEmcifully om»- 
Doented. Pop. 1861 8666. 




Mevafiisseyisone of the 
Oomishlddiig towns, most 
noted for the capture of 




To Meva^flsey, 7 m. 


8 m. dist. Trenazran, J. 


Ihe pilchard. 




i^ cr. river Vinnick. 






12 


High Sticker. 71 


I Hehgan, J. H. Tremayne, 
^iTregony,4| miles. 








GarUimick. 






Penzance. 




n 


Grampound 7^ 


»| 




formerly sent 2 M. P., but 
was disflranchised by the 
Reform BilL Pop. 607* 








Trewithan. . ,, 
8 m. dist., on nrer 7al, 


Lemdlion, and 2i m. 
distant, Ooines, J. Hooken, 
Esq. 


64 


Probus. 7( 
The tower of the diurdi of 
Probus is very elerauit. H 
mile Airther a road leads off 
to Tregony, 3| m. distant. 
It was disfranchised by the 


* G.W.F.Gregor.Esq. 
About 10 m. from Tn^ 
gony is the disfranchised 
KroughofStMawes. The 
castie was built by Henry 
Yin. Opposite StMawes 
is Pendennis Castle, of the 






Refonn BilL Durins the 
hist century both Gram- 






pound and Tregony were 


same period. These two 






remarkable for borough 


castles occnpy very ele- 






corruption. 


vated and strong positions 


Tresillian House. 


3i 


Treollian. 8( 
Here the royal army sur- 
rendered to Fairftx inl646. 


toPalmonth Harbour. Pen- 






dennis contains a small 


TiehaneE.W. W. Pen- 


2 


KiggonMiU. 8 


..depotof arms, and is gar- 
Li risoned by a company of 


danres.Esq. 






soldiers. 


Pcnaie. 




TRURO. ^''^ |8 


Pencalenick. 


Tn|oUs,theMatof Sir 
At a^^noe, LisUs. 




Lambeson. 
H Park. 




Thence to Land's End byi 
rout^ p, 127- i 


3 miles from Truro, on 


Chereyla. 
Croft Vest. 




aonscYiscountFahnouth. 


LVL EXETER TO LAUNCE8TON, BODMIN, TRURO, PENZANCE, AND 


LAND'S END, 123^ MUes. 


ON RIGHT FROM BXBT. 


i! 




|| ON LBJT FROM BXBT. 


Cleave House. 


Barley House. 
WiUow-Hayefc 


HlUmod. 121 




2^ HurstOD. 








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124 EXJfTEB TO LAITKOESTON, BODION, TBUBO, dK.-Cont§nu9d. 



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SXETEB TO LAUNCESTON, BODMIN, TBURO« iec-^ontinuedL 125 




a precipitous and rugged 
had]and,are the ruins of 
TiDtagd, King Arthur's 
"" ; and near it the 
^ fishing town of Boe- 
iooej, which, before the 
Refiinn Bill, returned two 
H.P. Three miles flrom 
Kittagel is the singularly 
lODuntic little town of 



ToSttatton, ISmUes. 

%ci0MliIlick. 



^^ croK, which has 
ben (nnamented with 
■cwOs, is now much de- 
faced by age. 

The manor here once 
bdoDged to the Knights 
Hoipaallera. 

SmilesdiitantliPen. 
»now, seat of Sir W. 
Moteworth, Bart. 
^Ojlquite, D. Hoblyn 
P^,E«q. 

ToCamelford, 12 m. 

To Wadebridge, 8 m. 
vft» it are nine enor- 
now stones caUed the 
SWers.) 

Ijthe vicinity of Ca- 
™td two battles were 
{"^t, one between the 
JttfiM and the Britons, 
"•other between King 
"ftor and Modred, his 
"epfcew. 

Hnules distant is the 
*^t»rt town of Padstow, 
»i the mouth of the Ga- 
ng. It has a consider- 
wie trade in herrings, 
5^<*«rd^ and slates, and 
JJgfectnres serges. Dr 
^"««nx was a native of 
Ojitown. 

atEiioder. 



76i 

74i 
73i 
7li 



m 



69i 



52^ 
44J 




Trebnraey. 

Trerithick Bridge. 

i^ cr. Penpont Water. 

Five Lane*8 Inn. 

Trewint 
Palmer^ Bridge. 

Jamaica Inn. 
Four Holes Cros& 



3 cr. the river Fowey. 
Temple. 



61i BODMIN 

was formerly a place of eon 
siderable importance, and 
contained a priory, cathe- 
dral, and 13 churtmes. Of 
these only one remains, a 
very handsome building, 
containing a curious antique 
font The principal trade 
of Bodmin Is in wool. It 
returns 2 M.P. Pop. 1861, 



Lanivet Ford. 

Junction of the rocd. 
Si Columb, Major. 
3} miles to the right 
St Columb is 246 miles 
firom London. 

Fraddon. 

Summer Court 
Trespcsx. 



46} 

48^ 

49 

51i 



55} 



Trebursey Honse, W. 
A. H. Arundell, Esq. 

At a dist. Trebartha 
Hall, F. Kodd, Esq. 



The road now crosses 
Bodmin moor. 



61j 



On a down fai this neigh- 
bourhood are some monu- 
mental stones, supposed to 
be the remains of aDruidi- 
cal temple. 

Lanhydroc, T. J. Agai 
Etobartes, Esq. 

ToLostwithiel,6miIe8. 



At Lanivet are the re- 
mains of an anciait mo- 
nastic building. 

St Coltunb derives its 
name flrom its churdi, St 
C!olumba. 

At a distance Treken- 
ning. 
70} 

73} 

St Michael, an hiconsi 
, derable, disfranchised bo- 
7 o^ rough. Though consisting 



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126 EXETEE TO LAUVCESTON, BODION, TBUBO, Ae.—CoiUinMtd, 



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Digitized by Google j 



SXETER TO LAUNCESTON, BODMIIT, TBUBO« in^^imtinued. 



127 




OodoUblii Faik, Doke of 
^•dft. Bejond, a» some dis- 
MBoe, h Cnmaaa, the ehnrch 
of whieh oootaiiu mai^ me- 
norUb of the wident iaaOj 
of 8t Aabyn. Their uieient 
MM, Oknrwiee, was 
uUetj burned by 
bat i» BOW rebuilt. 

Mansion ea^oys a pe< 
collar degree of salubri^ 
from its rituiUion at the 
fi»t ofa hill on Mount's 
Bay, by which it ia oom- 
Itletely sheltered from 
eoU winds. At a short 
Instance is St Midbael's 
Mount, an isolated rocky 
QOQtory, which, toee- 
with tne tower of ttu 
efaapeJ erected on its sum- 
vdt* rises to the hei^t of 
ao feet above the levd of 
theaea. The view Ihxn the 
top is inexpressibly grand. 
St Michael's Momit was 
the property of the late 
Sir J. St Aubym Bart, 
whose ftmfly made im- 
sntaonit. It now 
_ to J. St Anbyn, 
Here Lady Cathe- 
rine Gordon, vdfe of Fer- 
kfai Warbeck, took n- 
fnge; and man v families 
secured themselves dar- 
ing the rebellion of the 
C<xni^ men in the reign 
of Edward VI. The po- 
polatioQ of the town is 
l688. 

i miles from Penaanoe, 
Tiengwainton, Shr C. O. 
Price, Bart. 



18 



17}Maraiioii, or Market- I07f 
Jew, 
is supposed to be the oldest 
town in the county, behig 
situated near the great mart 
for tin, the ancient Ictis, at 
St Michael's Mount. It is 
■aid to have flourished most 
during the pilgrimages to 
Mount St MichaeL 



Hi 




Germoe. 
Chywoon. 

Pernm. 



lOBi 



PENZANCE.* 
Here you may proceed to 
Sennen.Si miles; thrice to 
Land's End, IS miles ; or to 
Newlyn, U miles; Trevel- 
loe, ii miles; St Buryan^ 
2|miles; Trebear, U milea; 
Trevescan,2S miles; thence 
to the Land's End, i mile : 
nu^dng altogethcTj 
Penaanoe, 11 



Mawgan, is Trelowarren, 
Sir B. R. Vyvyan, Bart.' 



Acton CasUe. 



llli 



123i 



Penzance is the most 
westerly town in England. 
It ei^oys a very mild at- 
mosphere, and the soil 
around is extremely fer- 
tile. It carries on a con- 
siderable trade in the ex- 
portation of tin and pil- 
chards. The new martlet 
house, the geological ma- 
seam, and St. Paul's 
chiurch, areitsmost hand- 
some edifices. In its vi- 
cinity are several natural 
cariosities, sach as Logan 
Rock, Lamoma Cave, and 
Lanyon Qaoit. At the 
dlBtance of five miles is a 
Druidical drcle, called 
the Merry Maidens. Fop 
of Penzance 1861, 9214. 
The town stands in the 
parish of Madron, of 
which the late Sir Hum- 
phry Davy was a native. 



LAND'S END, 
a promontory at the western extremity of the English coast About a mile 
from the promontory are a number of rocks, called the Long Ships. On the 
laigest of tiiese is erected a li^^t-house, 112 feeit above the level of the sea. 

WALES. 

LVIl. TOUR PROM BRISTOL ALONG THE COAST OP WALES THROUGH NEW- 
PORT, CARDIFF, SWANSEA, CAERMARTHEN, PEMBROKE, HAVERFORD- 
WEST, ST DAVID'S, CARDIGAN, ABERYSTWITH, &c. 

The tourist having crossed the Sevem by the new paassage wiU find no place 

* Eif^ miles from Pensance is the populous fishing town of St Ives. Its harbour is defended 
bf a pier, erected by the celebrated oigineer, Smeaton, and is capable of accommodating SOO 
▼ssiris. The town depends diiefiy on the coast trade and pilchard fishery. One M. P. Pop. 
1S61, 9673. Tregenna Castle, the seat of H. L. Stephens, Esq., occnpies a lofty eminence 
not far from the town, and commands a noble prospect 



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128 BMSTOL ALONG THE COAST OF WALES, THROUGH NEWPORT, fee. 

worthy of notice till his arriyal at Caerwent Its rains indicate its fonner extent 
and magnificence under the Romans, but it has now dwindled into a village. 
On the left is Llanwem, the mansion of the Rev. Sir G. J. Salusbury, Bart, 
commanding an extensive view. Near the 13th mile-stone is the neat village o^ 
Ghristchnrch, with its white-washed cottages. At a short distance to the right 
is Gaerleon, a town of great antiquity, situated on the river Usk. The walls are 
in some places 14 feet high and 12 feet broad, and the shape of the town seems to 
have been that of an oblong square, three sides straight and the fourth curved. 
There is here ample scope for the researches of the antiquary, and numerous coins 
found near it have enriched the cabinets of the curious. In this neighbourhood 
there are many Roman encampments. Two miles from Gaerleon is Llantamam 
House, once a seat of a considerable branch of the Morgan family. Hie site of 
this structure was a rich Gistertian Abbey of six monks. Some traces of the 
ancient fabric still remain. Between Gaerleon and Newport is St Julian*s, once 
the residence of the celebrated Lord Herbert of Gherbury. Part of it has been* 
converted into a farm-house, but other parts remain in their original state. 
Near it is an old bam which once formed part of St Julian's Abbey. Further 
on is Newport Gastle, built apparently for the defence of the river, which is 
commanded by three strong towers. Glose to Newport a stone bridge, consisting 
of five arches, has been thrown over the Usk, at an expense of £10,1G5. The 
town itself presents little that is interesting to the traveller, excepting a church 
exhibiting architecture of various ages. The churchyard commands an extensive 
view of the surrounding country— the Severn and Bristol Ghannel. It is a sea- 
port and a place of considerable trade, chiefly in iron and coal. Its prosperity 
has greatly increased of late years. By means of canals and railways, Newport 
communicates with various parts of South Wales, while boats and sloops, besides 
two steam packets, daily sail between that town and Bristol. The road from 
Newport passes Tradegar House, with its extensive and well-planned grounds 
and noble trees, the property of Sir G. M. R. G. Morgan, Bart., and next the 
village St Mellons, where the upper and lower roads from Newport to Gardiff 
unite. Here there is a small encampment surrounded by a deep trench. Tbrea 
mUes from St Mellons is Rumney Ghurch, an edifice not less than 180 feet from 
the chancel to the tower, which is ornamented with batUements and Gothic pin- 
nacles. Having crossed the river Rumney, which separates England from 
Wales, the tourist enters Gakdiff, the capital of Glamorganshire. It is a well- 
built sea-port and borough town, at the mouth of the river TafF, over which 
there is a bridge consisting ot five arches. Hie castle is a fabric of antiquity, 
but the smooth-shaven lawn and modem improvements seem incongmous with 
the appearance of the mins. The keep, which is still very perfect, is of an octa- 
gonal shape. From the mound enclosed by it, and also fr^m the ramparts, 
charming views of the surrounding country are obtained. In the castle are 
several excellent portraits. In a dungeon of the tower near the entrance, 
Robert Duke of Normandy was confined twenty-six years, after he had been 
deprived of his sight and inheritance by his younger brother, Henry I. The 
place <rf his confinement is still pointed out It is 13} feet square, with a small 



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BWOTOIi ALONG THE COAST OF WALES, THBOUaH NEWPORT, 8tc. 129 

crevipe in the top, 1^ feet long, and three inches broad, to admit air. The castle 
belongs to the Marquis of Bute, and gives him the title of Baron Cardiff. The 
towier of the chnrch is extreme^ elegant, but there is nothing in the inside 
worthy of notice. In this town, Robert, Earl of Gloucester, founded a priory of 
White Friars and another of Black. Only the shell of tlie former remains, while 
the latter is inhabited by flshermen. By means of railway and cdnal, irofi is 
Jbrooght from the works at Merthyr Tydril/and sent to English and foreign 
markets. The numerous improvements on the town and its neighbourhood, 
particular^ the docks commenced by the second Marquis, and the railways con> 
necdng it with London, will soon, in all probability, increase the prosperity of 
Cardiff. Wilson the painter was a native of this toym. Pop. (1851) 18,351. 
About two miles from Cardiff is Llandaff, now only an inconsiderable village. 
The only object deserving attention is the ancient cathedral, the remains of 
which are very beautiful. Within these ruins a new church has been erected in 
very bad taste. The Bishop's palace was destroyed by Owen Glendower in the 
reign <rf H«iry IF. Resuming the route — 6 miles from Cardiff are the village 
and church of St Nicholas; here a road on the left leads to Duffr^ni House 
(J. B. Pryce, Esq.) About halt-way between these two places are some ancient 
monuments, supposed to be Druidic. The largest of these is supported by five 
stones, forming a room 16 feet long, 15 feet wide, and from 4} to 6 feet high, and 
open toward the south. At the east side are three stones closely set together. The 
contents of the largest are 324 square feet. Near Duffryn House there is another 
cromlech, but of dim^isions inferior to the former. It is supposed to have re- 
ceived its present name from the Christians, having in contempt converted it into 
a dog kennel. Between Duffiyn House and the sea is Wenvoe Castle (R. F. 
tenner, Esq.) On regaining the turnpike the beautiful and picturesque grounds 
of Coteril (W. C. Gwiimett, Esq.) next attract attention. Near the gate grows a 
magnificent Wych-elm, ono of the largest in the kingdom. Llantrithyd Park 
the beautiful domain of Sir T. D. Aubrey, Bart, abounds in romantic spots. 
The house is supposed to have been built in the time of Henry Y I. The win- 
dows are very large, one of them being twelve feet square. The road now enters 
a down, and a fine prospect opens to view. The town of Cowbridge— at the 
Vyttom Uanblecddian, with its hfll, church, and castle beyond, and the boldly 
situated Castle Penlline (W. C. Gwinnett, Esq.) form a scene of grandeur much 
admired by travellors. Cowbridoe, or Port-vaen, is a neat borough and 
market-town,* divided by the river Ddau. It was formerly surrounded by walls, of 
which one gate, a bold Gothic structure, alone remains. The free grammar school, 
partly endowed by Sir Leoline Jenkins, Judge of the Admiralty Court in the reign 
ci Charles H., is in considerable repute. Pop. 1851, 1066. The chapel, which con- 
tains several handsome monuments, is singularly constructed, and at a distance ap- 
pears like an embattled fortress. In a field near it are a large tumulus, and the rcr 
mains of a Druidic temple. Cowbridge unites with Cardiff, Llantrissant, Aberdare, 
and Llandaff in returning a member to Parliament. At a short distance north-east 
from. Cowbridge is Aberthin, a neat rural village, and near it a large ehfn tree, 
which measures 28 feet in drcnmference. It is hollow, with an entrance like a 
Gpthio doorway, and capable of £ontauiing thirty-six full-grown persons. The 

I 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



130 BBISIOL ALONG TH£ COAST OF WALES, THROUGH NEWFOBT, he. 

roate from Cowbridge to NeaA fireqaently passes through rich pastures and 
meadows, adorned with plajitations and villas, hamlets, and villages, none of 
which deserve particular notice. About 6 mQes from Cowbridge is Bridgend, * 
small irregular town on the river Ogmore* The hamlet of Oldcastie stands on 
one side of the town, and Newcastle <m the other. One of the bridges over the 
river is an elegant stmctmre. The church-yard affords a ^e prospect ef tlie 
smronnding comitiy. Five miles to ^e south is Ewenny Abbeys, (R* T. Turber-* 
vill, Esq.) the most perfect specimen of -the ancient monastery now extant Its 
embattled walls and towers seem to have been intended for defence rather than 
for devotion. The church is of a cruciform shape, very massive, and in the 
Norman style of architecture. Onwards " the mighty hill of Margam" presents 
a grand appearance. It is 1099 feet hig^ and covered from base to summit with 
magnificent oak trees, the value of which has been estimated at £60/X)0. It is 
the property of C* R. M. Talbot, Esq., whose noble residence,^ Margam 'Peak, 
stands at the foot of Penrice Castle. Here is a remarkably fine orangery, which 
is said to have originated in a shipwreck. The vessel was conveying from Por-> 
tugal to Queen Mary a present of orange and lemon trees, and being stranded, 
the cargo became the property of Lord ManseL The late T. Mansel Talbot, Esq., 
in 1787, built for their reception a superb green-house, 827 feet in length, with a 
handsome palladium front, adorned with statues, vases, and other antique curio^ 
sities. In the pleasure ground adjoining is a bay tree, upwards of 60 foet high, 
and supposed to be the largest in the world. A little &rther is the village of 
Margam, delightfiilly situated at the verge of the above-mentioned forest, and 
abounding in monastic antiquities. Here are some very interesting ruins of an 
abbey, founded by Robert^ Earl of Gloucester, in 1147. At the dissolution it 
was purchased by Sir B. Mansel, and is now the property of C* R. M. Talbot^ 
Esq. his representative. While repairing, the parish church in 1810 several curi« 
pus remains were discovered. On the wall of one of the houses^ in the village^ id 
a curious ancient cross, and in the acyoining grounds are various monumental 
stones with inscriptions. On a hill, called Mynydd Dormini, are a large rude 
stone 14 feet high, and an entrenched Roman camp. About a mile firom Mar- 
gam was a convent, called Eglwys Nunyd, or Nun*s Churdi, now a fSEurm^house^ 
and near it is a Roman monument 4 fleet high. Tliis neighbourhood abounds in 
coal, iron ore, and limestone. At Aberavon very extensive copper works are cat*- 
ried on. Pop. 1851, 6567. The climate in this part of Wales is very mild. Briton 
Ferry, on the bank of the river Neath, is surrounded by scenery of remarkable 
beauty. Near it is Baglan House (H. Gwyn, Esq.) Bagland Hall, the property 
of the Earl of Jersey commands varied and extensive views of the river and the ad* 
jacent surrounding country. The tourist may either cross the forry, and proceed to 
Swansea (5 miles), or continue the pleasing route along the bank of the Neath to 
the town of that name. The Neath canal, 14 miles in extent, terminates at 
Giant's Grave where 60,000 tons of coal are shipped, annually. Ibrther on 
there is a single stone monument, called Maen Uythyrog, redioned one of the 
remotest relics of antiquity. Gnoll, the castellated residence of H. J. Grant, Esq^^ 
situated on the summit of a hill, commands a very extensive, proqiect The 
nbble lawn, banging wood^ shady walks, and picturesque pwadfff are modi 



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SW/LN8EA. 131 

admired. Nbath or Nedd, the Nidnm of Antoniniu^ is seated on the eastern 
book of the river Neath* It is one of five contributarj boroughs which returns 
a member to Parliament. The population in 1861 amounted to 6841. It pos- 
sesses s6me tirade, as a sea-port, in coals, uon, and cq>per, for which it is consi* 
derably indebted to its cana^ which oommunioates between Aberdare and Briton 
Feny. Neath Castle is now an inoonsidenble ruin* About one mile west of the 
town are the ruins of the abbey. The site of the refectory, the chapd, the hall, 
and several other rooms may stall be traced. It was established for monks of the 
CSstertian order by Richard de Qrenville, an ancestor of the Duke of Bucking* 
ham and Qiandos. £i this abbey Edward IL sheltered himself after his escape 
fiom Caerphilly Castle, and was recaptured. Near the rohu are some very 
extensive works for the manufacture of iron and copper. Here are two immense 
bhist fiunaoefl^ an iron foundery, and .an engine manufiM!tory. From Neath to 
Brecon is 27 miles, to Mertiiyr Tydvil about 26, The direct road from Neath 
-to Swansea is 8} miles in length, and by railway they are but 8 miles apart, but 
there is a very pleasant^ though more circuitous, ronte^ by Briton Ferry. 

SWANSEA, 
(anciently Aber-tawy), is situated at the confluence of the river Tawe with the 
Bristol Channel, and near the centre of a beautiful bay. The population m 1851 
was 81,461. Swansea is a favourite resort in the summer for bathing. A very 
flourishing pottery has long been carried on here; also, an iron foundeiy, 
roperies, extensive breweries, and much ship-building. One mile and a half 
distant are extensive copper works. At one of them, it is sdd that not less than 
40,000 tons of coal are consumed annually. Swansea is the most considerable 
sea-port in Wales, and employs much shipping, but has no foreign trade. It is 
accessible from London by the Great Western Railway to Bristol or Gloucester, 
and thence by the South Wales Railway. Packets sail regularly to Dublin, 
f^aterford, and Cork; twice or thrice ar-week to Hfracombe; and to Bristol, 
four times Sr-week. Swansea Castle, the property of the Duke of Beaufort, was 
erected a.d. 1099 by Henry Beaumont, Earl of Warwick, who conquered Grower- 
liuid from the Welsh. The habitable parts are now converted into a poor-house 
and gaoL St Mary's Church contains some very ancient monuments. St 
John's Church was formerly a chapel belonging to the Knights of Jerusalem. 
The only mineral spring in the county of Glamorgan is at Swansea. As a 
tratering-place this town has the advantage of a fine level sandy shore, and the 
vidnify affords a great number of agreeable walks and rides. A large tract of 
country north of Swansea abounds with coal, copper, and iron-works. From 
Swansea, an excursion may be made to the district of Gower or Gwyr, the 
Bonth-west of which is mhabited by a colony of Flemings who settled ^ere in 
the reign of Henry I. They do not understand the Welsh language, are distin- 
guished by their dialect and provincial dress, and rarely intermarry with the 
Welsh. The most interesting objects in this district are Sketty Hall, the 
»eat of L. W. Dillwyn, Esq.— Oystermouth Castle, five miles from Swansea, 
a majestic ruin, commanding a delightfrd prospect, with Mumbles Point close 
at hand— the rocky scenery of Caswell Bay— a huge cromlech called King 



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132 CAERMAjlTHEN. 

Arthur^s Stone, upon a mountain call«d Cwm firyn, near Llanrhidian—tbe pior 
toresque rains of Penrice Castle, so called after the family of Pemrice, who settled 
here in the reign of Edward I.— a modern villa, of the same name, the seat «f 
G. B. M. Talbot, Esq.— Ozwich Bay— the neat village of Cheriton— the b<^ 
promontory of Wormshead, &c. Boating excursiGns to Oxwich, Penrice, Worms* 
head, and other places on the shores of the promontory of Gower, are sometimiB 
imdertaken by parties of pleasore firom Swansea during die summer months. 

From Swansea to Pont-ar-Dnlais is 9 miles— Neath, S— Britcm Ferry, 6-*- 
Cardiff, 89— Caermarthen, 26. 

The upper road from Swansea to Caermarthen then leads by Melin Cadleg, 
3} miles; Corseinon, with its elegant and beautiful churches, 5 miles; (on the 
right to Neath, 10 miles) ; Pont-ar-Dulais, 8^; Cenbrenlwyd, (Caermarthenshire). 
10^; Bryn-y-Maen, 11; Llannon, 18}; Pontyferem, 17; Llangyndeyrn, 21« 
The lower road lies through Llanwelly and Kidwelly, 9 miles from Caermarthen. 
The cafltle of Kidwelly was formerly of great extent, and to it King John retir- 
ed when at war with the barons. It is said to have been built soon after the 
Conquest by William de Londres, a Norman adventurer, (a. d. 1094,) who coBr 
quered Gkunorganshire. The gateway is very fine, and the whole a magnificent 
remain. It is now the property of the Earl of Cawdor. 

CAERMARTHEN 

is one of the most wealthy towns in Wales, elevated above the navigable river 
Towy. It commands a view of one of the most beautiful vales in the principa- 
lity. This town was the site of the Roman station Maridunum. Here the Welsh 
held their parliaments, and established their chancery and exchequer. In the 
38th of Henry VIII. it was created a borough. Caermarthen carries on a fo- 
reign and considerable coasting trade. The Towy is famed for its salmon. It 
conveys ships of 250 tons up to the bridge. Here are established the Cambrian 
and a Cwmreigyddion sociefyt Here also are a handsome town-hall, market- 
house, free grammar-school, an institution caUedthe Presbyterian collie, several 
meeting-houses, national, Lancastrian, and Sunday schools. The remains of 
the castle have been converted into the county gaoL At the west end of the 
town there is a column to the memory of Greneral Sir T. Picton, who represented 
the borough in Parliament. The Ivy Bush Inn was once the property of 1^ 
Richard Steele, who was interred in St Peter's Church. In the neighbourhood 
of this town he wrote the comedy of the Conscious Lovers, The famous magician, 
Ambrose Merlin, was a native of Caermarthen. Here also was bora Lewis Bailey, 
^isbop of Bangor, and author of the Practice of Piety. Pop. 18dl, 10,524. It 
joins with Llanelly in returaing one M.P. About two miles from Caermarthen is 
an eminence called Merlin's Hill, near the brow of which is Merlin's Chair, where 
superstition says ;the famous propbet used to sit when he uttered his prophecies, 
A number of interesting objects aie to be seen on the road from Caermarthen 
to Llandilo Vawr about Xo miles distant. The first object of notice is Aber- 
gwili Palace, the noble mansion of the Bishop of St David's, with its highly or- 
namented grounds ; then Grongaer Hill, the spot to which the poet Dyer has 



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CA£EMAILTH£Nw-IAU6HAENE.-TENBt.— PEMBROKB . 133 

fpjmn 80 much celebrtty* At some distanoe to the nght is Middleton HaH, (£. H. 
AdamSf Esq.), a very splendid mansion. JSfearly opposite Bhiw-yr-Adar. is 
Golden Gro^e, the property of the Earl of Cawdor, inherited firom his maternal 
ancestors the Vangbans. Beyond this is Dynevor Castle, seated upon a lofty 
bin clothed with venerable oaks, once the regal seat of the ancient Cambrian 
monarchs. The last prince who inhabited it was Bh^ ap Tew Dwr Mawr, an 
ancestor of its present possessor, Lord Dynevor* The forces of Henry I. besieged 
it in 1226^ but were d^Bated with the loss of 2000 men, by Llywelyn Prince of 
Korth Wales. JSfewton Park (Lord Dynevor,) the view from the summit of 
€|olwg-y-byd, tiie British fortress on the nigged eminence of Careg Cennen, and 
the rains of Dr^slwyn Castle will also be found well worthy of attention. 

About 12 or 13 miles from Caermarihen are the ruins of Laughame Castle, 
built or rebuilt by Sir Guido de Brian in the reign of Henry III. The town of 
liMighftroe is one of the cleanest and best built towns in South Wales. Dean 
Tnck^ was a native of this place. The neighbouring heights command grand 
. and extensive sea views. One mile distant ia another ruin called Roche*s Ca*- 
tie, but supposed to have been a monastery. A few miles from Laughame is 
the village of Llanddowror, on the south bank of the TaiF; the scenery is highly 
beautifiiL Five miles distant from Laughame is a place called Green Bridge, 
consisting of a natural excavation through which runs a small rivulet, and there 
disappears till it mingles its waters with the ocean. 

About 27 miles from Caermarthen is Tenby, a fashionable sea-bathing place, 
dflili^tfuUy situated on a rock &cing Caermarthen Bay. The shore ia well adapts 
ed for baihing, and the sands afford delightftil promenades. Here are all tiie 
usual conveniences and amusements of a watering place. The trade of Tenby 
csonsists of coal and culm, and the oyster and trawl fisheries. Here are some 
remains of a castle supposed to have been erected by the Flemings. The an- 
cient walls of the town are still sufficiently perfect to show its former strength 
and extent The religious establishments of the town and suburbs have been 
tramerous. The church is a spacious sbmcture, with a spire 152 feet high ; the 
Interior contains some fine old monuments. Many pleasant excursions may be 
made from Tenby ; among others, to the Isle of Caldy, 3 miles from the shore . 
The tower of its ancient priory is still standing 

About 4 or 5 miles from Tenby are the ruins of Manorbeer Castle, once the 
prspeity of the Barri &mily, supposed to have been erected about the time of 
WHliam Rufus. It was I3ie birth-place of Giraldus de Barri, commonly sumam- 
ed Cambrensis, the celebrated historian of Wales. It has evidently been a place 
of g^eat strength and importance. A little farther on are the ivy-mantled walls 
of Garew Castle, and about 3 miles from Pembroke the ruins of Lamphey, once 
the residence of the bidiops of St David% afterwards a seat of the great Lord 
TmcT Ten miles from Tenby is 

PEMBROKE, 
Ihe capital of Pembrokeshire, pleasantly situated on a navigable creek of Mil- 



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134 ££MBBiOK£.-MILFORD HAYEir. 

ford Haivea. It was foimeily tim^cmiided by a wall, some parts of which atestS 
vjdfale. It carries on but liule trade, and «wcb its chief importance to its Boyal 
dockyard. In 1861, the town contained 10,107 inhaMtanls. It tmites with 
Tenl^, Wiston, and MUfbrd, in returning one M. P. On an emiaeace west of 
the town are the remains of a castle which raidu among* the meet splendid 
monoments of antiquity in Sontk Wales. It was the Urth-place of Henry Y II., 
and is famons for the brave defence made by its garrison ia fimmr of Obuaies i. 
The natural carem called the Wogan lies ImmecBateAy under tbe chapel, and 
opens with* wide month toward the sea. Pembroke gives the tilte of Bail to 
the senior branch off the Herbert fiunily^-^Eails of Pembroke and Montgomery. 

To the south of Pembroke Is Oriekon, tho seat o! Sir John Owen, Bart, and 
beyond it Stackpole Court, the baionial manriMi of the Earl of Cnwdor, placed on 
the west side of the pool on a fine eminence at the edge of a bold dedivity. It 
bore originally a castellated imn, and during the dvil wan was gattisoned for 
the king. ItcameintothepossessionofSir A.CampbeD,aDceBtorof theEarlof 
Cawdor, by his maniige with Miss Lort, the lieiress of tins eactensive domain. 
In the vidnity is Bosherston Mere^ a remaAaUe deft through wfaidi,' during 
heavy gales from the. sonthrwest, the sea is forced up from beneath in a odumn 
30 feet in height. Ash<vt distance east of Bosherston Bfere is a curious hemd- 
tage called St Oovan's chapd. Carew Castle (T. 0. Wl. Caiew,^ Bsq.^ 4 miles 
from Pembroke, is wdl worthy of a visit The road lies through lidi andpietus- 
esque scenery. A little to the north a fine view 4^ MUHnd may be Dbtained. 
A great part of Carew Castle is in a state of excdlent preservatiott, and it ranks 
among the most beautiful and interestmg ruins in the prindpality. It was one 
of the royal demesnes of the princes of South Wales, and with seven others^ was 
given as adowry with N^st, dau^iter of Bh^si^ Tew Dwr, to Gerald de Windsor, 
an ancestor of the Carew family. Henry VII. is said to have been entertained 
here hi his progress to Bosworth Field. In 164^ it was gaizisoned ftr the king; 
and hdd out a long siege. Half-a-mile to the south-east of the castle is the 
church of St John the Baptist, a large and venerable structure. Within tUs 
parish are Freestone Hall, J. Allen, Esq. ; and Wilsdon, on the site of which 
Cromwell took up his quarters when besieging Pembroke Castle. 

The tourist is usually conveyed firom Pembroke to liilfbrd Haven in a boat 
The entrance to the haven is remarkably fine, and the extent and smoothness 
of the water give it the appearance of a lake. The harbour is said to be one of 
the best in Europe, and is capable of holding all the navy of England in peifi^ 
security. At the upper end of the haven is Milford, a remarkable neat weU 
built town. Its trade is small and has decreased since the dockyard was remove4 
to Pembroke. Steam-packets sail daily to Waterford. The church is a very 
elegant building; with staiued glass windows and a lofty tower at the west end. 
The custom-house; quay, observatory, and hotel, also deserve notice. The 
scenery around Milford is very picturesque. On a fork of land, formed by the 
confluence of the two rivers Qeddy and Cleddeu, stands Rose Castle; an andent 
seat of the Owens; and higher up on the estuary of the Cleddeu is Picton Casd^ 
the seat of the late Lord Milford, and now the rendence of Lord Milford of the 



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HA71KP0BDWB8T.— ST DAYHya 135 

Moond oraatioiu The ancient style of grandenr in which the mammon was huilt 
Is somewhat incongrooiis with the modem alterations made on it The castle 
commands a fine view towards X^andshipping^ where the two rivers meet, and 
jointly term Milford Haven. Gose to PicUm Gasde is Slebeeh, once an ancient 
oommandery of the Knights of Jemsalem. 

Ahont 8 mUes from Milford Haven is Haverfordwest. On the road is Steyn- 
Ion, where Sir TVIlliam Jones was a scholar. 



HAVERFORDWEST, 

a sea-port, market, and bbrough-town, is beautifully situated on an eminence 
above the navigable river aeddy. It was the capital of the possessions of the 
Flemings, granted to them in the time of William Ruftis and his son Henry. Its 
public buildings are three churches, a handsome guildhall, and the gaol, origi- 
nally the keep of an ancient castle, an extensive fortress erected by Gilbert de 
Clare; first Earl of Pembroke. In the civil wars, this castle was garrisoned for 
the Kmg, Haverfordwest unites with Fishguard and Narberth in returning 
one M.P. Population in 1851, ^80. From Haverfordwest to Pembroke by 
water is 16 miie% by the road, 10, to Cardigan, 28J. About lOJ miles from 
p^v^rfordwest is Narberth, a small neat town, with the picturesque ruins of a 
castle. Population of borough, 1851, 1392. On the road to St David's, at the 
distance of about 9 miles, are the ruins of Roche Castle, commanding a most 
extensive view by sea and land. It sustained a siege against the Parliamentary 
forces daring the civil wars. 

. ST DAVID'S, 

iixteen mileB from Haverfordwest, is an ancient but ahnost deserted city, 
though still exhibiting indications of past splendour in its ecclesiastical remains. 
The cathedral is a venerable Ootiiic structure, displaying much ornamental ar- 
ehitectura It contains a variety of ancient monuments, and the bishopli throne 
It of exquisite workmanship. Near the cathedral are the ruins of the Episco- 
pal palace, formerly a magnificent building, founded by Bishop Gower in 
tiie fourteenth century, and a chapel, the only relic of St Mary^ College, which 
was founded by John of Gaunt and Blanche, his wifo. Da^ld, the national saint 
of Wales, with the consent of his nephew. King Arthur, is said to have removed 
the metropolitan see from Caerleon to Menevia, afterwairds named St David'a 
He was the first of 26 Archlushopa of Menevia, and died heare about the year 
1^44, after he had filled the metropolitan chair of Wales for sixty years, and was 
interred in his own cathedral About 500 years after his death, he was canoniied 
by Pop6 Calixtus II. His successors exercised the archiepiscopal power down to 
the tune of Bishop Bernard, (consecrated in 1115,) who, by command of Henry I. 
rengned this power to the see of Canterbury. St Davidli had once seven suf* 
frfV&ns included within its metropolitan pale, viz. Worcester, Hereford, Llani> 



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136 ST DAVII)^-IlSHaUAla).---CABWGAN.-lWJR TflBOUGH WALES. 

dafl; Bangor^ St Asaph, LUnbadani, and Ubij^am. It kas had a gireater iram« 
ber of prelates than any other see in the kingdom, and has numbered among its 
bishops Boll, Lowth, Horeley, Bnrgess, &c At present Bishop Thirhrall, the 
historian of Greece, presides over this see. The shrine of St David's^ in ancient 
times, acquired the highest celebrity, and in the Hst of monarchs who resorted to 
it are to be included the names of William the Gonqneror, Henry IL, Edward 
I., Eleanor, his Queen, &c. Population of parish, 1861, 2460. One mile west 
from St David's is the shell of St Stephen's Chapel, commanding an extensive 
view of Whitsand Bay, in which stand six dangerous rocks caUed the Bishop 
and his Clerks. 

About 15 miles from St David's is Fishguard, situated on a hay of St 
George's Channel, forming an excellent harbour. In this and the adjoining 
parish are extensive quarries of excellent slate. Population of horough, 1851, 
1757. About 6^ miles from Fishguard is Newi>ort, where are the ruins of a castle. 
In the vicinity are several Druidical remains. About 10 miles firom Newport is 
the town of Cardigan, one- mile before which are the ruins of St DogmeU's Priory. 
The village of St Dogmell's is a remarkably pictoresque object. 

CAKDIGAN, 
the county-town of Cardiganshire, is situated near the month of the Teifi. It 
carries on a considerable coasting trade. The principal buildings are, the church, 
a venerable structure; the town hall ; the gaol; and an ancient bridge of seven 
arches. Oi^ a low cliff, at the foot of the bridge, are the ruins of the castle^ once 
a strong fortress, but destroyed in the dvil wars. A mansion has been erected, 
by Mr. Bowen, on the site of the keep, the dnngeons of which serve for cellars. 
Cardigan joins with Aberystwith, Adpar, and Lampeter, in returning one M.P., 
and gives the title of Earl to the fiunOy of Bmdenell. Population in 1861, 3876. 
The Teifi is celebrated for the richness of its soeneiy, particnlarly between Cardi^. 
gan and Kilgerran Castle. 

From Cardigan to Haverfordwest is twenty-six miles^ Narberth, twenty-six» 
Newcastle £ml3m, ten. 

About twenty-two miles from Cardigan is Aberaeron, a neat little sea-port» 
pleasantly situated at the mouth of the river Aeron, a stream celebrated fbr its 
trout and salmon. The scenery of this vale is particnlarly beautifuL Sixteen, 
miles from Aberaeron is Aberjrstwith, whence the tourist may proceed by 
Machynlleth, DolgeUy, &c See p. 189. 

LVin. A TOUR THROUGH WALES. 



ON BIOHT r»01l BKI8T. 


^1 


From Bristol, Glouces- 
tershire, to St Ar- 
van's, Monmouthsh. 

Llanfihangel Tor-y- 
mynydd. 


II 


ON UETT nOV BBIiT. 




869i 
8S6i 


19 
28 





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A TOUR THROUGH WALES-C<m«mi«(i. 



1.17 




350i 



To Monmouth, 7}iii. 
Clytha, W. Jones, Esq. 



Coldbrook House, 
H. ^nmiiams, Esq. 



347 



341i 



fiin.fifftherazoad leads 
on the right to Monmo)ith 
8k m., and on the left to 
Usk, 4 in. 

Ragland, 
fiunous for the ruins of its 
castle, the ancient residence 
of the noble familvof So- 
merset. Earls of Worces- 
ter, now Dukes of Bean- 
fort. It was almost en- 
tirely destrtrred during the 
dvil wars, when it was gar- 
risoned for the royal causes 
and sustained a siege of 
ten weeks. 

Clytha House. 

Junction of the road* 



ABERGAVENNY, 



28i 



31i 



37i 



Usk is a place of great 
antiquity, situated on a 
tongue of land formed by 
the confluence of the Olna 
and Usk. It has an an- 
cient dnurch, and the 
ruins of a priory. But the 
diief ot^ect of attention is 
the ruins of its castle. The 
Usk abounds with sainvoo. 
Pop of par. 1851, 2088. 

To Usk. ^ m. 

Clytha Castle, situated 
on an eminence, is a mau-^ 
soleum that was erected 
to the memory of the 
heiress of the house of 
Tredegar. 



an ancient town situated at the junction of tiie Gavenny with the Usk. The 
luina of the castle^ which is in a very dilapidated state, form a very picturesque 
object. The church of St Mary was the chapel helonging to the priory, and 
contains many ancient monuments. The free grammar-school was founded in 
the reign of Henry VIII. The trade of the place has greatly declined, but 
during summer it is much frequented by visitors. Near Abeigavcnny is the 
lugai^loaf mountain, 1852 feet above the level of the sea. The ascent is easy, and 
the sommit conunands an extensive and beautiful prospect. This place gives the 
title of £arl to the Neville family. Pop. 1851, 4797. 



To Hereford, 84 m. 
Hill Ho. 



Owemvale, J. Gwynne, 



'V.' 



Park. 



Herea 
rains of TreCoweri 



337i 



333 

321i 



Pentre Inn. 
Enter South Wales. 
Crickhowell, 
a small but pretty town on 
the Usk. To the east of 
the town are the ruins of 
the castle. Pop. of par. 
1251,1408. 

Tretower. 

BBJilCKNOCK or 

BB£CON. 



39i 
414 



Glan Usk Park, Sir J, 
Bailey, Bart 
To Merthyr Tydvil, 14 



46 
67} 



Buddand. J. P. Gwynne- 
Holford, Esq. 



is delightfully situated at the confluence of the Honddtt with the Usk ; hence 
the British name of the town Aberhonddn. The objects chiefly deserving of 
attrition. are the ruins of the castle, consisting of some remains of the *< Keep" 
called ** Ely-Tower," so named from Dr. Morton, bishop of Ely, who was confined 
here by Bichard IIL, and the scene of the conference of the bishop with Staffbrd 
Duke of Buckingham : the scanty remains of the priory founded in the reign of 
fienzy L : the Church of St John, at the end of which is a beautiful Saxon stone 
iMit : St Mary's Church, with a steeple 90 feet in height : St David"^ Churchy 
en the north bank of the Usk ; and Christchurch Coll^;e, once a Dominicaa 

Digitizeid by VjOOQ IC 



188 



▲ TOUR THROUGH WALHS-Owtinued, 



prioiy, attached to which is a free grammar-schooL There are also seveni 
meetiiiff-hoiises and charitable institutions. The ancient mansion called Breck- 
nock Priory, is the property of the Marquis Camden. Bfrs Siddons was a native 
of Brecon. OneM.P. Pop. 1861, 6070. 



4 m. dist. is Aberedwy, 
oneof themost incturesque 
villages in Wales. 



Welfield, £. B. Thomas. 
Esq. 



ON RIGHT FROM BRIST. 



291 



Dderw. 



305 



28ef 
272} 



261i 



BUILTH, 
a small town, d^htfUUy 
situated on tbe Wye. At 
the east end of the town are 
the vestiges of a castle of 
great straigth. About a 
mile distant are the Parii 
Wells, mudi frequented. 

^R^ cr. liver Wye, 

Keep the river Wye on the 

left 

^ cr. riyer Ithon. 
Rhayader. 



JP^ cr. river Wye. 

Cwm. Ystwith (Cardir 

gcm^ire,) 
JS'^ cr. the Ystwith. 

Pentre Brunant 
Fountain Inn. 
Pevil'b Bridge, 
a angularly romantic spot, 
where a deep deft in the 
rocks is crossed by two 
arches, one above the other, 
beneath which the rapid 
river Mynach descends in 
terrific cascades. The lower 
aidi is said to have been 
built by the monks of 
Strata^FIorida Abbey,^ in 
reiffn of William Ruftis. 
and the upper arch was 
thrown over it m 1753. 
Near it is a commodious 
inn, opposite which is the 
fklloftheRheidol. 
Eskynald. 



ABERYSTWITH, 



ON LBFT FROM BRI8T. 



73i 



87J 



99 



102 
106 



109 
117i 



Noyadd. 



Hafiod,late Duke of New* 
castle. The grounos are 
remarkably beautiftil. 
Nearthis^otareertensive 



Crosswood, Earl of 
Lisbume. 

Caermarthen, 46|, Car- 
digan, 37ib 



a sea-por^boioughy and market-town, situated at the mouths of the Rheidol and 
the Ystwith. It is the krgest town in the county. It was once fi>rtified with 
walls, a portion of which still remains on the shore. The castle, situated west 
of the town on a rook projecting into the sea, was founded in 1109 by Gilbert 
De Strongbow. It was idfterwards destroyed, but was rebuilt in 1277 by Edward L 
It was a fortress of great strength^ and onee the residence of Cadwallader. 



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A TOV& THS0U6H WALES- a>n&'mt#tf. 



139 



It was finally destroyed by Cromwell. The min was the property of the late 
Duke of Newcastle. The town contains two churches and several meeting- 
houses, assembly rooms, a chalybeate spring, a library, baths, a theatre, &c. 
The castle house was built by the late Sir Uvedale Price of Foxley, Bart, after de- 
signs by Nash. Aberystwith has a considerable coasting trade in com, lead, oak, 
bark, and butter. It is much frequented for sea-bathing. Extensive walks 
have been formed in the vicinity. There are several lead mines in this neigh- 
bourhood, so rich in silver that the district is called by the Welch Potosi 
From the Grogerddan mines, at present unworked and little known, Sir Hugh 
IGddleton accumulated the wealth which he expended in his great undertaking 
of bringing the New'Rlver to London. Aberystwith unites with Cardigan, Adpar^ 
and Lampeter, in returning one M.P. Pop. 1851, 5231. About 3 miles distant 
is Nanteos, W. E. Powell, Esq., Lord-lieutenant of the county, and Gogerddan 
Pryse Loveden, Esq. 



ON mOHT FBOM BRI8T. 



From Machynlleth you 
may cross to Shrewsbury 
through Wdsh-PooL 



PonrardtoBlnas If owd- 
dwy, ISnkika. 



2351 
To Dinas Mowddwy, ^ 23l| 



243J Machynlleth (Mont- 1354 

gomeryshvre,) 

a very andent market-town 

and borough, beautifuUyi 

situated at the confluence of 

the Dulai and Dyfi. It 

forma the centre of the 

woollen trade in this part of 

the country. Here is an 

ancioit structure to whioi 

Owen Olyndwr is said to 

havesiunmonedthenobilitv 

and gentry of Wales in 1408. 

Pop, 18B1, 1673. 

-^ cr. the river Dyfi. 

242J Junction of the road. 136i 

23.9J EBgsurgeiUog. 1394 

Enter Merionethsh. 

Junction of the road. 1434 

Dinas Mowddwy road. 1474 



ON LBFT FROM BRI8T. 



To Towyn, 11 mfleik 



228i| DOLGELLY. \^^H 

situated in a fertile vaUey on the river Wnion, surrounded by mountaina, 
and greatly celebrated for its beautiful scenery. It is much frequented 
by persons making excursions of pleasure, and there is perhaps no place 
in the principality whence so many excursions may be advantageously mada 
Those mostly taken are to Machynlleth, the waterfells, Barmouth, Cader 
Idiis, Dinaa Mowddwy, thence to Bala, over the mountains, and back through 
the vale in which the Dee rises. Owen Glyndwr assembled his Parliament at 
DolgeUy in 1404. Some Roman corns have been found m this vicinity, bearing 
this inscription, niP. ciESAR traian. A considerable trade in coarse cloth is 
carried on at DolgeUy. Pop. 1851, 8479. Near Dolgelly is Cader Idris. in 
height the second mountain in Wales. The summit is 2860 feet above the town. 



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140 



▲ TOUB THBOUGH WALm-^ontinued* 



its ascent is much eader ih&D that of Snbwdon, and its summit, in a clear daf 
commands a view more than 400 miles in circumference. Two miles from Dol- 
gellj is Nannau, once the residence of Hawel Lele, an ihveterate enemy of Owen 
Glyndwr. It was the ancient seat of the family Nanney of Nsnnau, but now 
through marriage, is that of Sir R. W. Vaughan, Bart In the upper part of the 
park are the remains of a British fort. Ten aniles distant from DolgeUy is Bar- 
mouth, one of the most frequented watering-places in Wales. The intervening 
scenery is remarkably grand. From Dolgelly to Bala, 18 miles ; to Harlech, 18 
miles. 



ON RIGHT FROM BRI8T. 



8 miles distant is the vil- 
lage of Festiniog, situated 
in a most enchanting vale. 
Near it are the falls of the 
Cynfiiel, and between them 
asinffularrock called Hugh 
Loyd's pulint. 



Llwyn. 

Tynyooed. 



226f 



) cr. river Wnion. 
Uanelltyd. 



216J Trawsfynydd. 

2I0| Maenlwrog, 

remarkable for the pictu- 
resque scenery by wmch it 
issuiiounded. 



Thesummitof Snowdon 2011 
is 3571 feet above the level * 
of the sea. It is about 5 or 
6 yards in diameter, and is 
surrounded by a low walL 
Inadear day,nartof Enff< 
toad, Sootlanii, Irelana, 
and the Isle of Man may 
l« distinctly seen. 

Flai-y-Vant, Sir E. B. IQil 
^lliams Bulkeley, Bart., * 
lord-LieiUenant of the 189^ 
County. 



2091 



ON LBFT FROM BRI8T. 



152 



163i 
1684 



Ton-y-Bwlch Inn. 



202} Pont-Abeiglaslyn 176 
is a inigle stone ardi Iniilt 
over a rapid mountain tor* 
rent that divides the coun- 
ties of Merioneth and Caer- 
narvon. 
Beddgdert (Coeniar. 1774 

voiuhtre,) 
Here guides maybe procur- 
ed to ascend Snowdon, the 
summit of whidi is 6 miles 
distant^ 



Bettws-Garmon. 



169i 



To Bannottth, 10 miles. 
To Harlech, 17 miles. 



Plas-Tan-y-Bwlch. W 
6. Oakeley, Esq. The 
^undB are extensive an^ 
interesting. 

To Cricdeth, 11| m., to 
Caernarvon by LUnllyfioi 
36 miles. 

Theiur 
is remarkably su] 
picturesque. 



Persons wishing to as- 
cend Snowdon fhnn Caer- 
narvon should pivKseed to 
the village of Dol Bedam, 
and there piocuzeaguide. 



184i 
I89i 



To PwUheU, 2S miles, 
toNevin,81miIes. 
CoedHden. 



CAERNABVON, 

an ancient town, situated 
partly on the Menai strait, 
rartly on the estuary of the 
sdont. It was the only sta- 
tion the Romans posMssed 
in this part of Cambria. > 

Some fragments of the walls of the ancient city still remain. Near the Sdont 
was a strong fort, long the residence of the British princes. The principal ob- 
ject of interest is the castle erected by Edward L The external walls are nearly 
entire, and are from 8 to 10 feet thick. This castle was the birth-place of £d- 
wud II. The room in which he was bom is still shown. It was taken and re- 



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C5 

W 
CP 

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A. TOUR THROUGH WALES^Continued. 14l 

, taken daring the dvil wan. It is now held by Field-Marshal the Marqnfs of 
Anglesey as constable. On the outside of the town walls, a spacious terrace ex- 
tends from the quay to the north end of the town. There is a fine view from the 
summit of the rock behind the Gaemarvon HoteL In the vicinity are numerous 
Druidical circles and ancient monumental stones. It is surrounded by the wildest 
of Snowdonian scenery. Caernarvon gives the title of Earl to a branch of the 
Herbert &mily. Pop. (1851) 8674. It joins with Conway, Cricdeth, Pwllheli, 
Bangor, and Nevin, in returning 1 M.P. 



ON sroHT VmOM BUST. 



^1 



Uanfair. 



Menai Bridge 
BiLNGOR (p. 






192i 



mi 

200 



ON LCrr FBOM BKI8T, 



Flas Llanfair, 
Bryntyrion. 
Vaynol Honse, T. 
AsshetoQ Smith, £Bq. 
Treborth. 

From Bangor you may proceed by Pen Maen Blawr to Aberconway, and re- 

tnm through the vale of Llanrwst to Cemiogau Mawr, and thence to Capel Curig 

(i>ee pp. 180*181), or proceed through St Asaph and Holywell to Chester. The 

tourist may return to Bristol by Chirk, Oswestry, Welsh-Pool, Montgomerj', 

Weobley, Herefiwrd, and Monmouth. For a description .of the road from Bangor 

to Oswestry, see pp. 180-181. 

265} 



ForldiiKtoii, W. Omu- 
by 6ore,£8<]. 
Broom Hall. 
To Bala, 26 miles. 
To LUnfyllin, 8 miles. 



One mile distant is 
PoH-is Castle, the seat of 
theEarlorPowii. 

hd^hUm Hall. 



To Newtown, 9 m., to 
Llanfair, 12 m. 

Gunley, Rer. R. H. 
M Pryce. 

Nantcribba, Yiiconnt 
Hereford. 

To Newtown, 8| miles. 

Llanfur, 12 miles. 



llSi 
110 
107f 

lOii 



lOOf 

m 



Oswestry. 

Uynclys. 

Llanymynech. 

J^ cr. riv. Vymwy, & 

enterMontgomeryshire. 

Junction of the road. 

About a mile farther, a 

road leads off on the risht 

to Welsh-Pool by Guils 

field, 7 miles. 

New Quay. 

WELSH-POOL 
ii one of the chief marts for 
Wehh flannel. Pop. 1851. M84. 
To the north of the town, on 
Moel-y-OuIfk, is an obeliak 
weoted in commemoration of 
Lord Rodnej's rietorjr over the 
French fleet in 178S. 



271 



27ii 



2781 



To Shrewsbury, 17im. 
To EUeemeie, 7^ m. 
To Shrewsbury, 16 m. 
To Shrewsbury, 15i m. 



1 m. distant, on the 
opposite side of the Se- 
vern, is Buttiii^n, 
where, in 894, the Imnes 
were routed by the 
generals of King Alfred 

Uwynderw. 



.^^ cr. the Severn. 

Forden. 

MONTGOMERY. 

The church is a venerahle cruciform structure, containing an exquisitely carved 
screen and rood-loft, removed from the priory of Cherbtuy at the dissolution of 
that establishment. In the south transept is a sumptuous monument to the 
memory of the fiither of the celebrated Lord Herbert of Cherbury. The lattdr 
waa bom at Eyton in Shropshire in 1581. Montgomery was formerly surrounded 
by walls, and possessed a castle supposed to have been founded by Baldwin, 



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142 



A TOUE THB0U6H WALES- a<m^t«d. 



lieutenant of the marches, to William tiie Conqueror. This fortress seems to 
have been held by the ancestors of Lord Herbert of Cherbmy and was the prin- 
cipal residence of that fiunily, and a branch of the Herbert family, Earia of Pem- 
broke and Montgomery, derives the latter title firom this place* Dnring the civil 
wars^ it was garrisoned for the Bang by liOrd Herbert, who surrendered on the 
approach of the Parliamentary army. The Royalists attempted to take it, but 
were completely defeated. Only a few fragments of the building now remain. 
Not far from the castle, situated on a hill^is a very extensive British fort Montgo- 
mery unites with Llanidloes, Welsh-Pool, LlanfyUin, Newtown, and Machynlleth, 
in returning one M.P. Pop. of Montgomery borough 1861, 1248. About two 
miles south-west stood Blackball, once the hospitable residence of the Herbert 
fiunily. It was consumed by fire. At a short distance is Lymore Park, one of 
the seats of the Earl of Powis. At the distance of 2\ miles, on the Shrewsbury 
road, stands the priory of Cherbuiy, founded in the reign of King John. About 
5 miles from Montgomery is the long mountain or Cefici Digol, celebrated as the 
spot where, in 1294^ the last battle took place between the Welsh and the English. 



ON UGHT raOM BBIST. 



Mellington. 

Three m. distant, Wal- 
oot Hall, Eari of Powis, 
and near it are the re- 
mains of several encamp- 



Kniehton unites with 
If ew Radnw, Presteign, 
Rhayader, Ceta UjBy and 
Knndas in retununc one 
MP. 



To New Radnor 7^ m. 



86i 
82i 
80} 



76 



^1 

PQ 

Bed-Court House. S98| 
Bishop's Moat 296i 

BISHOFS CASTLE 298* 
{Salop.) 

The Bishops of Hereford 
had formerly a castle here, 
which, however, has long 
since ueen destroyed. The 
town prior to the Reform 
Act, which disfranchised 
it, returned two M.P. Fop. 
of par. 1796. 

.^Q cr. river Clun. 

Clun. 808j 

^^ er. river Teme. 

KNIGHTON iRadnorah.) S10| 

or in Welch Tref-y-Clawdd, 

derives its name firom its 

situation on the earthen 

rampart raised byOffa as 

a separation between the 

British and Saxons. A 

castle formerly stood here, 

bat no traces of it are now 

visible. Pop. 1851, 1666. 

66 Norton. 

^nQ cr. river Lug. 

68i PRESTEIGN. 

situated partly in Radnor 
and partly in Hereford. It 
has a church, a town-hall, 
where the assizes are held, 
and a free school. To the 
north of the town there is 
a circular hill, ornamented 
.with plantations and de- 
'lizhtful walks. Pop. of 
par. 1861, 2166. 



OH Lin nOH BJKEST. 



To Bishop's CastU 
through Ghnrchstoke, 



Oakley Hoose, and be- 
yond Linley Hall. 



To Lndlow by Onibnry . 
18 m., by Barlwd Gate, 
17 m. 



To Ludlow, 17 1 



Two miles distant 
Stanage Pa., £. Rogers, 
Esq. 



8181 



8161 



Tliree m. dist. Bramp- 
ton Park, Earl of Oxford 
and Mortimer. 
BoulUlirook. 



To Ludlow, 16 m., 
Hereford, 28 m.. Ten- 
bury, 18 m., Leominster, 
l^nu 



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▲ TOUB THBOUOH "WALES-Contimted, 



149 



ON RIGHT FBOM. BRIBT. 



To New Badaae, 71 ni. 
Eyvood. Earl of Oz* 
ford and Mortimer. At a 
cUttaoce Harpton Cmat, 
Bt HoiL Sir T. F, I^wis, 
Bart. 



Newport Houae. 

Two Bu distant is Lady 
lift, an oninenoe oom- 
mMiHiwg an extensive pro- 
spect 

QaxiMtooe> S. Peploe, 
Biq. 

^oiley. Sir R. Tnce, 
Bart. 

In the distance ]Qar- 
noiu, Sir 6. H. Cotterell, 
Bart^ and l^ond Moccas 
Coart, Sir Y. Comewall, 
Bart. 



61i 



56} 



JM cr. riTer EndwelL 

Bodd {Herefordshire), 

Htley. 

KINQTON iBerej;ord8h.) 
carriea on a considerable 
clothing business, and a 
trade in iron and nails. 
Mrs Siddons first acted in 
a bam in thia towb. 



54i 
614 
49} 

m 

U\ 

42i 
41i 

38i 
37i 
36} 
18i 



317 
318} 



hjo'DsAid31{HerefwdefC) 

Woonton. 

Samesfield* 



WEOBLEY. 
small town, noted for its 
malt liquor. Here stood an 
andent castl^ whidi was 
taken fix>m the Empiess 
Maud by King Stephen. 

Wonnedey. 334J 

Brinfiop Court 3364 
Tillington. 337J 

Cross Elin& 34O; 

White Cross. 341 

HBREFOBD (seep 148.) ^^x 

MONMOUTH (see p. 144.) 350I 

Beachley. 378} 



324i 
327J 
329 

331 



ON LSrr FROM BRIST. 



Staunton Park, (J. K- 
Kin& EsqO and beyond 
Shobden, <Lord Bateman.) 

TitieyCo. 



Whittem, 



Moor Court. 



Sameafleld Honse. 



Co 
Co. 



LIX. BRISTOL.— CHEPSTOW.— MONMOUTH.— HEREF0RD.~LUDLOW^ 
SHREWSBURY.— CHESTER.— LIVERPOOL.— 158^ Miles. 



ON RIGHT FROM BRIST. 



Redland Court, Sir 
Bichard Vaoehan. 1 ^;. 1 



Overeonrt and KnoIei51| 
Park, W. C. Master, £«!• 1404 



Sedbury Park, O. Orme- 145} 



Westbuiy, 

Compton Green-Field. 

Aust or Old Passage. 

^^ cr. river Severn. 

The old passage has now 

been greatly improved. 

Beachley. 



8 

124 



ON LBFT FROM BRIST. 



Stokebonse and Leigh 
Court, W. Miles, Esq. 

Cole House. 

2 m. dist. King's Wes- 
ton, P. W. S. Miles, Esq- 

HoU^ House. 



Beachley Lodge. 



y Google 



144 



BRISTOL, CHEPST01?f, MONMOUTH, ^e.-^Jontinuei. 




On the other side of the 
Wye, Hardwicke House. 
St Lawrence. 

About a mile from 
Chepstow 18 Piercefield, a 
aobie mansion, celebrated 
for theviewB obtained from 
iU walks, which extend 
along the banks of the 
WyeforSmilet. 

The rains of Tfaitetn 
Abbey, 4 mites firom Chep- 
stow, belonging to the 
Duke of Beaufort, form a 
temarkably beautiful and 
picturesque oUect. The 
monastery was founded in 
the year 1131 by Walter de 
Clare. At the dissolution, 
the site was granted to 
Henry second Earl of Wor- 
cester, ancestor of its pre- 
sent possessor. The rains 
are seen to great advantage 
from a spot about half a 
mile down the river. 



Clearwell Castle, Bail of 
Danraven and Mountearl. 



The rides and walks in 
tlie vidnity of the town 
are peculiarly romantic. 
r'rom the summit of Ky- 
min hill, where a monn- 
nent to Nelson has been 
erected, there is a pros- 
pect of remarkable extent 
and beauty. 

To Mitchel Dean by 
Coleford. 13 m. To Boss, 
l<Hm. 



J©^ cr, river Wye. 



ON LBPT FROM BRI8T. 



14 1 J CHEPSTOW, Monmouth, 

* Chepstow carries on a con- 
siderable trade in timber, 
coals, ^ndstones, inm, and 
dder. Tnie most interesting 
object is the nuns of the cas- 
tle, situated on the edge of a 
lofty precipice ovahanging 
the Wye. The ruins are 
covered with ivy, and pre- 
sent a vary picturesque ap- 

irance. Hoe Henry 
,rtin, one of the regicides, 
I confined for more than 
twenty years. The oldest 
portionsof the building were 
erected about 800 years ago 
by William Fitiosborae, 
Earl of Hneford. The 
church, whid^ wasformerly 
the chapel of a Benedictine 
Priory, contains the monu- 
ment of Henry second Earl 
of WoroeKter,and theipnve- 
stone of Henry Martm. 
Pop. 1861, 4295. 
lS9i St Arvana 

1381 Wyndcliff. 

135i Tintem. 

13di Llandogo. 

Bigswear, Iron Bridge. 

^S cr. river Wye, and 
enter Gloucestershire. 
128f Redbrook. 

Enter Monmouthshire. 
-^^ cr. river Wye. 

1261 MONMOUTH. 

* Monmouth, the cai^tal of 
the county, is pleasantly ^- 
tuoted at the confluence of 
the Monnow and the "Wye. 
The prindpal objects are the 
town hall, the countv gaol, 
the f^ school, St Mary't 
church, St Thomas'sfhurch, 
the rains of the once cele- 
brated castle, the remains of 
the andent walls, &c. The 
inhabitants are chiefly em- 
ployed in the iron and tin 
works hi the neighbourhood. 
Monmouth, together with 
Usk and Newport, returns 
one M. P. to Parliament. 
Pop. of borough 1861,5710. 
Henry V. and GeQfirey of 
Monmouth, the historian 
or clironicler, were natives 
of tbis town. 



17 



32 



The tide rises here to a 
great height (on some oo- 
casiooB over 60 feet), and 
very eoddenly. 



To Monmouth by the 
old road througo Trelleck, 
UmOes. 

The view ftom the sum- 
mit of Wynddiff extends 
into nine coimties, and is 
considered one of die most 
beautiful hi England. 



One milcanda half ftom 
Monmouth is Troy House, 
(Duke of Beaufort,) once 
famous for its gardens, 
whidi have been oon voted 
into orchards. Here are 
shown th e cradle of Henrv 
v., and the sword which 
he bore at Agincourt 

To Abergavenny by 
Dingestow and Tregare, 
16i m., by Riitciand, '" 



To Usk by Eagland, 

ed by Google 



regare, 
, 17m.l 
l,lS]u4 



BRISTOL. C5HKPST0W. MONMOUTH, HHRBPORD, Oec-^ontinued. l45 




Hnrewoed, 8ixH.Ho<- 
kyna^Burt. 

Jjnian House, Hemy 
Whittaker, Esq. 

New Callow are the re- 
mains of Boman Camps. 

In the distance Holme 
Lacy, Sir £. F. Scodammre 
Stanhope, Bart. 

2 m. dist. Eotherwas 
Park, C. Bodenham, Esq. 



119} 
115i 



113i 
109i 



Welsh Newton, (JJcrf- 

fordsMre,) 

St WeonarcLai 

Wonnelow Tump. 



Callow. 

^f^ cr. river Wye. 

HEREFORD. 




39 

424 



Treago, P. R. Mynors, 
Esq. 

Bryngwyn, J. PhilUps, 
Esq., and 1 m. distant, 
Mynde Park, T. G. Sy- 
mous, Esq. 

AUensmore Park, E. B. 
Pateshall, Esq. 



The principal building is the cathedral, refoanded in the time of William I. 
It contains numerous sepulchral monuments as far back as the eleventh cen- 
tury. The library contains a great number of MSS., among which is Wyo- 
liffe'h Bible. The cathedral was much injured by the fell of the west front in 
fhe year 1786, which has been since rebuilt, though with little regard to con- 
sistency of architecture. Two of the five churches of the city were destroyed 
during a siege in 1645. The other buildings worthy of notice are the court-house, 
the Bishop^s Palace, the College inhabited by the vicars choral, the county gaol, 
tiie Theatre, of which the Kemble femily had for many years the direction, the 
ruins of a monastery of Blackfiiars, &c. The principal manufactiu'es are those 
of gloVes, leather, and flannels. The county has long been celebrated for cider. 
A triennial meeting is held here of the three choirs of Hereford, Worcester, 
and Gloucester, for the performance of oratorios, and the profits are appro- 
priated to charitable purposes. Guillim the Herald, Nell Gwynne, and Garrick, 
were natives of Hereford. It afibrds the title of Viscount to the Devereux femily. 
The borough returns two M.P. Pop. 1851, 12,113. 



To Ledbury, 15^ m. 
To Woreester, 25| m. 
Bromyard, 14 m. 

Race Course. 



Moreton House, 



Hamptrm Court, {J. 
Arkwri^t, E»q.) said to 
have been built by Henry 
IV. It belonged at one 
dmeto Baron Coningsby, 
0ieGaieralof William III. 



Lcontdnster has various 
meeting-houses, free and 
national whouls, andcha. 



1074 
106i 

1054 

104 

1004 



99 



964 



Holmer. 
Pipe, 

Moreton. 

Wellington. 

Hope under Dinmore. 

Wharton. 
J^ cr. river Arrow. 

Leominster. 

This town carries 09 1 

considerable trade in hat>. 



To Hay, 19J m. 
To Kington by Yaror, 
281, by Weobley, 29J in. 



50} 
51J 

52i 
54: 
571 



59} 
61J 



Winsley, Sir J. V. B. 
Johnstone, Bart. 



Byelands,B. LaQe,Efq. 

The river Lugg flows on 
the east and north ^cs 
of Leominster, and two* 



y Google 



146 BBI8T0L« CHEPSTOW, MONMOUTH, HEREFORD, te-Cbnfteiuvt. 



ON BIGHT FBOM BBIST. 



ritable institatkms. Races 
are held in Avgiist. Itre- 
tnnis tiro MP. Fop. 1851, 
5214. 

To Tenbnry, 11 m. 

To Lndloir, 12i m. 

To Bromyard, 11^ m. 



Berrington, Lord Rod- 
ney. 



Moor Park, J. Salw^, 
Esq., and beyond Asn- 
foi d HaU. 



94 



91 
89} 

88 

864 



wheat, wool, eider, hope, 
&c The principa] otdects 
axe the church, reouiltatthe 
cotamenoeiiieDt of lasteen- 
tury,— the Batter cross, a 
siniular building of timber 
and plaster, er^ted about 
the year 1633,— the market- 
house, the gaol, and the 
House of Indutftnr. wJtP^ 
was part of a pnoiy. This 
town gives the title of Ra- 
rontp the Earls of Pomfret 
^@ cr. rivar Lu^;. 
Two roads lead ftomTeo- 
ister to Ludlow, the one 
by Stodctcm Cross 1| m. 
Ashton 2i, Brimfidd 2|; 
Ashford Bowdkrll, Ludlow 
2i,inalll0m., or by 

Luston. 



Orleton. 
Richard'^ Castle. 

Oyerton, {Shropshire,) 



LUDLOW 



thioufffa tiie town. 

of anoent date, and many 

of the timber and plastei 



U\ 



en 

68i 
70i 
71f 



ON LBFT FBOM BBIST. 



ffS 



with curious and grotesque 



21m. 
,14im. 



EytonHaD, E. 
Bsq. 



Highwood House. 



The Haye Park, J. Sal- 
wcy, Esq. 

The Lodge, J. Salwey 
Esq. 

Ludford Park, E. L. 
Charlton, Esq. 
To Presteign, 16^. 



The Sheet. 

2i m. distant, Henley 
Court. 

To Cleobury Mortimer, 
11* m. 

To Bridgnorth, 191 

is a populous and very ancient town, situated on an eminence at the junction 
of the rivers Corve and Teme. Here are the ruins of a castle which was long 
the residence of royalty, and afterwards of the Lords Presidents of the Welsh 
marches. Prince Arthur, the brother of Henry VIII., held his court, and died 
in this castle, and Milton'h Mask of Comus was first performed here under the 
direction of the Earl of Bridgewater. In one of the towers, Butler wrote a part 
of Hudibraa. The church contains a number of curious antique monuments 
and inscriptionflL Two 

To Much Wenlock, 18 



In the distance Stanton 
Lacy, and beyond Down- 
um Hall, Sir W. E. R. 
Bonghton, Bart. 



844 


\ Pop. 1851, 6376. 
Racecourse. 


73i 


Oakley Park, Hon. R. 
H.CUve, M.P. 




83} 


Bromfield Church. 


74i 






81; 


Onibury. 


77 


Stone Ha Earl of Powts 




7H 


Stokesay. 


79 


Sibdon Ca tie, and at a 





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9SIST0L, GHRPSTOW. MONMOUTH, HEBEFOBD, &e.-€<mUnwd. 147 



'on 



BIOHT PROM BRI8T. 



Acton Seotk HaH 

Two m. distant* at Hope 
Bowdler, is the Wrekin, 
a lofty hiU, rising 1320 feet 
above the level of the sea. 
The summit is occuj^ied by 
an ancient fortification. 

To Mudi Wenlock, m 

iks. 

1\ mile distant is Caer 
Caradoc or Cra<iock, at the 
top of which the remai«» 
of an old British camp are 
still visible. 



Longnor Hall. 

To Wellhigton, ITmiles. 
Hiree miles ffistaat Acton 
Bumdl Castle, Sir £. J. 
Smythe, Bart 

To Wellington, 14 mUes. 

Condover, £. W. S. 
Owen, Esq. 



78 
764 

7H 
72i 

70i 



694 



65} 
64| 
604 

m 



Halford. 

Stre ord. 

Felhamptozu 

Little Stretton. 

Church Stretton. 



All Stretton. 



LeeBotwood. 



Dorrington. 

BaistonHilL 

i!^cr. the Leol brook. 

SHBEWSBUBY. 



ON LEFT FROM BRI8T. 



60: 
81 
83 

66 
874 



little distance, Waloot Pa. 
Earl of Powis. 

To Bishop's Castle, by 
Lydbury North, 9h miles. 

Wistanston. 



924 



94 



88} 

* Here are the traces of 
Wading Street, one of the 
finest spedmens of a Bo- 
man road in the kingdom. 

914 Itis formed of laigestakes, 
with wattles woven be- 
tween them. Itcommences 
at Dover, and terminates 
at Cardigan. 



LyfhHUL 



|yo^A^?glL""'HlSJ "i SHBEWSBUBY. lOOi 
Lord Berwick. 

Shrewsbury is situated on two eminences, and surrounded on three sides by 
the Severn. The streets are narrow and steep. It was formerly surrounded by 
a wall, defended by several towers, of which scarcely any vestige now remains 
Its castle has now become private property, and part of it has been formed into 
a mandon. Shrewsbury and its neighbourhood have been the scene of various 
interesting events. The town itself has sustained many severe sieges ; and, four 
miles distant, at Battlefield Church, is the spot where the feunous battle took 
place, in 1403, between Henry lY. and Hotspur. Shrewsbury has on various 
occasions, for short periods, been the residence of royalty, and Parliaments have 
also been held within its walls. The town contains many public buildings 
worthy of notice, among which may be mentioned the diflferent churches, the 
town-haH, the market-house, the county-hall, the infirmary, the gaol, the 
free grammar-school, founded by Edward VI., and raised into great repute 
b|r Bishop Butler ; the theatre, said to have formed part of an ancient palace, 
&c There are two handsome bridges over the Severn, and a delightful 
promenade on its banks, called St Chad's Walk, or the Quarry. Shrews- 
bmy is the chief mart for Welsh weba^ which are made in Montgomery, 



y Google 



148 BRISTOL, CHEPSTOW, MONMOUTH, HEREFORD, kc—OonHnued. 



and dressed here. This town is also fomons for its brawn and cakes. It i 
two members to Parliament. Pop. 1851, 19,681. Four miles from the town 
are the interesting ruins of Haughmond Abbey, founded in the year 1100, by 
WiUiam Fitzallan. Of the abbey church the nave only remains, having a roof 
of fine oak. Speaker Onslow, Dr Bumey, and many other eminent men, were 
natives of this town. From Shrewsbury to Newport is 18 miles ; to Welling* 
ton, 11 miles ; to Drayton, 18 mUes ; Oswestry, 18 mUes ; Bishop's Castle, 20 
miles; Montgomery, 21} miles; Welsh-Pool, 19 miles. Shrewsbury is con- 
nected by railway with all parts of the kingdom. 



ON RIGHT FROM BBI8T. 



About one mile from 
Shrewsbury is a column, 
Burmountea by a statue 
of General Viscount Hill, 
erected in 1816- 

A.t a distance Sundome 
CasUe, A. W. Corbet, Esq. 

ToWem,4|nulei. 



To Whitchurch, 11^ m. 
To Wem, 9i miles. 

Oteley Park, and beyond 
Bettisfieid Park, Sir J. 
Hanmer, Bart., and Ore- 
dington Hall, Lord £e- 
nyon. 

Ellesmere has a con* 
siderable trade in malting 
and tanning. The site of 
the castle, now a bowHng 
green, commands a de- 
UghtM prospect. 

I m. beyond Overton is 
Bryn-y-Pys, F. Bh Price, 
Esq.; and Maesgwaylod 
TxMge, near w^^ich is 
Gwemhayled, and, three 
miles distant^ Emral 
Park, Sir R. Pulestone, 
Bart 

To Whitchurch, 18 m. 

Cefn Hall. 

To Whitchurch, 15| m. 

To Holt, 6 miles ; thence 
to Chester, 8 miles. 



Acton Park, (Sir R. H. 
Cunliife, Bart.) the birth- 
place of Judge JefEteys. 



54J 

52 

50} 

48J 

4b' 
424 



4U 
36i 



314 
29i 



Albrighton. 

Harmer HilL 
Middle. 
Burlton. 

Cockshut 

■^^ cross Ellesmere 



Ellesmere. Pop. 1851, 
2087. 

Overton, (FUnUhire,) 



Eyton, (IkMghahire.) 



Marchwiel. 

WREXHAM 

is a populous and well-built 
town, noted for its &\n. 
The church is a splendid 
building, of the fiifteenth 
century. The intoior is 
richly adorned, and contains 
a superb altar-piece, besides 
a numbo: of beautifUl roo> 
nnments. Pop. of parish, 
1851, 15,630. 



104 

1064 

106 

1094 

1124 
U5| 



ON LBFT FROM BRIST. 



116f 



121} 



126} 
129 



2 mOes beycmd Shzews- 
biU7 is Shdton, celebrated 
fbr an immense oak , 44 fbet 
3 f"A^** in circumference. 



Petton HaU. 



Hardwicke House, Si 
J. R. Kynaston, Bart 
To Oswestry, 71 miles. 
To Llangollen, 16 miles. 



Orerton Lodge. 
Bose HiU. 



In the distance Wyn- 
nstay. Sir W. W. Wynn 
Bart., and beyond Rnabon 



Erddig, S. Yorke, Esq. 
To Ruthin, 16 miles. 
To Mold, 12 miles. 



Gwersyllt Hall, and 
GwersyUt HiU. 



y Google 



BHISTOl. CHKPSTOVr, UONHOUTH, HEBEFOBD, te— ConUniwd. 



149 



ON BieHT FROM BRI8T. 


it 


Giesford Road. 

^^ crosB river Alun. 
Pulford, (CSieafewYs.) 

J^ cross river Dee. 
CHESTER. 


Il 


ON LBPT PROM BBIST. 


Hondey HaU. 

Tlefakn. 

Eaton HaU, Marquis of 
WeBtminster, 
Eodesto^. 


23 
174 


133 

135i 

140} 


Gresford liOdgc Sir H. 
L, Jokuson, Bart. 



Chester is an andent and populous city sitoated on a rocky eminence. The 
houses are singularly constructed. They have porticoes running along the 
firent, affording a covered walk to pedestrians, and beneath these are shops and 
warehouses on a level with the street The castle is said to have been erected 
in the reign of William the Ck)nqueror. A part of the original building has 
been repaired, and part of it was demolished, and a range of magnificent build- 
ings has been erected on its site. They consist chiefly of an armoury contain- 
ing nearly 30,000 stand of arms, barracks, court of justice, county gaol, the shire 
hall, the offices of the palatinate, and a curious ancient chapeL The cathedral 
was the church of the dissolved abbey of St Werburgh. It contains curious 
monuments, and a neat choir. The bishop's throne was formerly the shrine of 
St Werburgh. The chapter-house, a beautiful edifice on the east side of the 
<ikaster8, appears to have been erected in the time of Randle, the first Earl of 
Chester, whose remains, together with those of his uncle and several of his suc- 
cessors, were deposited here. St John's Church, on the east side of the city, 
without the walls, is supposed to have been founded by Ethelred in 689. In 
Trinity Church lie the remains of Matthew Henry the commentator, and of Par- 
nell the poet Sir J. Vanbrugh was a native of Chester. Chester contains va- 
rious other churches, several meeting-houses, charitable institutions, public 
libraries, &c. Chester was formerly a Roman station, and abounds with anti- 
quitiesL Its ancient walls, which are still standing, are about two miles in dr- 
cumference, and form a delightful promenade, commanding fine views. There 
are four gates in the city walls. Races are held in spring and autunm on a fine 
course called the Roodee. Here Edward of Caernarvon received the submission 
of the Welsh in 1300. It was besieged and taken by the Parliamentary forces 
in 1645. It returns two M.P. Pop. 1861, 27,766. Eaton HaU, a seat of the 
Uarqnis of Westminster, situated on the banks of the Dee, about 3) miles from 
Chester, is a superb mansion, rebuilt in the Gothic style, from designs by Mr 
Porden in 1813, and is fitted up with great splendour. It contains Wesfs two 
fine paintings of Cromwell dissolving the Parliament, and the landing of Charles 
IF. From Chester to Holywell is 18^ miles; to Great Neston, 10}; to Park- 
gate, 12 ; to Frodsham, 11 ; to Tarporley, 10}. 



y Google 



150 BMSTOL, CHEPSTOW, MONMOUTH. HEBEFOKD, &e^-Continved. 



ON RIGHT FROM KUST. 



Hoole Houae. 

ChorltoD. 

Backford Hall, R 
Glegg. Esq. 

HootOQ HalL 



BromborouKh Hall. 



Birkenhead Priory, a 
fine picturesque ruin. It 
i founded about 1150. 



Hi 
10} 

a 



6i 

2 
1 



^^ cr. EUesmere canal 

Backford. 

Great Sutton. 

Easthazn. 



Bromborough. 
Lower BebingtOB. 

Tranmere. 

Woodside Feny. 

^ cross river Mersey 

LIVERPOOL. 

(6«ep.22U 



H4 
1474 

150i 



15U 

im 

166i 
2571 

158i 



ON LEFT FROM BRIST. 



MostonHall. 



MoUington Hall. 

Three miles distant 
Puddington Hall, and 
Burton" " 



ThomtoB HalL 
Sutton Hall. 



FDidtonHalY. 



Birkenhead (see p.2464 



LX. BRISTOL TO GLOUCESTER^ WORCESTER, AND KIDDERMINSTER, 

80i Miles. 



ON RIGHT FROM BRIST. 




HorfieM. 


fi"? 


ON LEFT FROM BRIST. 


Stoke Gilford Park, Duke 


78 


n 


Henley House. 


of Beaufort 


764 


Filton. 


3i 


Pen Park. 




74i 


Patchway House. 


6 


Over Court. 




731 


Ahnondsbury. 


7 


EnoleFark,W.C.Mas> 
ter,Esq. 
'iockiJagtoit. 


Alreston Lodge. 


71 


Alveston. 


H 






70i 


Ship Inn. 


10 


lTniledi8t.i8Thombury, 








an ancient town, with an 










el«gant church, and the luina 










of a castle, erected by the 










Duke of Buckingham who 










was beheadedl^ Richard 
HI. 


Cromhan Park, Earl of 


07J 


Junction of the road. 


13 


Ducie. ^ , 
Tortworih Conrt, Earl 
of Dude. 


654 

64J 
624 


Falfield. 
Stone. 


I4i 
16 


Hill Court House, HL 
Jenner Fust, Esq. 




Newport 


17J 
19 




To Dursley, 3 milcr. 


en 


Berkeley Heath. 


IJmiledistisBericeley. 
the birth plaoeofDrJennn. 










the discoverer of vaccina- 










tion. Here U Berkeler 



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y Google 



BRISTOL i BIRMINGHAM RAILWAY. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



BRISTOL TO GLOUCfiSTKR. WORCESTER. he^^onUnutd, 



151 




1 mile distant tbeLeaze, 57^ 
MnP.Hidces. Alkerton, 
H. Parnel Hiekes, Esq. 
In the distance, Spring 
Park, Earl of Ducie. 



In tbe distance, Stand- 531 
ishPark. 

51J 



To Painswick 6| miles, acs 
Oreocester, 17 mUes. *"* 
T6 CSieltenliam, 9 miles. 
To Tewkesbury, 10| m. 

PnU Gomrt, W. Dowdes- 354 
well. Esq. — • 

HamOourt. 



To Fashose, 8i miles. 



3 miles distant Croome 
Ooort, Earl Coventry. 

The Rhyd, Sir £. H. 
Leohmere, Bart. 

BeremEnd. 



^^ cr. the riv. Stroud, 
and the Thames and 
Severn CanaL 
Moreton Valence. 27 

Hardwicke. 29 



25i 




Cambridge Inn. 



22J 



GLOUCESTER. 334 

(See p. 156.) 

^^ cr. riv. Severn, and 

the Gloucester CanaL 

Division of the roads. 44} 

Longdon, ( Worcester- 51} 

thdre.) 

Upton. 54} 



6i miles beyond Upton 
are Malvern Welis, situated 
at the foot of the Malvern 
hills; and, 2} miles further 
is Great Malvern, a village 
of considerable antiquity, 
and the principal plaice of 
accommodation for those 
who visit the wdls. Its 
church, erected in the rdgn 
of Henry V1I.» contains se- 
veral curious monuments. 
Behind the village the Mal- 
vern Hills rise 1300 feet 
abovethe levelof theSevem. 
24i Hanley Castle. 55} 
21 1 Bhyd Green, 59 
(To Great Malvem, 4 m.) 



residence of the Berkeley 
family, and now the 
seat of Earl Fitzhar- 
dinge. It was founded 
soon after the Conquest, 
and has been the scene of 
various historical events, 
am(mg others of the mur- 
der of Edward II. The; 
castellated form of tha 
mansion is still preservedJ 
and it contains a large^ 
collection of portraits. 

Gossington Hall. 

Frampton Court, H. C. 
Clifiurd, Esq. 

8 miles distant Fretheme 
Lodge. 



Hardwicke Gonrt, T. J. 
L. Baker, Esq. 

Quedgeley House, J.G. 
Hayward, Esq. 

Hempstead Court, Rev. 
S.Lyson8. 



To Ledbury 10 miles, 
Great Malvern, 8 miles. 

New Ho. Earl Coventry. 

5 miles from Upton is 
Madresfield Court, the seat 
of Earl Beamdiamp. 



Blackmore Park, T. 
Homyold, Esq. 



I 



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152 



BRISTOL TO GLOUCESTER, WORCESTER, &«.— ConttottMr 



ON RIGHT FROM BRI8T. 


II 


Powick. 


11 

£| 

63i 


ON LEFT FROM HRfST. 




16J 


Powick Court, 






^^ cr. the river Teme. 






SpetcWey, R. Berkeley, 

Esq. 


14i 


St John'a 
^^ cross river Severn. 


m 


Bonghton House, and, 
beyond^ Crow's Nest. 


To Tewkesbury, 16} m. 


14J 


WORCESTER. 


66 




To Pershore, 9 










To EveBham, 1« 










To Alcester, 16 










To Drattwich, 6} 











Worcester, the capital of the county of that name, is nearly in the centre 
of England. It is finely situated on a gradual ascent from the left bank of the 
Severn, over which there is an elegant stone bridge. The circimiference of the 
city is four miles, And on the east side it is sheltered by a range of hills. The 
streets are in general well built, and the chief one, the Foregate, is very hand- 
some. The cathedral is an elegant fabric, g£ the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies, restored in 1830. It is 394 feet in length, 78 feet in breadth, and 162 in 
height. The tower contains eight bells, the largest weighing 6600 lbs. The 
interior of the cathedral is a splendid specimen of architecture. The choir 
is magnificent, the pulpit is octagonal, and consists of stone. The monuments 
are numerous; that of King John is the most ancient royal monument ex- 
tant in England. The statues of Bishops Wulstan, Oswald, and Hough, and 
the tomb of Prince Arthur, son of Henry YIL, a curious piece of antique 
workmanship, in the Grothic style, claim attention. The cloisters where the. 
monks formerly resided are now occupied by the dignitaries of the cathedral. 
Ac^oinlhg is the chapter-house, appropriated to the King's school, but used 
also at the triennial meetings of the choirs of Worcester, Hereford, and Glou- 
cester. The other public buildings worthy of notice are the Episcopal palace, 
close to the Severn, the residence of George III. and his Queen during their 
stay at Worcester in 1788; Edgar's Tower, a curious specimen of antiquity; 
the guildhall, a handsome edifice (in the Foregate); the town-hal], county 
gaol, the market-house^ and infirmary. There are numerous churches and 
chapels in Worcester, and several places of worship for Dissenters. There 
are also many hospitals and charitable institutions, a library, theatre, race- 
ground, &C. Formerly Worcester carried on a considerable trade in woollen 
cbths and carpets, but that has given place to the manufacture of gloves and 
porcelain, the latter more remarirable for the beauty of the work than for the 
extent to which it is carried on. The trade by the river is very considerable 
consisting partly in colonial produce, supplied by Bristol and Liverpool, and 
partly in culinary salt brought from the brine springs of Droitwich, six miles 
distant, and carried to some of the western counties of England, and some parts 
of South Wales. The hop market of Worcester is one of the laigest in the 



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BRISTOL TO GLOUCESTER, WORCESTER, kc—OmUnued. 



153 



kingdom. The country around the dty is highly fertile, and the markets held 
on Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday, are well supplied. The Severn affords 
abundance of fresh- water fish. Here Charles II. was defeated by Cromwell in 
1651. Worcester gives the title of Marquis to the Duke of Beaufort. It returns 
two members to Parliament, and is divided for municipal purposes into six 
wards. It is governed by a mayor, twelve aldermen, and thirty-six councillors. 
It is connected by railway with Bristol and Birmingham, and thus with all parts 
of the kingdom. Latterly a portion of the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhamp- 
ton line, has been opened to Evesham. Population in 1851, 27,528. 



on BIGHT FSOM BUSTOL 



Perdiswell, Sir O. P. 
Watkemiin, Bart. 

Westwood Park, Rt. 
Hon. Sir J. S. Pakingtoii, 
Bart. 

To Drdtwlch, 4| miles. 



6 S 
10} 



Hill Grove. 
Oakland, H. Talbot, 

G^nhill, G. Talbot, 
Eaq. 



H 



1-1 



^ Droitwich Canal. 
^^ cr. river Salwarpe. 

Ombersloy. 



Hartlebury. 



KIDDERMINSTER. 



71} 



76 



80} 



ON LXTTraOMBmiSTOl. 



Ombersley Court, Lord 
Sandys. In the distance, 
Witley Court (Loi d 
Ward), and beyond, 
Stanford Court, Sir T. E. 
Winmngton, Bart. 

To Stourport, 2 mile^. 
Bewdley, 6 miles. 

Hartlebury Castle (Bi- 
shop of Worcester). 

BlHkebrouk House, J. 
Best, Esq. 

Lea CHStle, J. P. B. 
Wesihead, Efo. i 

Broomfield House. | 

Kidderminster is a large and populous town on the Stour, famous for the ma* 
no^usture of carpets. The old church is a noble Gothic pile, containing nume- 
rous monuments. The walks in the churchyard conmiand fine views of the 
town and its vicinity. The town possesses several charitable institutions. It re- 
turns one member to Parliament Pop. 1851, 18,462. The Stafibrdshire and Wor- 
cester canal* which passes through Kidderminster, opens a communication with 
Hull, Liverpool, Bristol, Manchester, &c In the vicinity are the remains of 
an ancient castle, the vestiges of an encampment at Warsal Hill, and a chaly- 
beate weU at Sandbum. Richard Baxter was for many years vicar at Kidder- 
minster, and Baskerville the printer was born in the vicinity. 

From Kidderminster to Bewdley is 3 miles, to Stourport 4 miles, to Tenbniy 16 
miles^ to Leominster 27 miles, to Ludlow 24 miles, to Bridgenorth 13} miles, to 
Stourbridge 6} miles. Bewdley on the Severn is chiefly supported by its navi- 
gation, and has a considerable trade in tanning leather. Pop. 1851, 7318. It unites 
with Stourport in returning one M. P. Stourbridge is a handsome town, noted for 
the manufacture of glass. The canal, which passes the town, communicates with 
the adjacent counties, and contributes greatly to its prosperity. Pop. 1851, 7847 



y Google 



154 



BEISTOL TO GLOUCESTER, WORCESTER, kc-^Contmued. 



Two miles and a quarter from the town is Hagley, the fomous mansion erected 
by the first Lord Lyttelton. It contains a valuable library and a numerous col- 
lection of paintings. The gronnds command varied and extensive views. In 
Hagley chtirch is the mausoleum of the Lyttelton fiunily. Near Stourbridge 
also, but in Staffordshire, are Himley Hall, the seat of Lord Ward, and EnviDe 
Hall, the seat of the Earl of Stamford and Warrington, the latter a spacious and 
elegant mansion, with grounds laid out by the poet Shenstone, to whose memory 
a small chapel is dedicated. Ten miles from Kidderminster is Hales Owen, a neat 
town, formerly celebrated for its monasteiy, some remains of which still exist The 
church, which is admired for its beautiful spire, contidns several interesting 
monuments, one in memory of the poet Shenstone, who was educated in the fi-ee 
grammar-school, and buried in the adjacent cemetery. In the vicinity is the 
Leasowes (M. Attwood, Esq.,) a beautiful seat, indebted for much of its elegance 
to the taste of the poet Shenstone, who was bom here. Hales Owen is 7} miles 
from Birmingham. 

LXI. LONDON TO GLOUCESTER AND CHELTENHAM (by Railway), 121 Miles. 



ON BIGHT FKOM LOND. 



Rodboroe-Cheney. 

Moredon. 

Little Blunsdon. 

Gricklade, 2 miles. 
It is a boronzh by pre- 
scription, and has re- 
turned members to Far- 
liament since the reign 
of Edward I. The Town- 
Hall was biult in 1569. 
Pop. 1861, 86,603. 

Leigh. 

Somerford Keynes. 
Oaksey. 
Poole Keynes. 
Kemble. 

South Cemey, on the 
banks of the Chum. 
Here is the famoos spire 
of All Saints Chnrch^ an 
Hncient and cnnons 
building. Behind it is 
Ampnev Down, with a 
manor-house bnilt in the 
time of Henry VIII. by 
the Hungeiford family. 

Branch to Cirences- 
ter, 9| miles. Cirences- 
ter has returned 2 M.F.'s 
since the 13th of Eliza- 
beth. The church is a 
iuindsome Gothic boild- 



44 



391 



35} 



From London to Swin- 
don St. (Wiltshire), 
P. 101 

The town is pleasantly 
situated on an eminence, 
and commands an exten- 
sive view of the three 
counties of Wilts, Berks, 
and Gloucester. Pop. 2469. 

Purton Station. 
Enter Gloucestershire. 



ninety Station. 
Be-enter Wiltshire. 




Enter Gloucestershire. 



81i 



85} 



Wootton Bassett, at a 
considerable distance. 
Pop. 1896. 

LiddiardTregooze, Vis- 
count Bolinebroke. 

Liddiard MeUicent. 

Furton. 



Minety. 

Charlton Fark (KarJ 
of Suffolk and Berk- 
shire). 

Ewen. 

Cirencester, an an- 
cient borough market- 
town, derives its name 
from the river Chum, 
on which it is situated. 
Canute the Great held a 
Parliament here. Here 
was formerly a castle and 
a Saxon monast^y for 
prebendaries. Pop. 

1861, 6096. The chief 
mauufactureof Cirences- 
ter is of cutlery. There 
are also carpet and 
woollen manufactories, 



y Google 



LONDON TO OLOUCBSTER AND CHELTENHAM— CimttniMil. 



155 




ing, one of the finest in 
the khigdom, and contains 
numenMusepultural brass* 
and OKMiuments. 



Gnnre, Earl 



Coates. 

Oakley 
BathuKt. 

Rodmarton, supposed to 
havebeoi aBomah station, 
because here, in 1438, were 
found a number of Roman 
coins. Samuel Lysons, 
joint author of Magna 
Britnmia, was bom here. 

&q>pertoii. Its church 
contains several ancient 
romiumentSy and here in 
1750, & great quantity of 
nlverand brass eoinswas 
discovered. 

Chalfoid. The scenery 
in its neighbourhood 
extremely beautiAiL 

Bisley. The principal 
manufiKcture is of coarse 
ckithing, but owing to the 
un£ftvouxsble situation of 
the town, tiie nuirket is 
thinly attended. 



Lypplatt Park. 
Misaerden Court (late 
SirE. B.Sandys, Bart.) 

Stratfords House. 



Rand wick. 
Standish Ho. Lurd Sher- 
borne, 
ntchoomb. 



80 



Tetbory Boad Station. 



4^ cr. the Roman 
Way. 

J§^ cr. river Frome, 

and pass through a tunnel 

of considerablie length. 



Painswick, a market- 
irregularly built on 



21J 



19J 



il 



91 



and two breweries. Many 
antiquities, both Roman 
and Saxon, have at difib- 
rent times been discovered 
in this town and neigh- 
bourhood. 



Brimscomb Station. 



Stroud Station. 
Stroud is situated near the 
confluence of the Frome and 
the Slade. It is a market 
and borough town, and may 
be considered the centre of 
the clothing manufacture of 
this part of the country. It 
returns 2 M. P., and is a 
ling place of the county, 
^oiiton, the natural philo- 
sopher, and White, Arabic 
Professor at Oxford, were 
natives of Stroud. Popw 
1851, 36,585. 



the banks of the Slade Wa- 
ter. It is chiefly inhabited 
by dothien. The spire of] 
8C Mary's church isi74 leetl 



99} 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



lOli 



Minchin - Hamptoik, 
pleasantly situated on the 
Frome, u supposed to be 
the place where Alfred 
the Great defeated the 
Danes in 879. In the 
church-yard is interred 
James Bradley, who dis- 
covered the aberration of 
light, and the nidation of 
the earth's axis. Pop. 
4890. 

Hyde Court. 

Bovniham House. 

Hill House, Sir J. D. 

Bodborough, and, a lit- 
tletotheleft,King Stanley, 
said to have been the re- 
sidence of one of the Mer- 
cian Kings, and where 
there are some remains of 
a Rbman camp. 

Leonard Stanley was 
much destroyed by fire in 
1686, and has not since re- 
covered its former import- 
ance. The church is an 
ancient building, in form 
of a cross. The priory 
kitchen of a monastery for 
B^edictines still remains. 

Frocester is a pretty vil- 
lage, and commands a fine 
prospect. The Earl of Du- 
de has a seat here, where 
Elizabeth passed a night, 
in 1574, on her progress 
through this ooQiity. 



y Google 



156 



LONDON TO GLOUCESTER AND CHELTENHAM— C<Mi/i««e<f. 





e| 




a c 




ON RIQBT nOM LOND. 


17i 


Stonehoose Station. 


^1 


ON LEFT F&OM LOND. 


in height, and contains a 


1031 




fine peal of bells. 










Painswick House, W. H. 










Ix>warHare8field. 








Haresfield Court, D. 


Harescomb. Its church 








J. Niblett, Esq. 
Hardwicke Court, T. 


contains some carious old 
















J. L. Baker, Esq. 


Brockthrop. 








Quedgelcy House, J. 


WhaddoQ. 








Curtis Hayward, Esq. 


Matson. Here is a de- 








Tulltey. 


lightfhl eminence called 










Robin's Wood Hill, in the 










shape of a cone, and cover- 










ed with almost continaal 
verdure. 


7 


Gloucester Station. 


114 


Hempstead Court, 
Rev. S. Lysons. 


Churchdovm. 










Badgeworth possesses a 








Sandhuret. 


mineral spring of the same 










quaUties as those of Chel- 








Down Hatheriey, 


tenham and Gloucester. 










LeekhamptoB. It* ehurcfa 








Norton. 


oonulna tone enrioua monn- 










his lady. The mraor b rap- 








Staverton. 


pOMdtOteMOldMtliatllM 

ofBenryVU. 








Boddington. 


2 m. dist. Sontham Ho. 










(Earl of EJlenborough.) 




Cheltenham. 


121 





Gloucester, the capital of the county from which it derives its name, gave his 
title to H. R. H. the late Duke of Gloucester. It is situated in a beautiful valley 
on the bank of the Severn, and is sheltered on the east by a range of hills. The 
city is intersected by four principal streets which meet in the centre. They are 
broad, dean, well-paved, and lighted. The principal building is the cathedral, 
begun in 1047, and enlarged at subsequent periods. It is 420 feet in lengthy 
144 feet in breadth, and surmounted by a tower 129 feet in height The inte- 
rior is impressive, the stalls are said to be scarcely inferior to those at Windsor ; 
the choir is richly ornamented, and there is a whispering gallery. The eastern 
window is the largest in England. The Cathedral is adorned by several monu- 
ments, of which those of Robert Duke of Normandy, Edward II., Bishop War- 
burton, and Dr Jenner, chiefly claim attention. The bishopric of Gloucester 
was first constituted by Henry YIII., and was joined to Bristol in 1836, so 
that the Bishop takes his seat in Parliament under the title of Bishop of Glou- 
cester and Bristol. There are rarions parochial churches, several meeting- 
houses, a gaol, constructed on the plan of Howard, a town-hall, custom-house, 
assembly rooms, theatre, &c The new bridge over the Severn is a hand- 
some structure, 87 feec span. The principal trade of Gloucester consists in 
the manufacture of pins, iron, flax, and hemp. A considerable inland trade 
is carried on with the counties through which the Severn flows. There is 
also a small quantity of wine, spirits, and West Indian produce import- 
ed. The river admits sloops and brigs up to the city, but for larger vessels, a 



y Google 



LONDON TO GLOUCESTER AND CHELTENHAM -(7o««n««/. 



157 



canal and basins hare been recently fonned with depth of water sufficient to 
admit vessels of 500 tons burden. For municipal purposes, the city is divided 
into three wards, and is governed by a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen coun- 
cillors. It has returned two members to Parliament since temp. Edward I. 
Gloucester was the birth-place of Robert of Gloucester the chronicler, John 
Taylor the water poet, George Whitfield the famous Methodist, and R. Baikes 
the founder of Sunday schools. Martcets are held on Wednesdays and Saturdays 
and the supply is abundant Pop. 1851, 17,572. About 8 mUes beyond Glouces- 
ter is Highnam Court, erected from a design by Inigo Jones. Gloucester is 
connected by railway with all parts of the kingdom, but unfortunately the two 
main lines meeting at this city are of different guages. 

Cheltenham is situated on the River Chelt, which flows into the Severn. Its 
situation is healthy and picturesque, and it is sheltered on the north by the 
Cotswold hills. It owes its celebrity to its mineral waters, which were first 
discovered in 1716. The waters are cathartic and chalybeate, resembling those 
of Harrowgate. Every accommodation has been provided for those who use 
them. The well walk is a magnificent promenade, shaded by ancient elms. St. 
Mary's Church is a large elegant building in the form of a cross with a lofty 
octagonal spire. It contains a curious font, and near it is an ancient stone cross. 
Besides this there are Trinity Church, niunerous new churches, and a few places 
of worship for Dissenters. There are also some charitable establishments, 
' assembly rooms, good hotels, billiard rooms, and a theatre. Cheltenham returns 
1 M.P. Pop. 1^51, 85,051. Two miles distant is Southam House (Earl of 
Ellenborough.) 

LXn. BIRMINGHAM AND GLOUCESTER RAILWAY, 62^ Miles. 




Hoa^Uer Lodce (Lord 
De SMinuu-es). 

PrMtbary. 

Sootliam House (Earl of 
EUcnboronfrh). 

BUhop't Clocve, and at • 
didMioe Wtnebcomb, near 
wUeh ar« the ruins of Sndel j 
Castle ( and bejond Is Tod- 
diagton Boose, Lord Sadele>. 

Oxenton. 

In the meadows near 
Tevketbnry, a dreadful 
conflict took place in 
1471 between the adhe- 
rents of the Houses of 
York and Lancaster, in 
which the latter were 
totally defeated. The 
spot still retains the 
name of the Bloody Field. 



39 



From Glo'ster Station. 

GLOUCESTER. 

CHELTENHAM. 



Cleeve Station. 



Ashchurch. 
Tewkesbury Branch, 
2 Miles. 
TEWKESBURY 
is pleasantly situated at the 
junction of the Severn and 
the Avon. Here was for- 
merly an abbey founded by 
the Saxons, the church of 
which still remains, and is a 
stately structure in the form 






ON LEFT raOH GLO'ST 



Staverton. 
Boddiugton. 
Elmstone Hardwick. 
Stoke Orchard. 
Tredington. 



Walton Cardiff. 

Walton House. 

Tewkesbury has a con- 
siderable trade in malt- 
ing, and manuractures 
cotton stockings and 
nails. It returns two 
M.P. Pop. 1851, 6878. It 
affords the title of Baron 
to the Earl of Muuster. 



y Google 



168 



BIRMINGHAM AND GLOUCESTER RAILWAY-Con/ijiit^i. 




Kemerton and Kemerton 
Court. 
Overbory Park. 



Elmley Pa., T. H. H, 
Davies, Esq. 

WooUer's Hill, C E. 
Hanford, Esq. 



Line to Pershore, Eves- 
ham, Ac^ branches off 
here. 

At a short distance is 
Pershore,a handsome well, 
built town. Here are the 
ruins of the Abbey House. 
The scenery of the vicfaiity 
is picturesque. Pop. 1861, 
2717. 

Stoulton. 

Peopleton. 

Crowle and Crowle 
House. 

Huddington. 

Himbleton. , 

Bi-adley. 

Hanbury Hall, a spaci- 
ous mansion, erected about 
1710. The hall and stair- 
cases are painted with al- 
legorical subjects by Sir 
Godfirey Kneller. The 
church contains several 
monuments of the Vernon 
family. 



37 



34 



33 



of a cathedral. It contains 
the monuments of many 
distinguished pentons. 
From the summit of the 
tower there is a delightftd 
prospect. The gateway, 
which once formed the 
entrance to the abbey, still 
remains, and behind the 
church are vestiges of the 
cloisters. 

Bredon Station. 



Eckington Station. 
-i^ cr. the Avon. 



Defford Station. 



Wadborough Station. 
Abbots WoodJunction. 



SPETCHLET Station. 
Dunhampstead Station. 



DROrrWICH Road 

Station. 
Droltwich is a place of 
very considerable anti- 
quity, famous for its salt 
springs. It was a very po- 
pulous place in the time of 
William the Conqueror. 
Its salt, produced from 
brine springs, is esteemed 
the best in Europe. It re- 
turns one member to Par- 
liameut. Pop. 1851, 7096. 

Stoke Works Station. 

BROMSGROVE Station. 38 



&§ 




16 



19 



20 



Across the Severn^ 
Pull Co., J.E.Dowdes- 
well, Esq. 



Across the Avon, 
Strensham Court, J. 
Taylor, Esq. 

Strensham, the birth 
place of Butler the poet. 

At a distance, Upton. 

Line to Worcester, 
Droitwich, Stourbridge, 
&C., branches off here. 

At a distance, Upton. 

Sevemstoke. 

Besford Court, SirT. 
O. Saunders Sebright, 
Bart. 

Croome Park (Earl 
Coventry,) and beyond 
the Rhyd, Sir £. H. 
Lechmere, Bart. 

Spetcheley Park, R. 
Berkeley, Eisq. 



Whitttagton. 

Wamdon. 

Tibberton, and beyond 
Hinlip Hall, Viscount 
Southwell. 

Oddhigley. 

Hadzor House, J. H. 
Galton, Esq. 

Westwood Park,RiRht 
Hon. Sir J. S. Paking. 
ton, Bart. M.P., and be- 
yond Ombersley Court, 
Lord Sandys. 

Upton Warren. 

Grafton House (Earl 

of Shrewsbury) in ruins. 

Bronugrove, on the Sal- 



y Google 



BIRMINGHAM AND GLOUCESTER RAILWAY— Olw^mtwrf. 



159 



oa BIGHT TBOH OLO'ST. 


U 




ii 


OH Lxn nOH GLO'ST. 




r*im 




p^o 




At Barnet Green are a 
chalybeate apring and a 


13 


BlackweU Station. 


40 


w«^p^ eoiuists prindpally 
of one ttiwt, in which a» 
many old houMS ourlonsly 


Hcwell Grange, Hon. 
R. H. CKve. This seat 








11 


BARNET GREEN Station. 


82 


UaU are employed In the 
andllneni. The chorch son- 


hat belonged to the fa- 








Uine A nomber ol handsome 


mij of the Earls of Ply- 








the Talboto. ^^soT Shrews- 


month and their repre- 








bury, and has a biirhly orna- 


sentatives since 1341. 








mented tower and spire. 


Bowlealey Park, and 
beyond BeoleyHaU. 








Pop. 1801. M36. 


Coston Hnckett. 
CostonHall. 








Bell Bronghton. 
Frankley. 


Northficld. 










King's Norton. 


H 


KING'S NPRTON. 


46^ 






4 


MOSELEY Station. 


49 






2 


CaraphiU. 


51 


Harbome. 


Moselev Hall, J. A. 
Taylor, I&q. 




Birmingham, (see p. 203). 


53 


Edgbaston, Lord Cal- 
thorpe. 



LXm. LONDON TO GLOUCESTER THROUGH MAIDENHEAD, FAEINGDON, 
AND CIRENCESTER, 107i MUes. 



ON XieHT fBOX LOHD. 



Cliefden, Dnke of 
Sutherland. 



To Great Marlow, 7^ m. 

Fawley Court, W. P. 
W. Freeman, Esq., and 
beyond, Stonw Parl^ 
Lord Camoys. 



Abont I mne* distaot b 
Chal^trore Field, where 
Hampden felL on the 18th of 
June 1613. A monument in 
ooomiemoration of this event 
was enscted in 1818, and ito 
completion celebrated on the 
two^iondredth anniTenacy 
•'f the day. ^ 

Ifnoebam Conrtenay, Q, Q. 
Vernon Harcoort, Esq. 



^3 



81i 

79i 

72} 



67i 
61i 

58} 



56) 



From Hyde Pa. Corner 

to Maidenhead, Berks, 

(see pp. 91, 92.) 

Junction of the road. 

J^ cr. river Thames 
and enter Oxfordshire. 

HENLEY ON THAMES 
has a considerable trade iu 
com. flonr, malt, and 
beechwood. The church is 
a handsome structure, con- 
taining several interesting 
monuments. Pop. of par. 
1861,8733. 

Nettiebed. 
Bensington or Benson. 

Dorchester 
was formerly a Roman sta- 
tion. The windows of the 
chnrch present some curi- 
ous paintings. The font is 
very ancient and curious. 
Burcott. 



3'^ 
^h2 



28 



85 



60| 



CM LBIT nOX LOHD. 



To Reading, 11 miles. 
Park Plaoe, Henerton 
House. 

To Reading, 8 miles. 

Boluey Court. 



Grey's Court,Hon. and 
Rev. Sir F. J. Stapleton, 
Bart, and beyond,CrowB- 
ley Park. 



Near Wallingford, 
Mongewell House. 



y Google 



160 London to Gloucester thrcuoh maidenhead. Ac^-Continued. 




To Oxibnl, 6k miles. 

2 miles distant, Radley 
Honse. Sir G. Bowyer, 
Bart 

Oakley Home. 



Buckland House, Sir B. 
6. Tiirockmortoii, Bart 

Faringdon House, W. 
Bennett, Esq. 



Fairford Park, J. R. R. 
Barker, Esq^ and 2 mUes 
distant Wiliiamstrip Park, 
Sir M. H. Htcki Beach, 
Bart 



Ampney Park, and be- 

Jond Barnsley Park, Sir 
. Musgraye, Bart 
The Abbey was granted 
to the family of Mx t3r by 
Queen Elizabeth in 1564. 



CemeyJIouae, 
CotswoJd House. 
Rencombe Park, Sir J. 
W. Ouisc, Bart 

Birdlip Hill commands a 
very extensive prospect 




Q CT. river Isis, and 
enter Berka 

BH ABINGDON, 

an ancient town, communi- 
cating by a cut with the 
Thames. It has two ancient 
churches, several meeting- 
houses, and charitable in- 
stitutions, a handsome 
market-house, a gaol, corn- 
mills, and manufactories of 
sail-cloth. OneM.P. Pop. 
1851, 6854. 

504 Shippon. 

44} Klng^n Inn. 

36J FARINGDON. 

The cbareh eontaini leteral 
curious monaments. Near this 
town are the remaiiu ofa camp 
•nppoMd to be of Danish ori- 
gin. Pop.l8Sl.SA5& 

4f^ CT. the Isis, and 
enter Gloucestershire. 

31 f LECHLADE. 

27} FAIRFORD. 

Thedinrcfa, erectedtowards 
the close of the fifteenth 
century, by John Tame, a 
merchant, for the reo^tion 
of some painted glass which 
he had captured at sea, is a 
veiy interesting building, 
and contains a number 
curious monuments, 

amongst which is that of 
the founder and his son, 
"> E. Tame. 
^^ CT. river Cohi. 

18 CIRCENCESTER, p. 154. 
in Trewsbury Head, about 
2 miles distant, is a spring 
called Thames Head, the 
primary source of that ri' 
ver. 



55} 



56i 
70i 



Ifilton Honse. 

To East Ibley, 11 m. 
Newbury, 21| mites. 

Wantage, 10 mHes. 
Hungerford, 84 miles. 



Pusey House* P. Pusey, 
Esq. 

Bnscot Park, F. Love- 
ldeli,£9q. 



7i 



Along the Roman road 
to Birdlip. 



754 
80 



891 



100 



(Earl 



Oakley Park, 
Bathurst,) formed by Lord 
Bathunt, the frieud of 
Pope. 

To CricUade, (^ miles. 

Malmesbnry, ll|_miles. 

Charlton Park,£arl of 
Suffolk and Berkshire. 

Minchinhampton, 10 m. 

Stroud, 11 m. 

Misserden Castle, (Iftte 
Sir £. B. Sandys, Bart) 

Whitoomb Park. 

Prinknash Park, T. J. 
Howell, Esq. This place 
fbrmerly belonged to the 
Abbots of Gloucester. 



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LONDON TO GL0UCB8TKR THROUGH MAIDSNHSAD, dfce.— ConMrnied. 161 



ON EIGHT FROM LOND. 


II 


DiTisionoftheroad. 
GLOUCESTER, see p. Ifl6. 


11 


ON LIFT FROM LOND. 




4i. 


1024 

107i 


Bowden HalL 

fiamwood Court, and 
Bamwood Ho. 



LXIV. LONDON TO OXFORD THROUGH MAIDENHEAD AND HENLEY, 
58 Miles. 



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BOMDON lO OXFOBS^-C&iUimted, 



OM RIGHT FBOM LOND. 



Bririitwell House, W. F. 
LowndM Stone, Eiq. 
ChaJgrove, wHere Hamp- 



ihalffTove* 
Warboxougb. 



12 



10 



Drayton. 

ChiaeJhamptoP. 

March Baldon, andBakkm 
Hmise, Sir. H. P. W iUough- 
by, Bart. 

Balden Toot, and beyond 
Cnddesden Palace, Bishop 
of Oxford. 



Horsepath. 



Bensington. 



Shillingford. 

S^ cross the Thameai 

Dorchester. 



Nuneham Courtena j. 

Sandford. 

Littlemoor. 

Cowley. 

OXFOBD. 



46 

48 
50 

52i 

54i 

55i 
58 



r LBVT FBOM LOND. 



W. & 



^Ca«tte PHory, 
Blackstone, Esq: 

Wallingford, formerly of 
great importanoe, is situated 
on the Thames, over whidi 
there is a bridge of 19 
arches. It retnms 1 M.P. 
Pop. of par. bor. 1851, 8064. 



Little Witt 

Chftoo Hampden. 

NnnehamParlLG. G T. 
fiarcourt, Esq. The house 
is handsome, and contains 
a choice collection of pic> 



Radley Honse^ Sir 6. 
Bowyer,Bait. 

South Hmksey. 



Oxford, the capital of the county to which it gives its name, and the seat of 
one of the most celebrated uniyersities of Europe, is pleasantly ntoate ^pon a 
gentle eminence in a valley at the confluence of two small riyers, the Isis and 
CherwelL It is a place of very remote antiquity, but the first £Eu;t connected 
with it that is known with certainty is, that in the reign of Alfred, who at one 
time resided at Oxford with his three sons, the place was noted for a monastery 
which was founded in the year 727. Oxford was twice set on fire, and other- 
wise suffered severely from the Danes. Edmund Ironside was murdered there. 
Canute firequently resided at Oxford, and Harold Harefoot, his son and successor* 
was crowned and died there. In the year 1067, the town was stormed by William 
the Conqueror, and a castle was built by him, now partly occupied by the county 
gaol and the house of correction. During her contest with Stephen, the Empress 
Maude was closely besieged in Oxford Castle by her rival, but escaped in the night 
with only three attendants ; and the castle surrendered next morning. . In the reign 
of Bichard II. the lectures of Dr John Wydiffe, the warden of Canterbury College^ 
occasioned a great excitement, and afterwards produced very important results. 
Henry II. resided at Oxford during the greater part of his reign, and here his 
valiant son Richard Coeui de Lion was bom. In the reign of Edward IIL the 
university and town suffered much firom a pestilence which carried off a fourth 
part of the students. In the martyrdoms of Mary^ reign, Latimer, Ridley, and 
Cranmer were burnt at Oxford in front of BaHiol College. During the civil wars, 
Oxford, after once or twice changing masters, became the head-quarters of the 
King. After the battle of Naseby, it surrendered to the parliamentary anny under 
Fair&x. During the reign of James II. the university firmly resisted an iU^ial 
command of that prince to elect a Roman Catholic to the presidency of Ma^ 
dalen CoUegGi James proceeded thither in person and expelled the coatuma* 



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OXFORD. 163 

dons members, whom, bowever, when alanned by the prepantions of the PHnee 
of Oiaoge, he afterwards restored. The origin of the University of Oxford, like 
that of the town, is inyolved in obscurity. The first places of education here 
appear to have been schools for the mstruction of youth. The earliest charter of 
privileges to the University as a corporate body is of the 28th Henry III. In 160S, 
the University obtained from James L the privilege of sending two representatives 
to Parliament Oxford University contains nineteen colleges and five halls. 

Umivsrsity College is said to have been founded by Alfred ; but this is be- 
lieved on good grounds to be a mistake. The college, as such, was erected from 
fdnds bequeathed by William of Durham, Rector of Wearmoutb, who died in 
1249. The funds of this college have been augmented by different benefactors— 
and especially by Dr. Badclifie. The chapel contains a fine monument, by Flax- 
man, to the memory of Sir W. Jones, the distinguished Orientalist, a curious 
altar-piece after Carlo Dolce, burnt in wood, &c The common room contains 
^^niton's fine bust of King Alfred. 

Balliol College received its foundation about the year 1263 from Sir John 
Balliol of Barnard Castle (father of John Balliol, King of Scotland), and his wife 
Devorgilla. The library was formerly considered one of the best in the University, 
and previously to the Beformation was particularly rich in manuscripts. 
Wydiffe was of this College. 

Mebton College was founded about the year 1264 by Walter de Merton, 
Lord Chancellor, and afterwards Bishop of Rochester. Its chapel, rebuilt about 
the begixming of the fifteenth century, is a remarkably fine spechnen of Gothic 
workmanship, and contains an altar-piece of the Crucifixion, supposed to be by 
Tintoretto, and monuments to Sir Thomas Bodley and Sir Henry Saville. The 
Library is the oldest in the kingdom. 

Exeter College was founded in 1314 by Walter de Stapledon, Bishop of 
Exeter, Lord Treasurer of England, and Secretary of State to Edward II. It 
has a handsome hall and chapel, and a good library. 

Obiel College was founded about the year 1326, nominally by Edward II. 
but really by Adam de Brome, his almoner. The architectural beauty of the 
library is striking. Among the plate are two cups, one given by Edward II. and 
the other by Bishop Carpenter. 

Queen's College derived its name from PhUippa, Queen of Edward III. by 
whose confessor, Robert de Eglesfield, it was founded in 1340. This college has 
been particularly patronized by the Queens of England. The existing buildings, 
with the exception of the libraiy, were chiefly erected during the last century. 
The chapel has a painted ceiling of the Ascension by Sir James Thomhill, and 
for an altar-piece a copy by Cranke of Correggio's ** Night.'* The library contains 
about 20,000 volumes, and, among other curiosities, a very andent portrait on 
glass of Henry Y., and another of Cardinal Beaufort 

New College owes its establishment in 1380, to William of Wykeham, 
Bishop of Winchester, and Lord High Chancellor, in the reign of Edward III. 
The buildings were completed in 1387, the same year in which Wykeham be- 
gan his collegiate establishment at Winchester. This is one of thewcuilthiest col- 



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164 OXFORD. 

leget in Oxford, and possesses the most beautiful chapel in the nnii^enity. Among 
the cariosities preserved in this chapel is the superb and costly crosier of the 
foonder. 

LiNOOLii GoLLBOB wasfounded about the ^rear 1427, by Richard Flemmyng; 
Bishop of Lincoln. John Wesley, fimnder of the Methodists, was of this college. 

All Soul's Gollbob was founded in the year 1437, by Henry ChicheH 
Archbishop of Canterbury. The library of this college, the foundation stone Of 
whidi was laid by Dr. Young, author of the ** Night Thoughts,** was erected by 
Colonel Codrington, and contains perhaps the largest room appropriated to the 
purpose in England. In the chapel is a fine statue of Judge Blackstone by 
Bacon, and the college hall contains numerous pidntings ; among others, one of 
the Finding of the Law, by Sir J. Thomhill. 

'Maodalbn Colleob was founded by YHlliam of Waynflete, Bishop of Win- 
chester, in the year 1457. It is bound by its statutes to entertain the Kings of 
England, and their sons, when at Oxford. The chapel contains a picture of 
Christ bearing the cross, said to be by Guide, the Last Judgment painted on 
glass, dec V 

Bbazbn Nosb Colleob was founded in the year 1509, by William Smytii, 
Bishop of Lincoln, in conjunction with his friend. Sir Bichard Sutton, Knight. 
Its singular name is said to have arisen from the circumstance of its having been 
erected on the site of two ancient halls, one of which was called Brazen Nose 
Hall, on account of an iron ring fixed in anose of brass, and serving as a knocker 
to the gate. The chapel is fine, and the hall is embellished with portraits. 

Corpus Cbbisti Colleob was founded in 1516, by Richard Fox, Bishop of 
Winchester. The library, which is particularly rich in printed books and manu- 
scripts, contains a statue of the founder in his pontifical robes. In the hall are 
a few portraits, and in the chapel an altar-piece by Rubens. 

Christ Chxtbor Colleob, the largest and most magnificent foundation at 
Oxford, owes its origin in 1524 to CarcQnal Wolsey. Its chapel is the cathedral 
church of the bishopric of Oxford. The hall is one of the finest in the kingdom, 
and boasts a very extensive collection of portraits. The library is very rich in 
manuscripts, prints, and coins. In Peckwater Quadrangle there is a collection 
of pictures bequeathed to the college by General Guise in 1765, and dnce en- 
larged. The bell called Great Tom weighs nearly 17,000 lbs. 

TRDrmr College was originally founded and endowed by Edward III., 
Richard II., and the priors and bishops of Durham. Being classed with religious 
houses at the Reformation, it was suppressed, and Sir Thomas Pope, having pur- 
chased the site and builcBngs, endowed a new foundation in 1554. 

St. John's College was founded in 1555, by Sir Thomas White, Aldecman 
and Lord Mayor of I/mdon. Its gardens are mudi admired ; the library is one 
of the largest and best furnished in the university, and possesses a curious piece 
of tapestry repr s oen ting our Saviour and disdples at Emmaus. 

Jesus Collbgb was founded in 1571, by Queen Elizabeth at the suggestion 
of Hugh 1^ Bice, D.C.L., for tha more especial benefit of his countrymen, tha 



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• OXFORD, . 165 

natives of Wales. This was the first college founded by a Protestant The 
library has a good collection of books and some curiosities, among which is a sil- 
ver bowl capable of containing ten gallons, a metal watch, given by Chirks I., 
and a huge stirrup said to have been used by Queen Elizabeth. In the hall there 
is a portrait of Charles I. by Vandyke, and in the chapel a copy of Guido's 
^'IGchael triumphing over Satan." 

Wjldham College, founded in 1613, by Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham, ifr 
remarkable as having given rise to the Royal Society, the first meeting of which 
was held in a room over the gateway. The chapel and hall are fine. 

Pembroke College, originally Broadgate Hall, was in 1624 converted into 
a college by the joint munificence of Thomas Tesdale and the Rev. Richard 
Wightwick. Dr. Samuel Johnson was of this college, and in the hall there is a 
bast of him by Bacon, a portrait of Charles I., and other puntings. * 

WoRCESTEB College was founded in 1714, from fimds bequeathed by Sir 
Thomas Cookes, Bart It possesses handsome gardens, chapel, and a library con- 
taining a valuable collection of architectural books and manuscripts. 

Besides the colleges, there are five halls iit Oxford — ^that is, estabUshm^its 
not endowed with estates, but simply under the government of a principal for 
the education and residence of students. These are, St Alrban Hall, which derived 
,iU name from Robert de Sancto Albano, a burgess of Oxford, in the reign of King 
John ; St Edmund Hall, said to be so called from St Edmund, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, in the reign of Henry III,; New Inn Hall, founded by William of 
Wykeham; St Mary Hall, founded by Edward II.; and St Mary Magdalen 
HaB, the most considerable of the whole number, OTiginally founded as a grammar 
school in 1480, by William Waynflete, thoifounder of Magdalen College. 

The chief public establishments connected with the University are — 

The 8CB061S containing the Pomfret statues and the Arundelian marbles. 

The Bodlel4n Libraby, founded by Sir Thomas Bodley at the dose of the 
sixteenth century, on the remains of one established by Humphrey, Duke of Glou- 
cester. This library contains, p^haps, the most valuable collection of books and 
manuscripts in Europe. 

The Picture Gallery. 

The Theatre^ built by Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
Chancellor of the University in 1664-1669, at the expense of L.15,000. It was 
designed and completed by Sir Christopher Wren. 

Clarendon Rooms, erected in 1711, with the profits of the sale of Claren- 
don's ''History ci the Rebellion," the copyright of which was presented to the 
University by his Lordship's son. They are used for offices and lecture rooms. 

The Ashmolean Museum, built at the charge of the University in 1682, by 
IMr C. Wren, for the reception of the collections of Ashmole, the antiquary. 

'Radouftb^b Library, one of the most imposing architectural ornaments of 
Oxford, founded by Dr. Radclifie, who, besides other sums, bequeathed L.40,000 
for the erection of the building. The building was designed and executed be- 
tween 1737 and 1749 by Gibbs of Aberdeen. 



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166 OXPORD^LONDON TO OLOUCBSTEB THBOUGH OXFOBD, ft& 



Thb Raocuffb Observatort, erected out of the fands of Br Radclilfe, hy 
the trustees of his will,at an expense of L.30,000. Besides these bofldingB thoe 
is a botanic garden, containing about fiye acres. 

The New Univebsitt PBiimiro Office erected 1826-7. 

The total nmnber of electors (doctors and masters of arts) upon the books of 
the different colleges and halls of Oxford is above 3450. 

Oxford contains fifteen parish churches. The other bufldings most worthy of 
notice are, the town-hall, the city bridewell, where is preserved the door of the 
prison in which Cranmer, Ridley, and Latimer were confined, the county gaol, 
the Baddiffe Infirmary, &c There are several meeting houses belonging to 
dissenting bodies. Races are held annually in Port Meadow, a diort distance 
{h>m the city. Oxford returns two M.P. Pop\ in 1851, 27,948. 

At Stanton Harcoort, 4) miles distant, are some remains of a mansion that 
belonged to the Earls Harcourl^ now extinct In one of the rooms, Pope passed 
a portion of two summers in translating Homer. The drarch contains Bevend 
monuments of the Harcourt fisunily. Jn the vichiity are three laige monumental 
stones called the Devil's Quoits. 

LXV. LONDON TO GLOUCESTER THROUGH OXFORD AND CHELTSN- 
HAM, lOSMOei. 



Wytham Abbey, Eari of 
Abingdon. 

Entham HaU (Earl of 
Macclesfield), and beyond 
Blenheim (Duke of Marl- 
borough), see p. 189. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



The Priory, W. 3. Leu- 
thall, Esq. 
ToChipphig Norton, 10m. 
To Stow on the Wcrid, 10 



49 

43J 
S8i 



31 



Barrington Grore, C. 
Gnenaway, Bio. 

Barrington Park, Lord 

t^mevor. 

Sherborne Castle Lord 
Ifiherbome. 



« 



From Hyde Pa. Comer 

to Oxfoid, (see pw 188.) 

■$% cross liyer Isis. 

Botley Hill, {Berks.) 

^^ cross riyer Isis. 

Enshsm, (Ozon). 

:^8 cr. riv. Windmsh. 

WITNEY, 
ftinous for its blankets and 
other thick wooUeos. The 
prmcipal buildhigs are, tiie 
dnucb, a spacious Gothic 
■tructuiie, with several an- 
cientmonuments; thetown- 
haU, and the 8tM)le or 
Blanket-Hall. Pop.1861, 
8099. 

BURfOED 
formerly carried on a large 
manafactnre of linen 
cloths and malt The 
church contains a monn- 
ment to the memory of 
Chief Baron Sir L. Tan- 
field. 

Enter Qloncesterahireh 



54 

55| 
5d| 

64f 



ON LBPT FROM LONH. 



72 



Cnniiiflr* 



CoektharpePtek. 



» i^es distant^ 'BnmOr 
well Grove, and near it i» 
FilkiniHaU. 



To Faii^(daB» 10 : 



Eastington Ptek.. 



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itized by Google 



o 

o 
< 



p 

(Si 
O 

w 



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XANDON TO OLOUOESTBB THBOUGH OZFOBD, ftc-CbfUMiMd* 167 



ON KIOHT FBOX LOND. 


i 




J 


ON IBPT FBOM LOND. 




NOETHLEACH, 
formerly remarkable for its 
clothing trade, which has 






21J 


81J 


StoweU Park. 






now declined. It has a 




















chnrch is a handsome 




















merous brasses and other 






Salperton Twtk, J. 


15 


n>Om^]Tr|f"tST 

FrogmiU Tni). 


88 


Compton Abdale. 

To Gloncester by Seven 


San^d?* Park, W. L. 




The hSU beyond thisoom- 




Wells, 14i mike. 




mands a fine prospect, in- 
cluding the valeof Evesham, 






Lawrence, Saq. 






















Worcester, and the Malvern 
Hills. 

CHELTENHAM, 








9 


94 


CharltonPa. 






(P.1S7.) 










GLOUCESTER, 


103 


Hen^istead House. 






(P. 156.) 







LXVI. LONDON TO HEREFORD THROUGH GLOUCESTER AND LEDBURY, 

136J 



W UOHT WBOU LOND. 



MsiseBROKe ixxifgi* 
Maisemore Court, 
To UptOB, 10 mOes. 

Down House, O. Dow. 
desweUfSsq. 

Bromesbcnow Plaee, O* 
Bicardo, Esq. 

1 mile distant Eastnor 
Cstae,themagniflcent8eat 
ofEarlSometB. 

HopeEnd. 

lb Malvern by Little 
Mahcm and Malvern 
Wells, 8 miles; thence to 
WoBenter,8miles. 

Mainstone Court, J. 
Johnstone, Esq.; and, ^ 
milesdistant.Heiefordshire 
iJBMon an unmense fort- 
IBBSS^ of British origin 



26 
23i 



16 



12 



9j 



London 
to Gloucester. 

1^ cr. riy. Severn, and 

enter Aldnej Island 

■^^ cross river Severn. 



Junction of the road. 
Staunton, Woroettersh. 

Enter Herefordshire. 

LEDBURY 
carries on a considerable 
manufacture of ropes, lines, 
and sacks. Thechurdiisof 
Saxon origin, and contains 
several monuments. Laige 
quantities of dder are made 
in ttie vicinity. This town 
formerly sent two members 
to Parliament. Pop. 1861, 
8027. 

Trumpet 
This spot commands a fine 
view of the Herefordshire 



Tarrington. 




To Boss, 15} miles ; to 
Mitcheldean, 11 miles; to, 
Newnham, 11 miles. 



110 
112i 



120 



[Mmam Court, Shr J. 
W. Guise, Bart 

Hartpury Court, B. 
Canning, &q, 



Haflteld House. 
To Boss, 13i miles. 



124 



127i Stoke Edith Park, 
'* Lndy Emily Fdey. 



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168 LONDON TO HBRBFOBD THBOUGH OLOUOBSTSl^ te^-CM^MMl. 



ON RieHT mOM LOND. 



New Court 



Ponmngtos. 
4^ croBB liver Frome. 

Ltigwardine. 
i£% croBs river Lugg. 

HEREFORP> (seep. 145.) 



130 



133 



136 



ON I.BF7 FBOV LOND^ 



About 4 mflesfrom Dor- 
mingtonif HolmeLacy,the 
ancient seat of the Scuda- 
more family, where Pope 
wrote the ** Man ctf Ross." 
The mansion and grounds 
are very interesting. The 
present possessor is Sir E. 
F. S(»<uunore Stap)»ope. 
Bart. 



LXVa. LONDON TO HEREFORD THROUGH GLOUCESTER AND ROSS, 

134 Miles. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



. Highnam Court (Sir J. 
W. Guise, Bart), erected 

, from a design by Inigo 
Jones, and containing, 
Eun(»ig other original por- 
traits, those of Cromwell 

. and Algernon Sidney. 

About 5 miles fromRoss 
are the massy ivy-covered 
ruins of Goodrich Castle. 
There was a castle here be> 
fore the Conquest The 
keep, which is the most 
ancient part, is in the 
BaxOn atylei During the 
civil war it was a scene of 
itesperateoontention,bdng 
repeatedly taken and re- 
taken. It w'asthe last cas- 
tle in England, except 
Pendennis, that held out 
for the King. It was af- 
terwards destroyed by or- 
der of the Parliament 
There is a remarkably fine 
view from the battlem^U 
ofoueofthetowen. 



To Hereford throngli 
LiUle Dew Church, 12 1 

Pengethly. 

Harewooo, Sir H. Hoa^ 
kyiiB, Bart. 

In the distance fltdme 
Lacy, 8ir £..F. Sardttnore 
Btanhoi-e. Bart. 



31 



23J 
20 

16 
14 



Lond.toGlo'rt.(p.'l67.) 103 
§^ cr. river Severn 
and Olo^ter Canal 

Huntley. ' 110 J 
Longhope. 114 

Enter Herefordshire. 

Weston. 118 

ROSS, . 1?Q 

situate on a rock elevatec 
above the east bank of thi 
Wye. Here' the celebrated 
"Man of Ross'* Mr J. Kyrle 
lived, and was intcned in 
Ros« diurch, where a mo- 
nument has been erected to 
his memory. The church 
also contains several monur 
ments of the Rudhall family, 
one of whom, defended He- 
reford agahist Cromwell. 
Hie churchyard and the 
contiguous prospect ground 
laid out by Mr Kyrle are 
celebroted for thdrbeautttUI 
views. Ross is a favourite 
resort for summer parties 
visiting the Wye. Pop. 
1851, 2674. 



.^S) cr. river Wye. 

Wilton. 

Peterstow. 



.^S cr. nver Wye. 
HEREFORD. 



121 
123 



130 
134 



ON LEFT FROM LOND, 



High Grove, 

Huntly Court, and be- 
vond Flaxley Abbey, 8ii 
M.H.C.Boerey, Bart. 

To Mitchei De^in, 9 nt 



A tittle below thetown. 
on the right bank of the 
river, stand the ruins ol 
Wilton Castle, which, »% 
one time, belonged tq 
Thomas Ouy, the fonnd«i 
er of Guy's Hospital in 
London. The estate ol 
WUton wai left bv hott tq 
that establishment 

Near Rest is Goedricl) 
Court, the seat of the lat^ 
Sir S. B. Meyrick, cootaint 
mg a celebrated collecting 
of armouv. It is freely 
shown on i^[^catM». 



To Monmoutfi, 10| m. 
Bryngwyn, J. Fhill^psi 

Mynde Park, T. G. Sy- 
oQs, Eiq. 

AUensmore, £. B. Pate^ 
haU, Esq. 



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UnrOL LONDON TO 8T DAVID'S THBOCTOH CABDIOAN, 997i MUm. 



169 



M RIOBT FEOX LONb. 



.Doha Cothi, J. Johnes, 

ToAberystwith through 
AbeneraD.29 milet, Tre- 
!in)B^ 11 miles. 



To Aberyitwitn* 301 m. 



Crygltt. 
I^evacwm. 



701 
621 



53} 



33i 

321 
31 

21f 
14f 

8f 

7 



From Hyde Park Cknnerto 

LLANDOVERY {Caer- 

martheruhire, p. I7L ) 

Pumsant. 

J^^ cr. river Tdvy. 
LAMPETER (Cardigan- 

thire,) 
a small town on the west 
bank of the Tdvy, which is 
nc^ed for its saknop. The 
church in an ancient build- 
ing, with a square tower. 
Here is a college fbunded by 
Bishop Buivess for the edu- 
cation of Welsh clergymen. 

AUt Yr Odyn Anns. 

Rhydowen. 
NEWCASTLE EMLYN 

(Caerfnarthenshirej, 
delightfully situated on the 
banks of the Tdvy. The 
ruins of a castle, occupied 
by die Royalists during the 
civil war, stand on an emi- 
nence commanding a fine 
prospect 

Llaogoedmore. 



187J 
1971 
204} 
206J 



CARDIGAN, (p. 136.) 

St Dogmell's Pern- 

lyrokeshire. 

NEWPORT, (p. 136.) 

FISHGUARD, (p. 136.) 

Mathry. 

PenlaiL 

Hendr<» 

ST DAVID'S, (p. 136.) 



213} 

215} 
225} 



234 



ON LBPT FROM LOND. 



Two m. diatant Henlly* 



To Caormarthen, S2 m. 

Lampeter forms one of 
the Cardigan district of 
burghs, returning one 
M.P. Pop. of Lampeter 
1861,907. 



AIUYrOdyn. 



To Kilgarron, Smiles. At 
this place are the ruins of a 
castle occupying the sum- 
mit of a naked rode rising 
ftom the bed of theTdvy< 
The surrounding scenery is 
very interesting. 



Llangoedmore Place. 
Castle Maelgwn. 

To Haverfordwest, Xi 
miles. 
Here are the remains of 
I abbey, standing in a 
autifolsir -• ^ 



To Haverford weet« 13 m 
Glyi 



LXIX. LONDON TO HAVERFORDWEST AND MILFORO. BY OXFORD, GLOU- 
CESTER« ROSS, MONMOUTH, BRECON, AND CAERMARTHEN, 255} Miles. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



To Hereford, iSk miles. 



Ooodxidi is remarkable 1304 

for the ruins of its castle, 

one of themost picturesque 

I oMects on the banks of the 

wye. U was altematdy 1294 



i1 



1344 



From Hyde Pa. Comer 
to Wilton, fferefOrdsh, 

(p. 168.) 

Goodrich. 



Whitchurch. 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



Goodrich Court (teat ol 
the late Sir S. Meyrick) 
ii an admirable imitatioq 
of the antique, and by fu 
the most perfect thing of 

1 n/*i '^> ^^^ i<^ England. 

1264 If ear Whitchoich is Sy^ 



y Google 



l70 LOin)ON TO HAVBRPOftDWEST AND MILFOBD, &c-^C(mHnued. 



ON BIGHT FROM LOND. 



possessed Ij the Parlia^ 
ment forces and the Royal- 
ists during the dvil wars. 
To Hereford, 18 miles ; 
-iberaaveony byBockfield 
and JUtanv^ley* 15 m. 



Coed Morgan. 

Coldbrook House, F. H. 
Williams, Bsq. 



Hill House. 
Fentie Ho. 



12i| 



122 
121 

1181 
117 

113J 
112i 

108} 



106} 
106 



Gwemvale, J. Owynne, 
Esq. 
More Park. 
Penmyaxth. 



Here are the picturesque 
ndns of Tretower Castle. 
To Hay, 15 miles. 



Skeihiog Hoose. 

Peterstone Court, and 
in the distance Tregoyd, 
Viscount Hereford. 

To Hay, 15i mil 
Builth, 6itmiies» 



Pcnpont House. 



104 
102 



99| 

96i 

94i 
92} 

914 
88| 

86 
83 

79f 
774 

764 

I 



MONMOUTH, (p. 144.) 



Wonastow. 
Dingestow. 

Tregare. 
Bryngwyn. 

LlanvihangeL 
Llangattock. 



ABERGAVENNY, 

ip. 137.) 



130} 



To Gloucester by Mit- 
chel Dean, 27 m., Chep- 
stow, 16^ miles 

Dingestow^ Goorty S. 



1344 

1374 
1384 

1424 
1434 



Pentre. 

Llanwenarth. 
11 miles ftrther enter South 
Watofc ^ 

^er. river Grwyney. 
Enter Brecknockahire. 
CRICKHOWELL,lp. 137.) 



Tretower, 
Bwlch. 

Llansaintfraed. 

Skethiog. 

LUmhamlach. 

BRECON,* (p. 137.) 

1^ cross river Usk. 

lilanspyddyd. 

Penpont 

i^ cross river Usk. 

Rhyd Brue. 

Trecastle. 

Hen is a good tarn. 

lAyweL 

Enter Ca^marthensh. 



mond's Yate, a lofty rock, 
surmounted by an encamp- 
meni, and commanding a 
fine prospect 



Bosanquet, 

To Usk. [ 

At a diiumee the ruins 
of Ragland Castle. 

Clytha, W. Joneb, Bsi|. 



148} 
1494 



1514 
1534 



ON LBlfT FROM LOND. 



Llanover House, ^ B. 
Hall, Bart. 

il,9roileii 



To Pontypool, 9 roil 
1474 Newport, 17; Usk, 10. 



Near Abergavenny istiie 
Sugar Loaf mountain, 185(> 
feet high. 



To Merthyr Tydvil, U 
miles. 

DanyPark. 

Olanndc, Sir J. Baikj. 
Bart. 



155} 

159 

1614 
162} 

164 
1674 

1694 
1724 

175} 
178 

179 



BucUand Honse, 7. 7. 
Owynne Holfbrd, Eiq. 



Neath, 87 mile*. 



• About 18 mites from Brecon is the maikeC-town and borough of Merthyr TydvO, sitasAed 



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LONDON TO HAVEBFORDWBST AM) MILFORD. Aai^-CorUimud. 171 




Tb Builth, 23 miles; 68i 
Lampeter, 18 miles. Tea 
miles from Llandoyery axe] 
die dialybeate springa oti 
LIaiiwrtyd,similar to those 
of Banowgats. They axe 
mucfa fkequented in sum 

ICacsDydan. 

Bbnoes. D. Jones, Esq., 
S miles distant IiwYny« 
ironnwood, Rev. Sir E. H. 




wunuwood, ] 
S.Williami^Bart. 

Llwynyteain. 
TftUaris. 



LLANDOVERY, Il87t 
a small town on the Bzan,! 
on the west bank of whuAl 
aretheruinsofacasUe. A^ 
considerable quantity ofl 
woollen stockSnoB are madri 

here. Pop. of Borough 

1861, 1927. 



67 Llandinpat 1884 

i^ croBS river Towey. 



Another road leads fhmi 
Llandovery to Llandilo- 
fawr, thioui^ Llangadock. 



564 LLANDILOFAWB, 199J 
* a neat weU built town, on 
the west bank of the Towev. 
The river abounda with sal- 
mon, trout, and eels. Pop* 
of parish 1861, 5758. 



Tknt^tot, D. Jones, Esq. 



Near Abetgwill is Mor^ 
Hn's Cave, shown as the 
leof the magician s m- 
^cmMdaas ; ana. at a short 
, Hf»««««i» te the spot where 
he te said to have been 
buried. 



61J 

47J 

45 

434 

414 

18t 
74 



Crofls Inn* 



Cothy Bridge. 

'White Mill 

AbergwilL 

CAERMARTHEN, 
(p. 138) 

NARBKRTH, (p. 186.) 

HAVERFORDWEST, 

(p. 136.) 

MILFORD, (p. 134.) 



Manoravon, D. PngJ». 
'^fcegib. 

Beyond Llandik>fawr is 
Dynevor CasUe. in ruins, 
and Newton Park, one of 
the finest seats in Wales, 
the property of Lord Dy- 
nevor. p. !». „ , . 

Golden Grove, Earl of 
Cawdor. , ^ . ^ 

Grongar HiU. cddmted 

by Dyer, and the ruins of 

2041 Drysfyn CasUe. on an emi" 

nence. commanding a fine 

view of the vale of Towey, 

207|'^MiddletonHaD, E. B. 

21^ op of St David's) rehuitt 
in 1880. 



224 



237J 
248 

2554 



^^^nL. TheValeofN»thK.n™yoannecUMeTtl.,rwiftSw»»..0.. 
iSr Popntotion «f p»Wi 1861, 46.878. and <rf P«l. Bot. H,6M. 

Mori^-Tto hare l»en the «.t «f the ktog. »f Bwcan. It w» demoBAed hyth. 
fuUimatturramydntisgtlw ciyllwu*. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



172 LXX. IiQHIKnr. lO ABEBTSTWRH THBOUOH OZFOBD* GL0UCK97KK, 

AND HSBEFOBD, ilOi Mila. 



m UGHT FBOM ionh. 



Musdl LftcyHofBse. 

Foxley House, Sir B. 
Price, Bi«. 

Ganutone. 

To Weobky. 8| mflet. 

To LeoDunster, 10 nulet. 

2 milec dmaot » Lady 
Lift, an eminence com- 
• ' pio- 



Vhitten, and 2 nOet 
distant^ ETWOod Parl^ 
late Eail of Oxford, and 
Mortimer, and Titley 
Court. 



ToPreatrifli, 6 
DowntenSdL 



Penpy-boot Coutt 



Ddenr. 




luui Tyli um TurikiJke t 
HSIOFORD, (p. 14K.) 
CredenHilL 



69) MmueU Lacy, 

68i Tazor. 

Norton Ctnon. 
Samesfield. 



3 



61) Woonton. 

58i LyonshalL 



57i Penrhdei 

iM cr. the river Arrow. 
56 KINGTON, p. 14S. 

48} NEWBADNOB (Badnor- 

Ana thirc) 

4tO^ lilanvihangel Nftnt 

Melan. 
41) Llandegley. 

3^) Pen-y-boiit 



35) NantmeL 

29) RHAYADER. 

JM cr. river Wye. 

18) CWM ySTWITH (C^cfi- 
ganshire.) 
.^^ cr. river Ystwith. 
154 Pentrebrunant 

111 Devil'bBridge,(p.ia8.) 
8i| Eskynald. 

'aBERYSTWITH,(p. 138.) 



134 
139 

141 

1424 

144 

147 



Two milei &tant Uie 
lite of flie Roman statian 
ofKeDclierten 



Ti>H«y,i2iniikk 



149 
152J 

153) 
154) 

161 



164 

169 
171 



175 
181 



192) 



OHLMTT FBOMUaSD. 



3 milei ditfant Newport 
Home. 
TheCkmit. 



SmOesl) 
Court, Bt. Hon.' Sir d 
Lewis, Bart. 



Aboat a mile ftom tliis 
»Iaoe isaodelnated water- 
idl caUed Water-break- 
ita-nedu 

Pen-y-boDt Hall, J. G. 
Severn, Eaq. 

6 miles to the left are 
the mineral sfnings of 
Llandrindod, mudi fk«- 
quented in summer. 

Llwynbaiied. 



To Tref^aiTon, 15 n 
Lampeter, S6 miles. 



LXXI. LONDON TO WORCESTER THROUGH HIGH-WYCOMBE, OXFORD, 
AND PERSHORE, 111 Miles. 



ON BIGHT FBOM LOND. 



Glympton Park. 
Kidd<Deton Honse. 
(Lord Yaw.) 



From London to 

Woodstock, see p. 189. 

Enstone. 



62 



ON LEFT FBOM LOND. 



Blenkeim, Dokeof Marl 
boroueh. 

Ditdiley Park, Viscomit 
Billon, and bevocd Com- 
buy Paj^c. Locd ChurdiiU. 



y Google 



LOKDON TO WOR0B8TBB THBOUGH HIGH-WYCOMBB, kt.-'^kmHnued. 178 



ON BIGHT FROM IiOND. 



Heythrop Park, Earl of 
Shrewabory, and 11 m. to 
the fi^t Great Tew Park. 



Hie four shires oont^- 
oui are Worcester, War- 
widt,Glo(ter, and Oxford. 
A battle was ftnufht here 
between the Engmh and 
the Danes, in which the 
latter, under Canute, weie 
tobOly defeated. 



Batsford Park, Lord 
Bedesdale 

Northwick Park, Lord 
North wick. 

Famoombe Abbey, 



EreBham was formerly 
noted for its abbey, the 
tower of which stUl re- 
mains. One of its churches 
toadomed with a beautiftd 
Qothie window. It has 
lately been connected with 
Worcester by railway, the 
line between these two 
idaces forming the first in- 
stalment of the Oxford, 
Worcester, and Wolver- 
hampton. 1 MJP. Pop. 
1861, 4605. 



374 



31 



291 



21 

16f 

104 



WMte Lftdies. Here! 
Charles XL sought shell 
rfter his defeat at Wor- 



CHIPPING NORTON, ^^, 
an ancient town, with a '^ 
free nammar school and 
an old church rebuilt, and 
rich in mon. brasses. There 
is a mtmufactonr of coarse 
woollen cloth here, "niis 
borough sent members to 
Parliament in time of Ed- 
ward I. and III., but has 
not since possessed that 
privilege. Pop. 1851, 2882. 

Four Shire Stone. 80 



II 



Moreton in the Maiah, 
Olowsetterahire. 



Broadway, Worcestmh, 

Bengeworth. 

EVESHAM. 

J^ cr. river Avon. 



PERSHORE. 
The principal trade of this 
town is the manufiacture of 
stockings. Heremay be seen 
some ruins of the Abbey 
House, the only remains of 
an extensive monastic esta- 
blishment The situation 
of the town is very beauti- 
ful, and the surrounding 
scenery is picturesque, par- 
ticularly at a place called 
Aylesborough, 1 mile from 
the town. Pop. 1861.2717. 



Stoulton. li 

Whittmgton. 108i 

^^ cr. Worcester and 

Birmingham CanaL 
WORCESTER, seep. 158. HI 



To Burford, 10 m. 
Sarsden House, J. H, 
Langston, Esq. 



Comwen. 
Daylesford House. 
Adlestrop, Lord Leigh. 



ON LEFT FROM LONDJ 



81} Toddenham, Sir P. Polcj 
Bart. 

Sezincote Park, Sir G. B. 
Bushout, Bart. 

Spriugbill, Lient.-6en. 
Earl Beauchamp. 

MiddlehiU, ^ T. Phil- 
lipps, Bart. 

^^ In the distance Somer- 
95} ville Aston, Lord Somer- 
991 Tille. _ 

Oreat Hampton. 
2} miles distant, Elmley 
Park, T. H. Davies, Esq. 

Avon Bank, T. B. Mar- 
riott, Esq. 
102 "^y*^ ^^ House, C. 
Pole, Esq. 

2 m. dist. Besford Court, 
Sir T. 6. Saunders Se- 
briffhtj Bart. 

Birlmgham Court and 8 
m. dist., Croome Park, Earl 
Covent^. 



Caldwdl House. y 

Park, R. 



y Google 



174 



LXXn. LONDON TO ABEBTSTWITH THROUGH WOBCESTEB AND 

LEOMINSTER. 207! Miles. 




To Droltwich, 7 mikB, 
Kiddenninster, 14| xniles. 



Whitbouzne Court, 
To Tenbury, 16 miles. 



Brodchampton House, 
J. Bameby. Esq. 

To Kiadenmnster, S2| 
miles, Tenbury, 10 miles. 

Buckenhill. 

Biedenbury House. 



Henner House 



^ To Tenbury, 11 miles, 
Ludlow, 12i miles. 

AtadistanceBerrington. 

At a distance Eyton 
Hall, E. Kvans, Esq. 



Two miles distant Croft 
Castle. Near the N. W. 
extremity of the parte there 
is a British camp, with a 
rlouble ditch and rampart 
Four miles ftom Morti- 
mer's Cross at« the ruins of 
Wigmore Castle. 

Shobden Court, Lord 
Bateman. 

To Toibury, 15 miles, 

Kiosham Court 



At a distance, Bramp- 
ton Parlv, iHte Earl of Ox» 
rbrd and Mortimer. 



82J 



794 

78i 
77} 
76 

74i 
73i 
71i 



70J 



From Tyburn Turnpike to 
WORCESTER, (p. 173.) 

J^ cr. river Severn. 

Cotheridge. 

Broad was. 

Doddenham Lane. 

Knightsford Bridge. 

■^^ cr, river Teme, and 

enter Herefordshire. 




BROMYARD, 
a small town, with a dniich 
of Saxon architecture. Pop. 
of parish, 2927. 

Bredenbury. 

New Inn. 

Batchley Green. 

Docklow. 

Steens Bridge. 



Ill 



lis 

117 
118 

119} 



To Tewkesbury, 16| m. 
To Evesham by lailwayi 
Urn. ^ 

Crow's Nest 
Cotheridge House. 



125 



Trumpet 

Eaton Bridge. 

Jf^ cr. river Lug. 



LEOMINSTER, (p. 145.) 



68i Cholstry. 

67i Cobden Ash. 

664 Kingsland. 

64| Mortimer's Cross. 
On this spot is a pedestal 
erected in commemoration 
of the battle which took 
place here, and settled Ed- 
ward IV. on the throne 

^^ cr. Kingston Canal 
62} Shobden. 

60} By ton Lane. 

68} Cwm. 

^^ cr. river Endwell, 
and enter Radnorshire. 
o6}i PRESTKIGN, 

(a neat town on the small 



1281 

129i 

130 

131} 

133 
134 
136 



Gaines, J. FrBeman,Biq. 



To Ledbury, 13i 
Hereford, 14 miles. 



Buckland, W. G. Cheny, 

sq. 

Smiles dirtant Hampton 
Court, the magnificent seat 
of J. Arkwright, Esq., 
erected m the time oi 
Henry IV. One of the 
apartments is in the same 
state as when occupied by 
William III., who hat 
visited Baron Coningsby. 
In the library is prelerved 
the handkerchier applied 
to the woimd he received 
the Battle of the Boyne. 

To Hereford, 13 miles. 



To Kington by Pem< 
bridge, 13 miles. 



137 

1394 

140^ 
141" 
143: 



145 At a dist Stanton Fa. 

147 To Hereford by P«m- 
X49 bridge, 1^ miles. 



151 1 Eywood (late Earl of 
(Oxford and Mortimer). 
TiUey Conrt. 



y Google 



UOSDGS TO ABEETSTWITH TSBOUOH WORCESTEB, Ao^^ConHmted, 175 



OH BIGHT nOM LOlfD. 


i| 


river Log. Near tt is a 


II 


09 LKTV nOM LOMD. 


To LQdIow,16i miles, 




To KiBgtoo, 7 mUes. 


Knighton,? miles, tlienoe 
to Shrewsbury, 83 miles. 




drcolar hill, much visited, 








caUed the Warden, with 










plantations and delightftd 










walks. Pop. of par. 1861, 










2166. (See p. 142.) 




Newcastle. 




St 


Edgar's Bash, 
Kmnerton. 


16^ 
166i 


Downton, and beyond 
Harpton Court, Rt Hon 
Sir T.l\ Lewis, Bart. 




48J 


NEW RADNOR. 


159 








ABERYSTWITH,(p.l38.) i207| 





IXXnL LONDON TO SHREWSBURY THROUGH AYLESBURY, KIDDER- 
MINSTER, AND MUCH-WENLOCK, 160i Miles. 



OV BIGHT FBOM LOKD. 



Chalfont House, J. N. 
Hibbert, Esq. 
Newlands. 
Newplaoe. 



Tlie Vadie, a PalUser, 
Esq, 



Great Missenden Ab- 
bOT, O. Carrington, Esq. 

HaUon House. Sir O. 
H. Da8hwood,Bart. and 
b^cHid Aston-ClintoiL 

2 mlle8fh)m Aylesbury 
Is Hartwell House (John 
Lee, Esq.), which was 
for many years the asy- 
lum of Louis XVIU. 

Lillies, late Lord Nu- 
gent. 

Creslow Pastures 
(Lord CIiff<»d), tenanted 
by R. Rowland, Esq. 



II 



1461 



134^ 



129^ 
124f 



119| 
116 



From Tybtmi Turnpike 

to Uxbridge. 
Middlesex (see p. 188.) 
.^^ cross river Coin, 
and enter Bucks. 
Chaltbnt, St Giles's, 
r^narkable as having been 
the residence of Milton 
while the plague raged in 
London, in 1665. Here he 
finished Paradise Lost. 

AMER^HAM. 
is an ancient town, which 
manufactures laive quan- 
tities of black lace and 
cotton. It has a spacious 
church, containing several 
monuments, and a town- 
hall, built, in 1642, by Shr 
W. Drake. Pop. 1861, 
2098. 

Great Missenden 
was the seat of a rich Ab- 
bey. Part of the cloisters 
still remain. 

WENDOVER. 
The inhabitants sre sup- 
ported by lace making. It 
formerly returned 2 M.P. 
The Chiltem Hills pass by 
Wendover. Pop. of parish 
1851, 1987. 

AYLESBURY. 

(see p. 191.) 

J^ cr. river Thame. 

WHITCHURCH. 




16 



26 



«1 



m 



40} 
44i 



In the distance. Bul- 
strade Park (Duke of 
Portland.) 



Shatddoes, T. T. 
Drake, Esq. 

Little Missenden Ab- 
bey. 

8 m. distant is Hamp- 
den House (Earl of 
Buckinghamshire), for- 
merly the seat of the 
celebrated John Hamp- 
den, and the place where 
he is interred. The spot 
of land on which the 
ship-money was levied 
is situated a short dis- 
tance south of theavenue 
to the house. 

(^equers, liSdy I'rank- 
land RusselL 

Sm.dist GreatKimble, 
Sir F.B.Morland, Bart. 

To Thame 9f miles; to 
Bicester, 16] miles. 

Oving House, SlrT.D. 
Aubrey, Bart. 



y Google 



176 Wtmm TO SHBXW3BUB.T THB0U6H ATLESBUET, ke^'^Conlmmd. 




4 milM dittnnt Wind- 
ioa HaU (W. Sditj 
Lowndes. £iq.^ 



To Bncklej, 7} mOes, 
tbence to Baalrary, 8i 
milet. 

MortOB HOBW. 

stove, Dnke of Back- 
iogham (seep. 192). 

Evenlcy HaU, Hott. P. 
S. Pierrepont. 



Astrop HaU, W. WiUes, 
Esq. 

To Wanrick through 
^^tham, 22^ nL, to Da- 
ventry, 17J m. 

U ni.beYond, Banbury; 
to Wanrick through Gay- 
don, 17^ m. 



At a distance, Walton 
HaU, Sir C. Kordaunt, 
Bart. 

Charlecote, 6. Lucy, 
Esq. 

To Warwick, 8 m. 

Alveston House, Sir 
T. G. Skipwith, Bart. 

Clopton House. 

Kinwarton. 

Coughton Court, Sir 
a. G. Throckmorton, 
Bart. 



2 m. dist Bordesley 

Hewen Grange (Hon. 
a. H. GUve), a noble 
mansion, which has be- 
longed to the 8a 
ftinSly iince 1641. 



loei 

1021 

94f 
91i 

88i 

82J 
81} 

77i 
57J 



50} 
47} 



WIKSLOW. 
6 mUes distant is Stokeley, 
the church of which n one 
<tf the most perfect Saxon 
buildings in the kingdom. 
Pop. of parish 1851, 1889. 
.^^ cr. river Ouse. 

BUCKINGHAM (see p. 
192). 

Fiamare (Oxon), 

Enter Northampton- 

sliire. 

Aynho on the Hill. 

^^cr. riv. CharweQ, 

and the Oxford Canal, 

and re-enter Oxon. 

Adderborjr. 
The church is a Gothic 
building, containingseveral 
monuments. 
BANBUBY (see p. 192). 

Drayton. 
Wroxton. 

Upton (Warwickshire). 

EdgehiU (see p. 192). 

JSJi3 or. Biver Avon. 

STRATFORD ON AVON 
(see p. 190). 



ALCESTEK, 
at the eonHuenoe of the Alse 
and Arrow, ia mpposed to hare 
been a Romaa aution. It haa • 
neat church, a market ball, aad 
a free grammar school About 
600 penons are employed in the 
mannfMctare of aeedlea. Pop. 
1891. *fm. 

Enter Worcestershire. 

Tardebigg. 

^^ cr. Worcester 

Canal. 

BROMSGROTE 

eontains many old houses, 

curiously ornamented. The 

inhabitants are chiefly em- 



51 



72 

75J 

77* 

78i 

82} 
95 



108 



109} 
113 

116i 



House. 



ShelsvelL J. Harrison, 
Esq, and beyond Tns 
more House. 

Aynho HaU, Sir Tho- 
as Cartwright, and be- 
yond, North As'von, Earl 
of Ckmmel. 

Adderbary Home, 
Chamberlin, Bbo. At a short 
)d the 



OV LSRIBOM UHTD. 



8 miles distant Oaj' 
don House, Sir H. Yer 



ney, Bart. 
AddingtOB 



ToChlpi^llortoa. 13m 
Broo^iiton Castle, Lord 



Eari or 



Save a 
Wro 



rozton Abbey, 

Gnilfbrd. 
Upton House, C^tain J. 

RnsselL 
lUdwaT.E.8.Mmer.Ei 
Lower Batb«laa Hall. 

J.Shirlej.Eaq. 



Bagley Park (Marquis 
of Hertford), built by 
Lord (^nway about the 
middle of last century, 
but since improved un- 
der the direction of 
Wyatt. .The grounds 
are extensive and b«n* 
ful, and abound in fine 
trees. ^ „ _, 

Grafton House (Earl 
of Shrewsbury). 



y Google 



IiORDON TO SHREWSBUaT THBOUOH AfLBSBUBT, te.-CdnMNllA 177 



ON U6HT FROM LOND. 


n 




If 


ON LBFT FBOM LOND. 






. 






of naili, needlei, and coarse 










linen. It hat a ftee ffiam- 
tair school, and a dmrcb. 


















an elenmt Gothic edifice, 
bdomea with some stained 


















glass, and several ancient 










theTalbots, jECarU of Shrews* 






PukHalL 


34i 


buiy. Pop. 1861, 4436. 
KIDDEBMINSTER. 


125! 


On the road to Bewd- 


SknHilL 




(see p. 159.} 

-i^ cr. river Siour and 

the Stafford and Woiv 

cester CanaL 




g£y.^ """'• "■ 


OotonHaB. 


27i 


Enter Shropefaire. 


133 






20J 


BBIDGENOBTH 
is divided into two parts by 


139i 


wSSSK!^.'^* " 














them is a handsome bridge 










of seven arches, liany of 
the cellars are cutoutofthe 


















rock, and aie covered by 










gardens and footpaths. 
Bridgenorth, besidSitd 
traffic on the river, carries 














AldenhamHouse^SirJ 










E.£.Dalberg Acton, Bart 




doth, stx)Ckings. iron tools, 
&c Near the town is a 
terrace more than a mile 
long, commanding a very 
extensive prospect. Two 
M.P. Pop. 1851, 7160. 
^^ cr. river Severn. 






At a distance, WiUey 
Ptok, Lord Forester. 
ToShUfiuU.lOimUeB. 


124 


MUCH-WENLOCK. 
Here are the remains of a 
Cluniac monastery. It was 
a very magnificent building. 
The remams consist diiefly 
of the churdi, which is a 
fine specimen of the Gothic 
style, and part of the chap- 
ter-houich Here are exten- 
sive limestone quarries. 
Two M.P. Pop. 1861, 


147} 


MorvilleHaU. 

To Ludlow, 191 miles. 
To Church Strettoo, 
12im. 


SnUdwas Park, W. Moae- 


|io^ 


20,688. 

HM-ley. 


1492 




8i 


Cressage. 


162 


CoundHalL 


«y, Eaq. „ „ , , 








Eaton. 


Attiii|hAm Hall, Lord 




^M or. liver Severn. 




Berrington. 






BUUEWSBUBT, (p. 147) 


160i 





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178 LXXXV. LONDOlf TO 8HBBW8BUBT THROUGH ATLB8BUBT. KIDDEB- 
MIN8TEB, BBOSBLET, AND COLEBBOOK-DALB. 16U Mila. 



ON RIGHT FBOM LOND. 



Stanlej Han, Sir H. 
rynrhitLBut. 

ApleTPaik,T.C.WL„ 
mate, Eaq. on tlw ottaei 
•ide of the Severn. 



2 milei distant. Hay. 



ISi 



Madeley Wood Home. 



Attingham Hall. Lord 
Berwick. ^ 



13i 
12* 



From London to 139i 
Bridgraiorthy (see p. 
177.) 

BROSELET 146 

b a laige and popnloos 
town* ntnatsd on the 
Severn. The tnhaWtanti 
are diiefly employed in the 
Izenandooal mines in the 
There is also a 
at 001 



p^ek Pop. of par. 48S9i 
■^8 cr. river Severn 



„ of one ardili 
feet in span, asid wci^iing 
^toos iffewt. 
COLEBROOK-DALE, 
beautiful winding glaxt 
odebrated for its numerous 
iron worlis, steam-engines, 
fingeSy Ace. 

Buildwas, 
Cnnons for the ruins of a 
Cistertian Abbey, founded 
in 1135; and for an elegant 
iron bridge oyer the Sevan. 
SHREWSBURY, (p. 147.) 



147i 



149 



16H 



ON LBPT FBOM LOMH. 



WilleyFsric, Locd Fo- 
ster. 
Gaugldey. 



Bnildwaa Park, W. 
Ifoieley.Eiq. 



LXXV. LONDON TO SHREWSBURY THROUGH COVENTRY AND BIRMING- 
HAM, 16^ Miles. THENCE TO HOLYHEAD, 860} Miks. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Aston Pa., J. Watt, Esq. 
erected about the begin- 
ning of the seventeenth 
ooitury, by Sir T.Holt, 
who entertained Charles I. 
here shortly before the 
battle of EdgehilL 

SandwellPaik, Earl of 
Dartmouth. 

ToWabaUSmiles. 

BesootHall. 



P 

So 
X 



151 
149} 

143 



From London to Bir-|l09i 
minghain, (see p. 199.) 



(Soho, Staffordshire) 111 
Messrs Boulton and Watt's 
manufactory of plated 
goods, steam-engines, dee. 
is considered the first esta- 
blishment of its kind in the 
world. 

WEDNESBURY. 1174 



ON LBPT PROM LOND. 



EdgbaitoB, Lord Ca]< 
thorpe. 

Soho, M. BouItoii,Bsq. 



Wednesbuiy Is a marketrtown of great antiquity, distinguished for its nume- 
rous manu^Ebctures of cast iron works of every kind, guns, &c The old church, 
supposed to have been erected in the eighth century, is an elegant Gothic stru»> 



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liONDON TO HOLYHEAD THBOUGH OOTENTRY. 8HB£WSBU£I, lie. 
— Contmued. 



179 



t«re^ with a \otty and beautiful spire. The interior is adorned with some exqui- 
site carvings and contains several monuments of the ancestors of the fiunilies of 
the Earls Harconrt (extinct) and of Lord Ward. Some vestiges of an ancient 
fort built by the Saxons may still be traced. Coal is obtained here m great 
abundance, and of superior quality. Here also is found that peculiar species of 
iron ore, caUed " blond metal," and some spots abound with a red earth called 
hip, employed in glazing vessels. Pop. 1851, 11,914^ 



ON BIQHT FROM LOND. 



ToWa]Mll7m.toStaf. 
(bid by Carnock ISi m., 
nd hjr Fenkridge, 1Q( m. 



5 m. distant it Boacobel 
House, whidi afforded an 
nyhim to Charlei II. after 
the battle of Waroeeter. 

ChiUmffton Park, T. W. 
GifbrdTlaq. 

Tong Castle, adorned 
with a fine oollectioii of 
p^ntinga; and beyond 
Weston Park, Earl of 
Bradlord. 

Aston Hall, Q. A. Moul- 
trie, Esq.; and beyond 
Dra^tonliodge. 

Deldier Hffl. W. Bot- 
Held, Esq. 



Piiofs Leigh Hall, 

I m. distant is Welling- 
ton, a small town about S 
miles fipom the base of the 
Wreldn. The inhabitants 
ue chiefly employed in 
wpridng coals and lime, 
rhere are also iron-works. 
Pop. of par. 11 160. 

Orleton, Misa Oudda. 



1194 



W04 Bilston, 

one of the most extensive 
villages in this country. 
Here axe manufactories of 
lapanned tui enamelled 
goods, and in the vicinity 
are coal mines, stone quar- 
ries, iron forges, and slit- 
ting mills. Fop. of town 
and diapelr;^ 20,181. 
cr. " 

CanaL 
1371 WOLVERHAMPTON. 
C8eep.287.) 

§^ cr. Staffordshire 
and Worcestershire 
CanaL 
135} TettenhalL 

The CSraroh contains an 

antique carved font, and a 

painted window. 

Enter Shropshiie. 

125^ SHIFFNAL. 

The church is _ _^ 

building, obtaining several 
' ^ of which 



b inmemoryof W. Wakely, 
whoUvedto theageof 124 
years, under the reigns of 
d^t diiforent Kings and 
Queens. Pop.ofPar.624C^ 

j^ cr. Shropshire 
CanaL 

Ketley Iron- Works. 141 
Watling Street, 
one of the finest specimens 
of Bomanroad in the king- 
dom. 



A line of road has been 
surveyed from Wellington 
to Chirk, by which 7 miles 
would be saved in going 
from Watling Street to 
Chirk, instead of going by 
Shrewsbury and Cfswestry, 



ON LBFT FROM LOND. 



120 At Bradley there is a fire 
in the earth whidi has 
been burning for many 
years in spite of every en- 
deavour to extinguish it. 



1223 ^ Ihidley 7 miles, and 
*(to Himley Hall, Lord 
Ward, 5 m.; to Stour- 
bridge 10 m.. to Kidder, 
minster 16} m., to Bridge- 
north, 14 m. 



124? Wrottesley HalL Lord 
Wrottesley ; 2} m. farther, 
Patahull, Six Bobert Pigot, 
Bart. 

Hatton Grange, B. A. 
aaney.E8q. 
loei Shifmal Manor, Lord 
^^*8taflRMrd. 

To Shrewsbury by Cole- 
brook-Dale, SO miles. 
To Muoh-Wenlock, 10| 



To Bridgenorth, 16| m. 
To Newport, 8 miles. 



The Wrekhi, 1320 feet 
high. The summit, occu- 
pied by an ancient fortifi- 
cation, commands an eX' 
tensive prospect. 



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180 LONDON TO HOLYHEAD THROUGH COVBNTRT, SHBEWBBURY, Sbc. 



ON BIGHT PKOM LOUD. 



Attingham, Lord Ber< 
wick. 

LoQgner, B. Burton, 
Esq. 

Sundome Castle, A. 
W. Corbet, Esq., 3 m. 

To Drayton, 18 miles. 

ToWem, 11m. Thence 
to Whitchixrch, 9 na. To 
Ellesmere, 17 miles. 

Berwick Hoosa, Hon. 
H. W. Powys. 

Great Berwick. 

Great Ness, J. Ed. 
wards, Esq. 

Boreatton Hall, R. 
Hunt, Esq. ; and Bore- 
attrin Park. 

Pmdoe. T. KeiiTon. Esq. 

TedsmoT^ T. B. Oinm, 

HJaston Han. 

Whmlngton Cutle, In 
raiu. ■Hoated on the borders 
of a lake, and shaded by fine 
loui trees 

To fiilesmere, 8 milea. 
I To WUtehorch. 19 m. 



-^^ cr. river Tern. 
lUi Ateham. 

J^ cr. river Severn. 
108} Lord Hill's colomh. 
107i SHREWSBURY (p. 174 ) 



^^ cr. river Severn. 
105i Shelton. 

102} Montford Bridge. 

.^fi cr. river Severn. 

98| Nesscliff. 

93} At the Queen's Head« a 
turnpike rdad passes on 
right through Whitting.. 
ton to Gobowen, which is 
obe mile shorter than that 
through Oswestry. 
OSWESTRY. 




155i 
157| 

1611 
167i 



171J 



Preston HaU. 

BreiddenHill, and the 
pillar erected in honour 
of Lord Rodney. 

Knockin Hall, Hob. C. 
Btidgenuuu 

jAston HaB. W. Lloyd. Esq. 

iweeney HalL 

»orkington, W. O. Gore, 

- To I 

Llaniyi-J 



bweeney HalL 
Porkingto- ' 

^ Welsh 



PooL 15 nu 
m. ToLlai 



Lltaftur, IM n 

Jln.Un. ToBala,Wm. 



Oswestiy was formerly surreunded by walls, which, together with its four 
gates, were all taken down about 1782. Of its castle, which appears to have 
been erected m the reign of King Stephen, the only portion existing is on a lofty 
artificial mount at the west end of the town, commanding a rich and extensive 
prospect Oswestry has two churches (one a venerable buildiiig, its tower 
covered with ivy,) a free grammar school, a town hall, a theatre, several meeting 
houses, and charitable institutions. It Ibnneriy carried on a considerable trade 
in Welsh woollens. Pbp. 1851, 4817. 



Belmont, J. V. Lovett, 
Esq. 

At a dist. Brynkiaalt, 
Viscount Dungannon. 



JP?J cr. riv. Ceiriog, 

& enter Denbigbihire. 

CHIRK. 



177 



Pentrepant, T. G. W. 
Carew, Esq. 

€3urk Castle, R. Myd- 
ddton Biddulph, Esq. 



Chirk, a populous village, celebrated for the beauty of the rarrounding scenery. 
The church contains a number of ancient monuments of the Myddelton &mily ; 
and in the churchyard are several aged yews. In 1165, Chirk was ^ scene of 
a severe contest between the English and the Welsh. About two miles distant, on 
the road to Ruabon, is a landscape of remarkable beauty. 

To the left is Chirk Castle, (R. Myddelton Biddulph, Esq.), an ancient and 
noble castellated mansion, situated on an etninence, whidi commands a prospect^ 
it is said, into 17 counties. About three miles beyond Chirk is the aqueduct ot 
the Ell^mere canal, constructed by Mi Telford, in 1806. It consists of 19 stone 
arches, supporting an iron trough, 1007 feet long, and is a wonderM effort of in- 
genious contrivance. 



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LONDON TO fiOLTHBAD THROUGH COVENTBY, SHSSW^UBT, Ac 181 

^OontiHued. 




76} 



.Ata distance Wynnrtay, 
8ttW.W.Wynii,B«rt. 

Hmxiuiis of Caex Dinas 
Bran, or Crow Castle, a 
Wdfdi fiHtreaa of great 
ntiquitjr, titu^ed on a 
oooical mountain, and ai- 
moBt inaoeeKible on all 
■idea. 

At a abort distance from 
Uaogollen is the site of 
^ palace of Owen Gkn- 

oower. 



Onthe oppoaiteside of 69 
the river, on the sununit 
of a bill, is a British ea- 
onopment, oncetheretieat 
of Owen Olendower. 

Smiles firom Cinrwen is 
the beaodfiil cascade of 
Piont-y-Glyn ; and. a little 
bayoad, the chMrming tale 
ofKdriTnion. 



The whole of the floeor 
ay akmg the Conway, aa 
ter asBettwSyis of a very 
beantifka description. 

Voelas Hall, C. W. G. 
^yiuie,E8q. 



Penrhyn Castle, Hon. 
E. 0. Dooglas Pennant. 



LLANGOLLEN. 183J 
Llangollen Vale is greatly 
celebrated for its beauty. 

2 m .distant from Llangol- 
len, on the road to Ruthin, 
are the beautiful and pictu- 
resque remains of Valle Cm- 
cis Abbey, founded in 1200. 
They are covered with ivy, 
and shaded by lofty ash 

and near the ruins is 

Elliseg's Pillar, erected by 
CoMoenn, in memory of his 
ancestor, EUiseg, who was 
killed fligfatfaig against the 
Saxons, m 6af. 
•^^ cross river Dee. 



69 Enter MeiionethBhire. ign 

664 CORWBN, 174 

a neat small town, much 
resorted to by anglers, as the 
river abounds with trout, 
grayling, and salmon. The 
chuxdi is an andent build- 
ing, romanticallv situated; 
and in the cfaurcnyajd is an 
old 8(x»e ^lar, called the 
sword of Gleodower. 

56| Cerrig-y-Druidion, 204 
Denbighshire. 

534 Cemiogo-Mawr. 207 

-^S cross the Conway 

by Waterloo Bridge. 
The arch is 105 fiset in span- 



39 



221i 



Bettw8-y-Coed, (C7acj*-2164 

ncvrvonshire,) 
has a curious bridge acrossa 
stream amidstrocky scenery. 

Capel Corig, 
a romantic idace near several 
lakes abounding with fish. 
JFrom this place the travdlcr 
may take a guide to visit 
Snowdon, the pass of Llan- 
beri% 8tc 

The road now proceeds 

along the Ogwen lake, and 

through adenleof thegrand- 

est description to 

304 Tyn-y-Maes Inn. 230 

25f LlandegaL 234} 

24 BANGOR (See p. 182.) 2364 

214 Menai Bridge. 239 



Plas Newydd, originally 
the retreat of Lady Eleanor 
Butler and Miis Ponsonby. 



Beyond Cormaa. is tite 
citadel of the Drui<k, to 
which CaracCacus recreated 
after his defeat at Caer 
Oaradock. 

Glyn DyAyn, with a 
bridge and watersdl 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



ToBaVwllimiloi. 

To Caeniarvonby Maeut- 
wrog, 3^ miles; thence to 
Menai Bridge, 9 miles. 



Snowdon, 3S71 feet high. 



Treborth ; and beyond, 
Yaynol, T. A. Qmith, Es^. 



LlandegaL The church contains a handsome monument in memory of a Lord 



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182 



LONDON TO HOLTBEAD THROUGH COVENTET, 8HBEWSBUBT, &c 



and Lady Penrhyn. On the left is a celebrated date qnarry, of immense extent. 
A raQroad, consiucted at the expense of L.170,000, leads from the mountain to 
Port Penrhyn, from which between 600 and 600 tons are shipped every week. 
On the right is Penrhyn Castle, (Hon. E. G, Dooghis Pennant^ an elegant 
mansion built in the reign of Henry VL, on the site of an ancient palace be- 
longing to Roderick Molwynog, grandson to Cadwallader, the last King of the 
Britons. It has lately been improved by Wyatt, and is snrronnded by beautifiil 
grounds. In this castle is preserved an elegant specimen ot the ^triw, or ancient 

drinking horn. 

Banoob, a neatly-built dty, Ijring in a narrow valley between two ridges of 
rock, with the beautiful bay of Beaumaris to the north. It possesses a cathedral, 
containmg monuments of several Welsh princes, &c ; a Bishop's palace, the resi- 
dence of the Bishop of Bangor, a free gnunmar school, and several charitable 
institutions. The surrounding scenery is peculiarly magnificent Pop. of bor. 
1851, 6d38. On a rocky eminence i m. east of Bangor, formerly stood a castle, 
built by Hugh Lupus, Earl of Chester, daring the reign of William 11. Beau- 
maris is distant 4 miles. Bangor is one of the Carnarvon district of burghs. 

Menai Bridge. The foundation of the Bridge over the Menai Strait was laid 
August 10, 1819, by Mr Telford, engineer. It was opened January 30» 1826. 
The height of the roadway above the surfece of high water is 100 feet The main 
openmg of the bridge is 660 feet between the points of supension, and the road- 
way is 30 feet in breadth. South of this is another and more stupendous work, 
the Britannia tubular bridge, which conveys the railway from Caernarvonshire to 
Anglesea. (See account of it, p. 260). There is frequent steam communication 
during the summer months between Menai Bridge^ Bangor, Beaumaris, and liver- 
pooL From Menai Bridge an entirely new road has been made through the Island 
of Anglesea, crossing the main ridge at 160 feet below the level of the old road. It 
is broad, smooth, and well-paved ; and, by crossing the Stanley Sands, the circuity 
by the Four-mile-bridge is avoided, and the line to Holyhead rendered very direct. 



oiv BIGHT nox LOin>. 


II 




I| 


X 


in 


lian&ir. 


241 


Hin; 


16 


Pentre Berw. 


2461 


iH 

12 

4i 


liangristiolus Church. 

Caean-Mon, or Mona. 

Ceirchioglnn. 


246i 
248} 
266f 


FenrbM Hall, Und 
Stuile J of Alderle;. 


2J 


Junction of the old 

Holyhead Road. 

Cross Stanley Sands by 

the embankment. 

HOLYHEAD. 

(See p. 249). 


268i 
260i 



OM LXR nox Loirn. 



Fl«s Newvdd (XMqvis of 
Jjigletey), formerly on* of 
the iMrineipal ktotm in Aa> 
gleae* amend to Onddie 



Pop. 180,110. 



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LXXVI. LONDON TO NEWBURY AND HUNOEBFORD, BY 
RAILWAY, 61^ MUes. 



183 



OK KQBT FROM LOND. 


H 

H 


Proni Great lYestern 


|3J 


ON LBFT PROM LOND. 










Lttve nudn line of 




Railway Terminus to 




Town of Reading. 


&.W.R. 


26i 


Reading, pp. 92, 99. 


m 


Coley Park, J. B. 


Prospect HiU. 




The whole course of the 


Branch kne to Basing- 1 


Tflehunt. 




line is throu^ the valley 


stoke (see p. 187). 1 


Cakot Paik, J. Bla 




oftheKennet 




River Kennet. 


pwre^Eflq. 










Tkeale. 


20i 


ThealeSt 


41 


Sulhampstead House. 


EiiglefieldHon»e,KP. 








Ufton. 


B.deBe«ivoir,E8q. 








5!Se",S2itonPark,W. 
Congreve, Esq., 14 m. 


BiadfieldHaU,2imilea. 
Benham House. 


161 


Aldermaston St. 


44i 










Waring, and Wasing 
House. 
Brompton. 


WooUuunptoQ House. 


14J 


Woolhampton St 


4€i 


Buddebury, 3 miles. 




of the Keniiet and Avon 




Crookham House. 


DunstanPark. 




to the liver. 




Crookham End House. 


Thatdiam. 


12 


ThatchamSt 


49J 


Crookham Heath. 


Slisw(«eep.9S). 




1^ cr. river Kennet 

and Avon Canal, and 

continue along south 

bank of river. 




Greenham House, J. 
A. Croft, Esq. 


To East Ildey,9i miles. 








Sandford Priory, and 


To AUngdon, 20 miles. 


84 


NEWBUBY(8eep.93). 


52} 


beyond, Highdere Park 
(Earl ot Carnarvon.) 










To Andover, 16 m. ; to 


ton Castle, and Donning- 
ton Grore. (See p. 93.) 
Church Speen andSpeen 








Whitchurch, 12 m. 








Enbome. 


tfiii- 
Benham Place. 








Hampstead Park. 


ElcotPark. 

Barton Court, Admiral 


3 


Kintbury St 


68i 


West Woodhay. 2* 
miles ; and beyond, Wal- 


J. W. D. Dnndas. 








bury Hill, the site of an 


Avlngton. 

Denford Hooae, 6. H. 
Chenv, Esq. 
Ghmon JxMlge and 








it is Inkpen beacon, 1011 
feet, the highest of the 
chalk hills which form the 
North Downs. 


Caiflton Honae. 
Edington. 




HUNGSRFOBD. 
r8eep.96.) 
Thence to Marlbo- 
rough, by coach, 10 

To Devizes, 241 miles 
(see p. 94). 


61i 


Hongerford Pa^ 



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184 LXXVn. LONDON TO WESTBURY. BY RAILWAY, 109} Mfle*. 



0^ RIGHT FAOM LOND. 


f 


From Great Western 


I 


ON LVPT FROM LOMOb 














Railway termimis to 




» miles beyond Chip- 
pennam, leave main line 




m 


Chippenham St. 
(p. 101). 


93} 


ofG. W.B. 
Notton House. 


Ck)r8ham House, Lord 
Methuen. 




Along valley of river 




Lackham. 

Layoock Abbey, W. H. 


Monk's Park. 
Neston Park, J. B. Pulr 




Avon to 




F. Talbot, Esq. 
Bowden Hifl. 


ier, llsq. 
Shaw House. 


9i 


Melksham St 


100 


SpyePark(J.B.StaTky, 
Esq.), 8 m. 
'ft) Deviaes, 7i miles. 


Atworth, 8 miles. 




(seep. 96). 




Broughton Gifford. 




Population of Melksham, 
0236. 




Whaddon. 


Great ChadflekL 










Staverton. 




4^ cr. river Avon. 




Hilperton. 


WooBey. 

Bradford, li nule (see 




1^ cr. Wilts and 






p. 96). 




Berks Canal 






Upper Studley. 


5i 


Trowbridge St. 


1051 


BowdeAshton,W.Loag, 


N. Bradley. 

Frome, 6 miles (p. 96), 
and bevond M arston Park, 
Earl of Cork and Orrery. 




(see p. 96). 
WESTBURY (p. 96). 

bam to Westbury forms 
part of the WUts, Somer- 
set, and Weymouth Bail- 
way, which was intend- 
ed to extend to Dorchester 
and Weymouth on the 
one hand, and to Salis- 
bury 6n flie other, with 


109i 


Heywood House, H.G. 
0. Ludlow, fsq. 

To Londeate Park, 
rMarquis of Bath), 8 m. 






















branches to Sherborne 










and Bridport, and also 










to the main Ihie of the 










G. W. B. near Bridge- 










water. 







LZXYHL DOVER AND FOLKESTONE TO READING AND BRISTOL. 
BY RAILWAY, 1961 Miles. 




From Dover, by South 

Eastern Railway, to 

128iReigate Jmiction St 
(pp. 8-l(U 



67 



ON LEFT FROM OOVRR. 



Leave line to Brighton. 



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OOYBB AND FOLKBSTONB TO BEADING AND fiBlSTOL--CSMKImMd. 185 



ON RIGHT FftOM DOVER, 


i| 


Tfaenoe, hy ReacHng, 




ON LBFT FAOM DOVUU 








Wonersh Park, Lord 






Guildford, and Rei- 




BranUey. 


audon Park, Eail 




gate line, to 




1 mile before readdng 


OmIow. 








Guildford, leave branch to 


Sutton Place, JT. l.W 


1074 


Guildford (p. 32), 


88 


Godalming (p. 34). 


Werton,E.q. 








Loseley Place. 




lOli 


Ash St 
1^ cr. Basingstoke 


H 


^ Leave tataaeh to Fam- 
Wn (p. 87). 


Aih Common. 




Canal. 

0^ cr. river Black- 
water, and enter 
Hampshire. 

Cross main line of 

South Western 

Railwaj. 






Frlmley. 

Chobh/m Hint in the 


97i 


Famborough St, 


98 












distuoe. 












954 


Blackwater St 


100 




Sandhurst College,lmile. 


96 


Sandhurst St 


lOli 




The Royal Military Col- 








Village of Sandhurst 


lege at Sandhurst, for the 
instruction of cadets for 
tlieanny, iaa plain edifice 
with a Doric porticQ, cal- 
culated to afibrd aceom- 
modalion to 430 students. 




IN er. riyer Bbck- 
water, and enter 








Berks. 








The railway crosses the 




Finchampstead, 1 mile. 


A chapel, an observatory, 




<« Devil's Causeway," a 






and a riding school are at- 
tached to the college. 




line of ancient Roman 
road. 




Barkham. l^mile. 


Bagthot, 4 miles. 










Henmkins Lodge. 










Lockley House. 










Easthampatead Park 
OlarqniB 6f Downshire), 
SImilea. 


894 


Wokingham St 

Wokingham (or Oak- 
ingham) b a market town 
situated within the pre 
dncts of Windsor FOTest. 


106 


Bear Wood Park, John 
Walter, Esq. 














It has an extensive mar- 










ket for poultry : the in- 






BucUumt Hill, i mUe. 




halritante are principally 
engaged in the malting 
rad flour trades, in throw- 












Maiden £rlegh,E. Gold 

White* Knights (thi 
house of John Poke oi 
Marlborough) is demolish- 


Hum snd Hurst Orove 




ing silk, 4nd in the ma- 
nufacture of hoots and 
shoes. It u a corporate 
town, with an alderman 




' '1 


and deven burgesses. 




ed, but a portion of hli 




! 


Population, 1861,2272. 







y Google 



186 DOVBR AND FOLKESTONE TO READING AND BRlSTOL-C<mtinued. 



OS BIGHT FROM DOVBIL 


i| 


^@ cr. feeder of 
Loddon. 

■^ cr. river Loddon. 
Join line of G. W. 
Railwaj, and reach 

READINGCseepp. 93-99) 

Thence to 

BRISTOL, »8 in pp. 100. 

101. 


II 


ON LEFT mOM DOVBR, 


Bnlmerahe Court, 6. 
VHieble, Esq. 

BarJyPaik. 
CaTenhamPark(p.99> 


82i 


113 
195i 


7m.dutui«,Strathfidi 
Bajrc Dnlu of WeUingtaa 



LXXIX. LONDON TO OXFORD, fiT RAILWAY, 63 Miles. 



our RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Long Wittenham. 
Appleford. 



The Thames, and be- 

Kond, Nnneham Park, O. 
\. V. Harcourt, Esq, 
mnch visited by Oxonians. 
Sandford. 



IfBey. 

Junction of the Chenrdl 
with the Iiis. 



10 



From Great Western 
Railway terminus to 
DidcotStCp. 100). 

^@ cr. liver Thames 
and enter Oxfordshire. 

Abingdon Road St 
^@ cr. Thames again, 
and re-enter Berkshire. 



The line for some dis- 
tance runs paralld with 
the Thames, or more pro- 
perly the Ids, dnce it 
does not acquire the for- 
mer name until after its 
juncticm with tlie Thame, 
some distance lower down. 



OXFORD (pp. 162.1M 
and 187). 



53 



56 



Leave main line of 
G. W.R. 

Suttm Courtney, 1$ 



63 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



Town ot Abingdon, 2| 
miles (pp. 100, 160). 

Radley House, Sir 6. 
Bowyer, Bart. 

SunningweD, S miles. 

Bagley Wood. 

South Hfaiksey. 

3 miles distant is the 
TiUase of Cumner, ran- 
dered dassic ground by 
the genius of So^t In af 
fieldacQoiningthe churdi- 
yard some remains of thd 
ancient manor-house or 
Cumner Hall are still vi-j 
sible, but most of 
ruins, which were in a 

Fous state, were pi 
minlSia 



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LXXX. SOUTHAMPTON TO OXFORD, BY RAILWAY, 74* Miks. 187 



ON RI6HT FROM SOUTH. 



Lam main flne of S. 
W. B. to London. 



ShetfleU. and Areber 
Lodge. 

Stnthfiddaaye, 2) tnUes, 
the leat of the Duke of 
WellingtoD, and beyond, 
Heckfield Place, M. Hon. 
Charles Shaw Lefevrc. 



Hunters* Park. 
Moor Place. 



42i 






S4J 



i^ 



DM LBFT FBOM SOUTH. 



27i 



From Soufhampton, 

by South Western 

Railway, to 

Basingstoke St 
(p. 62). 

Leave Hants, and 
enter Berkshire 

Mortimer St 



32 



Sdi 



The Vine, W.L.Wiggctt 
Chute, Esq. One of this 
family (John Chnte) wai 
the mend and correspon- 
dent of Horace Walpole. 

Bramley. 

Silchester, the site of a 
Roman station, probably 
theCalleva Atrebatum of 
the Itinerary. Numerotu 
antiquities are found hese. 



Mortimer Strathfield. 
Mortimer HiU. 



Oakfield House. 



Bui^hfleld. 



■1^ cr. river Kennet, 

and join Hmigerford 

branch of Q.W. 

Railway. 

READING St. 
(pp. 92, 99). 

Thence, by Didcot, 

as in preceding route, 

to 

DXEOBD (see also pp 
162-166). 



47 



74i 



Oxford win become an important centre of railway oommnnication by the com- 
pletion of the yaiions lines in connection with it, now in progress, and partly 
opened, of which the two most important are the Oxford and Rngby, and the 
Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton. The Oxford and Rugby line will run 



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188 



OXFORD. 



Uirough the valley of the Cherwell, by Banbury, and, entering Wanrickshire, 
pass near Southam, and join the London and North Western Railway at Rugby; 
thus opening a communication with the midland and northern distiidB. The 
Oxford, Worcester, and Wolverhampton BaUway will extend from Oxford in 
a general north-westerly direction as fiir as Worcester, passing a short distance 
to the west of Woodstock, and by Moreton^in-the Marsh, Chipping-Campden, 
and Evesham; from Worcester its course is chiefly northward by Droitwich 
(where a branch is intended to connect it with the line of the Birmingham and 
Gloucester Bailway), Kidderminster, Stourbridge, and Dudley, to Wolver- 
hampton, near which town it will join the northern section of the London and 
North-western line. Large portions of both these lines are open for traffic^ and tlMd 
others are in active progress. Acts of Parliament have also been obtained for the 
constrtiction of lines to unite Oxford with Bletchley (on the London and North- 
'restem Railway) on the one side, and vrith Cheltenham on the other. The 
fnrmer is completed and open for traffic 



LJULXl. LONDON TO BIRMINGHAM BY OXFORD, WOODSTOCK, AND 
STRATFORD ON AVON, 116} MUe*. 



ON RIOHT PROM LOND. 



Frian Place. 



HatiMr Hall, and be- 
rond, Twyford Abbey. 
^ HaxiweUPark. 



Hayes End Park. 



Hillingdon Borne, 
Count de SaUs. 



Denham. 

Chalfont Honie, J. N, 
Hibbert, Esq. 
Wilton Park,C.6.Dapre, 



To Amersham, 7 miles. 
Brands Honseb J. New* 
Ban, Esq. 



From Tyburn Turnpike 
llBi to Bayswater. 



P.J 



111 J I* Acton. 

•^S cr. river Brent 

1071 Southaa H 

104 Hayes End. 12i 

102} milingdon. 13} 

1014 UXBRIDGR 15 

•^% cr. river Coin and 

(hand Junction Canal, 

and enter Bucks. 

97 A Gerard^ Cross. 19 
' BEACONSFIELD. 

934 The church contains the re- 23 
mains of the Rt. Hon. Ed- 
mund Burke, and the poet 
Waller is interred m the 
chorcl^ard. Boo, of pa- 
rish 1851, 1684. 

874 HIOH-WYCOMBB, 29 

the finest town in the 

county Ithasahandsomel 



Kensington Palace (see 
^*0). 

HoIUmd House, Lord 
Holland. (See p. 40.) 

The Priory. 
Ealing Park. 
Osterley Park.Earlof Jex^ 

"^outhaU Park. 
Park House. 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



Ddaford Park, Langley 
Park, and Iver Grove. 



Bulstrode, Duke of Port^ 
land. 

Hall Bam, built by the 
Rt. Hon. Edmund Burke, 
and beyond, Dropmore 
Lodge (Lady GreaTiHe), 
and Cliefden (Doke m 
Sutherhmd). 

To Oroat Marlow, 5 mflea. 

Wyeombe Abbey« Loid 

Carington. ' 



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LONDON TO BIRMINGHAM BY OXFORD. WOODSTOCK. dce^-^Ctrntinued, 180 




Uashenden Manor. Bt 
Hon. B.Disraeli. 



Hill, and 8 

miles distant, Bradenham 
Honw, late I. O'lsraeU, 
Esq. 



Aston Hoose, near 
which is KingatoD. 

Thame rark, The 
Baroneaa Wenman. 
ByootPark. 
HoltoQ Park. 



Headington House. 



town-hall, erected in 17fi7» 
by John, Earl of Shelbume, 
a free grammar sdiool, and 
an andent diureh, oma> 
mented with a fine altar 
piece, and a superb monu- 
ment to Henry JPetty, Earl 
of Shdbume, and Sophia, 
the first wife of the first 
Mnrqnifl of Lansdowne. 
The Wycombe stream 
tnms fifteen paper and 
Q.o corn-mills. Two M.P. 
***« Pop. 1861, 7179. 

West-Wycbmbe. 
Here is a handsome man- 
on i solemn, erected by the late 
♦ Lord Le De Spencer. 
Stoken Church (Oawn). 



74J 
69 



Adjofaifaig the church la 
• eraromar iichool, founded 
and endowed inl686bv Mr 
ComweU, a native of this 



62i 

60 

54i 



KiddingtoB 
(Lord Yanx.) 



Home 



H eyt h rop Park, Earl of 
Shrewsbury. 

S miles distant are the 431 
BoU-ndi Stones, the most 
curious memorial of anti- 
quity in the county, sup- 
posed to be of Druidical on- 

"^eston Houae. Sir 
OMTge B. PldUipa, Bart 



40] 



3di 



31} 



S6i 



Wycombe Park, Sir 6. 
H.Dashwood, Bart 

Tetsworth. 

Wheatlejr Bridge. 
41^ cr. river Thame. 
1^ cr. river CherwelL 

OXFORD. - 
Wolvercote, 
WOODSTOCK 
is famous for its manufMV 
ture of gloves and other 
leathern articles, but that 
of polished steel has declin- 
ed Tt has a handsome 
town hall, erpcted from a 
desienof SirW Chambcs, 
at the sole expense of the 
Duke of MarlbOTough, and 
is celebrated in history as 
the occasional residence of 
Henry I. and II., and of 
fiur Rosamond. One M.P. 
Pop. of ParL borough 1861} 



474 Enstone 69 

|has a church dedicated to 
St Kenelm. 
Chapel House. 72f 
Compton Hill, (TTar-'^f 

Long Compton. ' ' 



42J 



54 

564 

62 



Wycombe Park, Sir J. H. 
Dashwood, Bart. 

Sherboume Castle. 
(Earl of Macclesfield,) 
ccmtaining two libraries, 
an armoury, several fine 
specimens of paintingand 
sculpture, and among 
other portraits an origi- 
nal of Catherine Parr, 
Queen to Henrv VIII. 

Nethercote House, Sir 
R. P. Jodrell. Bart. 

A dwell House. 

Cuddesden Palace.Bishcp 
of Oxford* 

Shotover House. 

Blenheim, the magniflp* 
cent seat of the Duke of 
Marlborough, erected in 
the reign of Queen Anne 
for the great Duke. S& 
J. Tanbmgh was the 
architect employed, and 
half a million was granted 
by Parliament for the 
erection. The interior is 
splendidly adorned, and 
contains a valuable collec- 
tion of picture*, a library of 
more than 17.000 volumes, 
andanel^^tdiapel. The 
gardens are extensive, the 
park, consisting of about 
2700 acre", is richly wooded, 
and the grounds are laid out 
with great taste. 

DUchlev Park,* l^a- 
count Dillon ; and be- 
", Combury Park, 
ChurchilL 



834 SHIPSTON. (Woreestert.) 83 
* See Boott's Wooditock. 



Tidn^gton Hall. 

^ miles dist. Foxcote 
House, P. H. Howard, 
Esq. 



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190 lONDON TO BIRMINGHAM BY OXFORD, WOODSTOCK, Ac^-Contmned. 



ow MOHT nunc lokb. 


31* 


Tredington. 


86 


Oir LSIT TBOX 


LOUD. 


Honnington Hall, the 






Rev. H. Townaend. 












Lower EatiiifftoiiHall, 


29* 


Newbold. 


87 






B. J. Shirley, Esq. 




.^O cr. river Stour. 
Alderminster. 








Alvestoa Honiie, Sir 


27i 


89 


Aleeot Park, 
Wert, Esq. 


J. R. 


T. G. Skipwith, Bart 
Alveeton \^a, and 












Re-enter Warwicksh. 








beyond Gharleoote 




.^^ cr. river Avon. 








House, 6. Lacy, Esq. 














22i 


STRATFORD ON AVON. 


94 







Stratford on Avon, celebrated as the birth-place of Shakspeare. The house in 
which he was bom is situated in Henley Street. It has lately been purchased hy 
subscription, and will be carefully preserved for the inspection of future genera- 
tions. The approach to the church, which is delightftdly situated on the banks 
of the Avon, is by an avenue of lime-trees. In the chancel is the celebrated bust 
of the poet, in front of which he and his wife are buried. The town-hall in High 
Street was erected in 1769, at the time of the jubilee. A good statue of Shak- 
speare stands at the north end of the building. The interior is adorned with 
portraits of Shakspeare, Garrick, and the Duke of Doreet. In the High Street 
also are the remains of an ancient cross, and adjoining them is the guildhaU, a 
portion of which is occupied as a grammar school, where it is said Shakspeare 
received his education. When completed, the Oxford, Worcester, and Wolver- 
hampton line, will connect Stratford with all parts of the kingdom. Pop. of 
township, 1851« 8872. 



Clopton House, and 
beyond, Weloombe 
L(>dffe. 

wooton Hall, Sir E. J. 
Smythe, Bart 

Here was the ancient 
forertof Arden. 

To Warwick 10 miles. 

Packwood House. 



15 



10 



HENLEY-IN-ARDEN. 
In the market-place are 
vestiges of an ancient 
cross. 

Hockley House. 

J^ cr. river Thame. 
BIRMINGHAM. 
(see p. 204.) 



lOli 



106| 



116| 



Beaudesert House, 
and beyond Oldberrow 
Court 

Umberdade Park. 



Edgbeston (Lord Cal- 
thorpe.) 



LXXXn. LONDON TO BIRBflNGHAM BY AYLESBURY, BUCKINGHAM, 
BANBURY, AND WARWICK, llSJBIiles. 




14 m. BeMce Homie. M. 
Forater, Esq., and beyond, 
Romlyn Home. 

Handon Plaoe^ (L<Hrd Ten- 
tefdea.) 



114* 
112} 



From Tyburn Turnpike to 

Paddington. 

Kilbum. 

1^ cr. river Brent 



§1 



ON Lxrr raov lond. 



To Eensal Green. 
Brandesbury House. 
At a distance, Wem- 
bley Park. 



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LONTON TO BIKMINGHAlf BI ATLES6URT, icc'-0<miimed. 



191 



^StktotnriSiiewtier. 




105 
102 

100} 



95} 



92 



87} 

84 
81 

77 



WecdoD HotuM« 
LilliM, the *eax of t}ie Iftte 
Lord Mngent. . . 

Qr«doir Paatnres, Lord 

WhaddoB nail. (W. 8. 
LowBdn, Emi.) mflM' ^ 

'-"■aboune Hoiite, (B*. 
^^ Sir T. F. " 

8takelej6.m<, the eli 
or whleh is one of the 
perfect texoD boOdings la 
uglud. 



Bnshey (Herts.) 
J^ cr. river Come. 

WATFORD. 
The church contains seve- 
ral fine monoments. Here 
are mills for throwing 
silk and making paper. 
Pop. 1861, 8800. (See p. 
200.) 

J^ cr. river Gade and 

Grand Junction Canal. 

King's Langley. 

Two Waters. 
Box-Moor. 

BEREHAMPSTEAD. 



North Chnrch. 



TRTNG. 
Aston-Clinton {Bucks, 

AYLESBURY, 

a town of great antiquity, 

\a situated nearly in the 

middle of the conn^, on 

an eminence in the fertile 

tract called the Yale of 

Aylesboxy. The church 

is an ancient and spacious 

structure, with a large 

churchyard. Here is a 

town-hall, county-gaol, 

and a market-house. The 

inhabitants of this town 

and its ridnity rear a great 

number of early ducklings, 

which are sent to the 

London market Two 

MJ^. Pop. of ParL bor. 

1851,26,794. 

J^ cr. river Thame. 

Hardwicke. 

Whitchurch. 

WINSLOW. 

J^ cr. river Onse. 



lOi 
18J 
14i 



191 
22 



37i 



41} 
48 

48} 



Cannon's Park, once 
the seat of the Dukes of 
ChandoB. 

Bentl^ Priory, Mar- 
qiilsof Abercom. 

Hin House. 

Moor Park, Lord B. 
Oroevenor. 



To Rickmansworth, 
Smiles. 

Cashiobuiy Park, Earl 
of Essex. 

The Gfwe, Earl of 
Clarendon. The chief 
portion of Lord Chan- 
cellor Clarendon's fine 
collection of pictures is 
to be seen here. 

Langley Bury. 

This place is famous 
for its paper mills. 

Box Moor HalL 

Westbrook Hay, Hon. 
G. D. Ryder. 

Ashlyns Hall, J. 
Smith, Esq. 

Champneys. 

TringPark. 

Aston Clinton. 

Tb London through 
Wendover, 40} miles; to 
Thame, Sf miles; to 
Bicester, 16^ miles. 

Green End, W. Rick- 
ford, Esq. 

Two miles flrom Ayles- 
bury is Hartwell House, 
(J. Lee, Esq.,) for many 
years the residence of 
Louis XVin. as Count 
de Provence, and of the 
Duke and Duchess 
D'Angouleme. 

On the road to Bices- 
ter, Wotton House, (Mar- 
quis of Chandos.) 



Oring House, Sir T. D. 
Aubrey, Bart. 

Three miles distant 
Claydon House, Sir H. 
Vemey, Bart. 



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it)^ LONDON TO BIRMINGHAM BY AYLESBUBT, ite^-^mUnued: 



86f 



36 



iU name. 'Bsn wu formerly s 
oMtle of greal atreagth, wUeh 
nsuloed two vtrttre ntget 
durin« the eivil wars. The only 
remains now in existence are a 
■mall portion of the walL Pop^ 
18ffl.871f. One ALP. 



Drayton. 
Wroxton. 



Upton, ( WarvficksL) 



Edgehill, 
remarkableasthespot where 
the first battle between 
Charles I. and the Parlia- 
mant was fbught. 



73J 
74i 

784 

79J 



To Deddhkgton, 6k m. 



Wroxton Abb^y, 1 
ofGuiIfbrd« 

Alkerton, where Lydl«l 
the astronomer and ma- 
thematician was buried. 

Upton House, Captain 
J. Russell. ■ 

To Stratford on Avon, 
121 miles. 

Badway Grange, ?. 8. 
Miller, Jblaq. 



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IiONDON TO BffiMINGHAM BY ATLE8BTTRY, &c—(7ontinw.a. [93^ 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Compton Verney, Lord 
WUloughby De Broke. 

^Newbold Park. 



Tlie HHl. 

Warwick Castte, Earl of 
Warwick. 



311 



KINETOI^. 
The castle formerly eadsting 
here is said to have been 
built by King John. 



29} 

23i 
20i 



Compton-Vemey. 

^^ cr. Roman Way. 
Wellesbonme Hastings. 



Barford. 

i?^ cr. river Avon. 

WARWICK. 



Smiles distant Is the viUaic« 
ofTysoe. Opposite its church 
is* hill, on the aide of which 
was cut the fleure called the 
Red Horse, whiuh giT«s name 
to the a<yacent vale. 



854 

87} 
9H 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



Walton HftH, Sir C. 
Mordaunt, Bart. 

To Stratford on Avon, 
5 miles. 

Charlecote, O. Lucy^ 
Esq. and beyond, Alveston 
House, Sir T. G. Skipwith, 
Bart. 



Grove Park, Lord Dor- 
mer. 



Warwick is situated nearly in the centre of the county. It stands on a rocky 
hm, having a somewhat abrupt acclivity, watered by the Avon. This town is 
believed to be of Saxon origin, and was formerly surrounded with walls. It has 
three churches, of which St Mary's is the most remarkable. It has a lofty square 
tower, supported by piers, between which carriages may pass. The interior is 
richly adorned, and contains a number of ancient and curious monuments. 
Beauchamp chapel, a beautiful specimen of the Gothic style, contains a monument 
to the memory of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, the founder of the Lady 
chapel. This chapel is considered the most splendid in the kingdom, with the 
exception of that of Henry VII., in Westminster Abbey. Here is also a monu- 
ment to Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Elizabeth's favourite. The other public build- 
ings are, the county hall, the court house, gaol, bridewell, theatre, market house, 
free grammar school, the county asylum, public library and news-room, and several 
meeting houses. The races are held twice a-year on a plain near the west end of the 
town. Warwick returns two M.P. Population, 1851, 10,973. Several manufac- 
tures are carried on here, particularly those of combing and spinning long wool. 

Warwick Castle, the magnificent residence of the Earl of Warwick, is situated 
at the south-east end of the town, on a rock washed by the Avon. The date of its 
original erection is unknown. Csesar's tower, the most ancient part of the structure, 
is 147 feet high. Guy's tower, 128 feet high, was erected in 1394. The approach 
fo the grand front exhibits three stupendous towers, and the entrance is flanked 
with embattled walls covered with ivy. The interior is remarkable for splendour 
and elegance. The principal suite of apartments extends 333 ieet in a straight line, 
And is adorned with valuable paintings and curious specimens of ancient armour. 
In the green-house is a beautiful antique vase, well known as the Warwick vase, 
found at Tivoli, and capable of containing 168 gallons. About a mile from 
Warwick is Guy's Cliff) the retreat of the famous Earl Guy, and where he and his 



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)94 LiBAMINOTON.— KENILWOBTH. 

Countess are supposed to be interred. Blacklow hill, opposite, is the spot where 
Piers Gavaston was beheaded in 1312. 

' Two miles from Warwick is Lkaminoton, or Lbamington Priors, one of the 
most &ahionable spas in the kingdom. It is pleasantlj situated on the Learn, 
which is crossed bj a handsome bridge. The waters are used, both intemallj 
and for the purpose of bathing, and are found rery efficacious in manj chronic 
disorders, in diseases of the skin, and Tisceral obstructions. The principal build- 
ings are the new pump-room and baths, which are supposed to be the most ele- 
gant in Europe ; the assembljr-rooms, concert and ball-rooms, the reading-rooms 
and library, the billiard-room, the Regent Hotel, the museimi and picture gal- 
leij, the ^eatre, &c. The Ranelagh and Priory Gardens form delightful pro- 
menades. Leamington possesses also two churches^ aa Episcopal ohapd» a 
meeting-house, a Roman Catholic chi^l, an. institution for the gratuitous sup- 
ply of baths to the poor, national schools, several libraries^ &c The rides and 
walks in the vicinity are interesting and attractive ; and very delightM excursions 
may be made to Warwick Castie, Eenilworth, Stratford, &c. Pop. 1851, 15,692. 
KxNiLWORTH is fivc mlles distant from Leamington, and about the same distance 
from Warwick and from Coventry. Its name is said to have been derived fit>m 
Kenulph, a Saxon King of Mereia, and his sonKenehn. In Queen EIizabeth\i 
time it was called Killingworth ; but the origmal and correct designation is now 
restored. The ruins of its magnificent castie form one of the most splendid 
and picturesque remains of castellated strength to be found in the kingdom. It 
was founded by Geoflfrey de Clinton, Lord Chamberlain and Treasurer to Heniy 
I., but it shortly passed to the Crown. Henry 111. granted the castie to the fo« 
mous Simon de Montfort^ Earl of Leicester, and Eleanor his wife, for their respec- 
tive lives ; and when the Earl took up arms against the King, it was the great place 
nf resort for the insurgent nobles. After the defeat and death of the Earl of 
Leicester, his eldest son, Simon de Montfort, continued to shelter himself in this 
fortress. He shortly afterwards withdrew to France, but his adherents held out 
the castie for six months against all the forces the King could bring against it, 
and they ultimately capitulated upon highly fevourable terms. In the time of 
Edward I. it was the scene of a splendid and costly tournament Edward II. 
was kept a prisoner in this castle before his removal to Berkeley Castle, where 
he was ultimately murdered. In tiie reign of Edward III., Kenilworth passed, 
into the possession of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, who made large addi- 
tions to it. When his son, Henry Bolingbroke, became King, it again became 
the property of the Crown, and so continued till the reign of Elizabeth, wha 
conferred it on her favourite, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. This noble- 
man expended enormous sums in adorning and enlarging this structure. The 
following description of the appearance of the castie at this period is given by 
Sir Walter Scott in his novel of ** Kenilworth :'*•—''* Hie outer wall of tius i^Ien- 
did and gigantic structure enclosed seven acres, a part of which waa occupied 
by extensive stables, and by a pleasure-garden, with its trim arbouzt and pap- 



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< 
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o 

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s 



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KENILWORTS. 195 

terrcBySnd &eieA&/mdDg the kigebme-coitrt or outer yard of the noble caetM. 
The lordly structure itsd^ which rose near ^e eenfroof thuap&ciontencloanie, 
was composed of a huge pile of magnificeirt eastetiated buildhigB, apparenilj of 
difRerent ages, surrdimding an inner court, and beaiing, in the names attached 
to each portion of the magnificent mass, and in the armorial bearings which 
were thoe blazoned, the emblems of mighty chiefs who had long passed away, 
and whose history, could ambition ha^e bent ear to it, might hare read a lesson 
to the haughty &Tourite who had acquired, and was now augmenting, this fiiir 
domain. A large and massive keep, which formed the citadel of the castle, was 
of uncertain though great antiquity. It bore the name of Caesar, probably from 
its resemblance to that in the Tower of London so called. * * * The ex- 
ternal wall of this royal castle was, on the south and west sides, adorned and 
defended by a lake, partly artificial, across which Leicester had constructed a 
statdy bridge, that Elizabeth might enter the castle by a path hitherto untrod- 
den, instead of the usual entrance to the northward, over which he had erected 
a gatehouse or barbican, which still exists, and is equal in extent, and superior 
in architecture, to the baronial castle of many a northern chie£ Beyond the 
lake lay an extensive chase, full of red deer, fidlow deer, roes, and every species 
of game, and abounding with lofty trees, from amongst which the extensive front 
and massive toweiff of the castle were seen to rise in majesty and beauty.^ 

Elizabeth visited L^eester at Kenilwortb in the years 1566, 1568, and 1{>75. 
The last visit, which far eclipsed all other « Royal Progressed" has been immor- 
talized by Soott.— A leliBreBee to tiie ground plan of the castle, and some ex- 
tracts from the inventory 'of Leicester's frimiture, in the appendix to Scott^s 
** Eenilworth," will afford some idea of the enormous extent of the place, and the 
costliness of its -decorations. After Leicester's death Kenilworth was seized by 
the crown, and was ultimately granted by Cromwell to certain officers of his 
anny,-who demolished the splendid fabric for the materials. After the Restoration, 
Charles IL gave the property to Su* Edward Hyde, whom he created Baron 
Kenihrorth and Earl of Clarendon. For a long period the castle was left to 
ruin ; but the present Earl of Clarendon has manifested a praiseworthy anxiety 
to arrest its decay. The only remaining part of the original fortress is the keep 
or Cnsar's Tower, the walls of which are in some places sixteen feet thick. The 
remains of the additions made by John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, are termed 
Lancaster buildings. In the latter are to be seen the relics of the great hall, a fine 
baronial room, 86 feet in length, and 45 feet in width. Although the erections of 
Leicester are of the most recent date, they have the most ancient and ruined ap- 
pearance, haying been built of abrown friable stone, not well calculated to stand 
the weather. " We cannot but add," says Sir Walter Scott, ** that of this lordly 
palace^ where princes feasted and heroes fought^ now in the bloody earnest of storm 
and siege, and now in the games of chivalry, where beauty dealt the prize which 
▼alonr won, all is now desolate. The bed of the lake is now a rushy swamp, and the 



y Google 



196 LONDON TO BIBMINOHAM BT ST ALBANS, DUNSTABLE, &c 



maasjr ruins of the castle onl j serre to show what their splendour once was, asd 
to impress on the musing visitor the transitory value of human possessionsy and 
the hi^piness of those i^o enjoj a humble lot in yirtuous contentment** 



OK RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Priory. 
Guy's Clifl; 

The learned Dr Parr 
was perpetaal curate ci 
Hatton. 

Springfield. 
Temple BalsaU. 



OltonHouae. 



17} 

14} 
10 



Resuming the route to 

Birmingham, 

J^ cr. Warwick and 

Birmingham CanaL 

Hatton. 

Wroxhall 

Knowle. 

The churdi is a handsome 

building, containing some 

curious carving. 

Solihull 

Spark Brook. 
BIBMINOHAM. 



974 

102i 
lOSi 



107} 

113} 
1151 



ON LBFT FROM LOND. 



Stank House. 

Orove Park, Lord Dor- 
mer- 



To Birmingham throu^ 
Hockley, 17 miles. 

Wroxhall Abbey, C 
Wren Hoskyns, Esq., the 
representative of the cele? 
bratcd Sir 0. Wren. The 
mansion stands on the site 
of a nnnnonr, erected bj 
Hugh de Hatton in the 
time of Kint Stej^en. 

Malvern HalL 



LXXZm. LONDON TO BIRMINGHAM BT ST ALBANS. DUNSTABLE, 
DAYENTBY, AND COYENTBY, 106^ miles. 



ON miGHT rSOX LOND. 



Oak Hill, Sir P. H. 
Clarke, Bart. 

The Grove. 

Beech Hill Pa. 

Trent Pa. K. C. 
Bevan, Esq. 

Wrotham Park, Earl 
of Strafford. 

Tittenhanger Park 
Earl of Hardwicke. 

At a distance Hatfield 
House, the princely seat 
of the Marquis of Sabs- 
bury, erectM at the com- 
mencement of the 17tb 
century. It belonged to 
Jnmes I., and was ex- 
changed by him for 
Theobalds. Charles I. 
was a prisoner here. Two 
miles beyond is Brocket 

iHalU the seat of the late 
Viscount Melbourne. 



94i 



91i 



From Hicks's Hall to 
Islington. 
Highgate. 
Whetstone. 
BARNET 
is a neat town, sitnated on 
the top of a hill,*and cele- 
brated for the battle which 
took place, in 1471, between 
the houses of York and Lan- 
caster, in which the great 
Earl of Warwick lost his 
life. An obelisk has been 
erected on the spot. Pop. 
of parishes in w\dclL it is 
sitnated 1851. 62(». 
South Mimms. 
Ridge Hill, (SerU,) 

London Golney. 
J§^ cross river Colne. 

88| ST ALBANS. 



14i 



17i 



%t 



ON LBFT rSOM LOND. 



Caen Wood. Earl of 
Mansfield. Ulrhfle occn* 

led by the great Lord 

lansfield it narrowly 
escaped destruction bv 
the Gordon Rioters} ana 
Fitzroy Farm. 

Totteridge Pirk. 



DerhamPark. 
Clare HaU. 



Col&eyHb. 



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i 



L0N1X)N TO BIRMINGHAM BY ST ALBANS, ke.— Continued.' 



197 



St Albanfl is a town of yery great antiquity, having derived its origin from 
the rains of the Roman VendanUtm. An immense number and variety of anti- 
quities have been discovered here at different times, and some vestiges of the 
ancient town may still be seen at a little distance from St Albans. Here was for- 
merly a magnificent abbey and monastery for Benedictine monks, of which the 
fine old abbey church and a large square gateway are now the only remains. 
The abbey was founded by Offa, King of the Mercians, in honour of St Alban. 
The diurch was made parochial in the reign of Edward YI. It has all the ap- 
pearance of a cathedral, and its interior exhibits the various styles of several 
ages of architecture, and is adorned witii numerous rich screens and monuments. 
Its appearance from the hill, on the Watford Road, is very striking. The town 
contains three other churches, in one of which— the church of St Michael— the 
fine monument to the great Lord Bacon may be seen. St Albans has also a 
new town-hall, several meeting-houses, and charitable institutions. Two batties 
were fought here during the wars of the Roses; the first, in 1455, when 
Richard Duke of York obtained a victory over Henry VI. ; the second, in 1461, 
when Margaret of Anjou defeated the king-maker Earl of Warwick. St Albans 
returned two members to Parliament till 1852, when it was disfranchised. Popu- 
lation in 1851, 7185. Sir John Mandeville, the traveller, was a native of this 
town, and there is a monument to his memory in the abbey church. There is 
one also to the good Duke Humphrey of Gloucester. 



ON aioHT nou lond. 



To Hatfteld, 6 miles; 
to Luton, 10^ miles. 

Gorhambury, (Earl of 
Verulam. In the park 
are tiie raise of the Old 
House, the residence of 
(he Lord Keeper and his 
iUustrions son. Lord Ba- 
con. 

Bothampsted. 

Market Cell, and 2 
miles distant. lAton Hoo, 
J. G. Leigh. £sa. 

Four miles distant is 
Chalsrave, the chvrch of 
whien is very old, and 
contains several monu- 
ments; and 1 mile be- 
yond, is the charch of 
Todcungton, in which are 
tombs of the Cheyne and 
Strafford families. 

To Wobum, 4J miles. 

MUton Bryant. Sir R. 
H. Inglis, Bart., M.P. 

Battlesden Park, Sir £. 
H. P. Turner, Bart.; and 
beyond, Wobum Abbey, 
Duke of Bedford. 



84i 
76 



72J 



Redboum. 

DUNSTABLE, Bedfordsh. 
famous for its manufacture 
of straw-plait bonnets and 
baskets, and for the size of 
its larks, great numbers of 
which are sent to London. 
The church is an ancient 
and interesting building, a 
part of it having been for- 
merly attached to a cele- 
brated priory in the time of 
Henry I. Charles L slept 
at the Bed Lion Inn on his 
waytoNaseby. Pop.lSSl, 
3689. 

Hockliffe. 



66} BHciaaSl (Bucks), 






25i 



37i 



43i 



ON LEFT TEOM LOND. 



To Watford, 8 miles. 
ChiIdwickBury,a.Lo- 
max, Esq. 



Beechwood Park, Sir 
T. 6. S. Sebright, Bart. 

About 1^ mile distant 
are the remains of a Bri- 
tish fortification, called 
Maiden Bower; not far 
from which are still to be 
seen vestiges of another 
named Totteuhal Castle. 

Here is the Boman 
Watling Street. 



To Leighton Buzzard, 
S^ miles. 

Hockliffe Grange, B. 
T. Gilpin, Esq. 

Stock Grove. 



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198 IX>NDON TO BIBIONOHAH BY 8T ALBINS, 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



WolTerton Home. 
Wolverun Park. 



CkMgrove Hall, J. 
Maniel, Esq. 
Coagrove Priory. 

Stoke Park. 

Easton Netton, Earl of 
Pomfret. 
To Northampton, 9 m. 
PattishaU Hoiue. 



To Northampton, 8 m. 



64i 
57i 



B61 



S miles distant Is Nor- 
ton Hall, (B. Botfield, 
EsqOr and, 2 miles farther 
to the right, Whflton. 

Welton Place, B* T. 
Clarke, Esq. 

To Lutterworth, 16 m. 

At a distance Ashby St 
Leger, containing a smidl 
room in which the gun- 
powder plotwas concoeted. 
The house belonged to 
Catesby, one of the con- 
spirators. (See p. 202.) 



Ashby Lodge, 6. ] 
Arnold, Esq. 

Dtmdiurch Lodge. 
Bilton Grange. 
BUton Hall. 
To Bugby, Si miles. 



■^ cr. Grand Junction 
CanaL 
Fenny Stratford. 
STONY STRATFOBD 
tmUt on the WaUmg 
neet. It suffered greatly 
firom fire in 1742. 
4§^ cr. riy. Ouse and the 
Grand Junction CanaL 
Old Stratford, (Northr 
amjptorukire.) 



49i TOWCESTEB, (p. 90^.) 

^S cross river Tow. 
47 Foster's Booth, 
414 Weedon Beck. 

■^^ cr. Grand Junction 
Canal.. 

37i DAVENTRY 

carries on a considerable ma- 
nufacture of silk stockings, 
shoes, and whips. On an 
a4)acent eminence, called 
Danes' or Borough HUl, are 
some of the most extensive 
encampments in England. 
Pop. 1851, 4480. 



B4i Braunston. 

Here is a handsome dnirch 
and a curious stone cross. 

.^ cr. Oxford Canal, 
at the commencement of the 
_ Grand J unction CanaL 
32JWilloughby, {Waa^ 

wickahMV,) 
294 Dunchurch. 



DansmoOT Heath* 
244 Black Dog Inn. 



45 
62i 



53 



60 



62i 
68 



721 



ON LBFT FflOM LONDb 



Great BrickhiU Houses 
P. D. P. ihSMOBnb^ Esq. 

In the distance, Wliad- 
don HalV W.S.» Lowndes, 
Esq. 



Dendianger, and^ 8 
ailea diataat, ^idcen 
Park. 

Wakefield Lodge, Doke 
•f Grafton. 

Whitlebury Eorest. 

To Brackley, 11 miles. 



At a distance, Eyerdon 
Hall, and Fawsley Pa. 
Sir C. Knightley, Bari^ 
and bevona is Canons 
Ashby, By: H. E. L. Dry. 
den, Barti* representative 
of the Poet Dryden. 

Drayton Grange, (Lord 
Orerstone); and, 4 miles 
distant Catesby House. 
Beyond is Slmckburg^ 
Park, Sir F. ShudEbur^ 

To Soatham, 10^ miles. 
Xo Banbuiy, 16| miles. 



75 



76j 
80 



85 



To Sotttibam, B mik% 



li mile distant, Bonxw 
ton House; and Birbury 
Hall, Sir T. Biddolpln 
Bart. 



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LONDON TO BIBlnNGHAM BT ST ALBANS, kc-^ontimud. 199 



m RWHT FBOM LOND. 


II 
24i 


Enightslow Cross. 


|| 


ON LEFT FROM LOND. 




85} 




m. distant isWolstoa 










if on the other 










lie river Dove, 










Souse; and. 2 










er, on the right, 










(tey. a seat of 










n. The present 










sion stands on 








Byton RouM. 


, jf a Cistercian 

nastcry. Several of the 
irtmenU are very fine, 
1 contain many vidoaUe 
rtraits. 


22} 
20 


Ry ton. 

^^ cr. rver Avon. 
Whitlc/ Bridge. 


86} 
894 


1 mile beyond Byton to 
Srnitham.^mileB. 

Whitley Abhey.Viscount 
Hood. Here Charles I. 


\ 






Is supposed to have fixed| 










his station when he unsuc- 


' 








cessfully summoned the 










dty of Chester in 1642. 










Styvichdl, a: F. Ore- 


i^inley House. 

'J he Charter House. 




^^ cr. river Sow. 




gory, Esq. 


Bawkesbury Hall. 
^0 Lutterworth, 15^ m. 
"to, Nuneaton, 8\ miles. 


18i 


COVENTRY 


91i 


ToKentlworth Smiles, 




is a city of great antiquity, 




thence to Warwick Bk m. 


tro Trniwc^ 18^ m. 




with very narrow streets. 
The churches, St Mary's 
Hall, and several private 
houses, present interesting 
sublects fur the study of the 




To Stoneleigh Abbey, 
Lord Leigh, 6 m. 














antiquarian. By means of 
canals, Coventry carries on 


















a considerable trade, and 










there is an extensive manu- 










facture of watches and rib- 










bons. Two M. P. Pop. 










1851, 86,812. 








15i 


AUesley. 


94 


Allesley Park, E. V: 
Neale, Esq. 


MeridenHaU. 


12 


Meriden. 


97i 


BerktweU HaU, Sir J. 










B. Eardley Wilmot, Bart. 
Tb Warwick. 14 mUes. 


9} 


Stone Bridge. 


99i 


Packington HaU, Eari 
of Aylesford. 


nmdmi Hall, A. Spoonet 
Ullingston, Esq. 


5i 


Wells Green. 


104 


To Coleshill and Coles- 
hill Park, Earl Dighy, 4 
miles. 


' 


BIRMINGHAM, p. 203. 


109i 





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' 200 lAXXIV. LOmDOmf to BIEHINOHAM BT RATT.WATv IIS^ Hilts. 



ON BIGHT rSOX LOND. 



A line of railway now 
connects the Camden 
Town Station with the 
East and West India 
Docks, passing round the 
north and east sides of 
the metropolis. 



Kilburn, Willesden, 
and bevond Hampstead. 
The hili commands a 
charming and varied 
prospect. 

Brandesbury House. 

Wembhsy Park. 

To Stanmore, Similes, 
Edgeware 4^, Bamet 
10|. 

Cannons. 

Bentley Priory, Mar- 
quis of Abercom. 

Boshey. 



To 3t Albans, 7 miles. 



Abbot's Lanriey. 
Booksellers* Provident 
Institution. 

li m. distant is Hemel- 
Hempstead. The church 
appears to be of Norman 
origin, but has subse- 
quently undergone va- 
rious fdterations. The 
interior is highly orna- 
mented. Pop. of par. 
1851, 7073. Beyond is 
[Glorhambury (Earl of 
Verulam), and G^des- 
bridge, Sir A. P. Cooper, 
I Bart. 



1091 
106i 
1044 
101 



99 

96i 

94| 



91* 
88 

84J 



London Terminns, 
Euston Square. 

The new entrance hall, 
completed in 1849, at a 
cost of £160,000, is a fine 
specimen of decorative 
architecture. The railway 
passes through a deep ex- 
cavation to 

Camden Town Station, 
the grand depot for the 
goods and locomotive de- 
partments of the company. 
Primrose Hill Tunnel, 
1220 yards long. 

Kilbom Station. 
Willesden Station. 

Sudbury Station. 

Harrow Station. 
Harrow on the Hill. 
It is situated upon one of 
the loftiest hills in Middle- 
sex, commanding extensive 
and delightful views. Pop. 
ofparish 1861, 4961. 

Pinner Station. 

Bushey Station. 
Watford Station (.ffertf) 

Three-quarters of a mile 
distant is Watford, a popu- 
lous and well-built market- 
town, almost surrounded 
by the Cohi, on which are 
mills for throwing silk, 
and making paper. The 
church contains numerous 
brasses and tombs of an- 
cient date. 

Watford Tunnel, 
1 mile, 170 yards in length. 

King's Langley St. 

i^ cr. Grand Junction 

■CanaL 

Boxmoor Station. 

Recross the Grand 

Junction. 




13J 
17} 



21 



24J 



Berkhampstead St. 28 



Kensal Green Ceme- 
tery, one of the prettiest 
restmg places near Lon- 
don. 

Branch to Kensmgton. 

Twyford Abbey. 



Sudbury* 

Harrow on the. Hill, 
1 mile, funons for its 
school and the eminent 
men, such as "Byron and 
Sir K. Peel, who have 
been educated there. 

Eastbury House. 

At a distance, Moor 
Park, Lord Robert Gros- 
venor. 

To Rickmansworth 4 
miles, Amersham, 10 
miles^ High Wycombe, 
17 miles. 

Cashiobury Park, Earl 
of Essex, and Grove 
Park, Eari of Clarendon, 
containing a collection 
of pictures, part of that 
formed by Lord Chancel- 
lor Clarendon.* 

Hunton Bridge. 

Grand Junction Canal 
and river Gade. 

Two Waters, so caUed 
from Junction of the 
Gade with Bulbourn 
Brook, is famous for its 
paper-mills. 

Westbrook Hay, Hon. 
G. D. Kyder. 



To Chesham, 6 miles. 
To Amersham, 12 m. 



* See description of the Portraits, by Lady Theresa Lewis, in her *' Friends and Contens* 
poraries of Lord Chancellor Clarendon." 



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LOKDON TO BIKMINGHAM BY ^klLWHY— Continued. 



201 



I ON BIOET nOM IA>irD. 



of ({aeen Elixabeth when 
Princess. In 1602, it 
paned to the Lord Chan- 
cellor EUesmere, an an- 
eestorof the Bridgewater 
&mil^. The ownership 
of this fiue estate is dis- 
poted, bat is at present 
held hy the Hon. C. 
Egerton. 

To I?inghoe, 2^ miles ; 
Donstable, 9 miles. 

Tring is If miles dis- 
tant from the station. 
It is a very ancient place, 
«nd is supposed to be of 
Boman origin. It has a 
fine church with carved 
roof, and several monu- 
auots. Pop. 1861, 3218. 

Iringhoe. 

To DunsUble, 9 miles. 
To Dunstable, 7 miles. 
To Ampthill, 18 miles. 
To Bedford, 26 mUes. 



80| 



76J 



72 



In Great Berkhampstead, 
Bishop Ken and Cowper 
the poet were bom. Here 
are the remains of a castle, 
formerly the residence of 
the kings of Mercia. The 
church contains nnmerons 
brasses and other monu- 
ments. Fop. 1851, 2948. 



North Church Tunnel, 
S60 yards in length. 
TRING STATION. 
From Tring, an elevated 
ridffe of ground, called the 
Chiltem Hills, extends to 
Oxfordshire. To suppress 
the banditti who formerly 
infested this place, an offi- 
cer, called the Steward of 
the Chiltem Hundreds, was 
appointed by the Crown. 
The duties have long since 
ceased ; but the office is re- 
tained to enable any mem- 
ber of Parliament to resign 
his seat. 
Cheddington Junction 

Station. 
Leighton Junction St 

LEIGHTON BUZZABD. 



811 



86} 
40i 



ON LETT 7S0M LOND. 



Ashlyn's 
Smithy Esq. 



Hall, 



To 



Avlesbnry, 
Wendover, 



6 miles. 



Trine Park, a beautiful 
seat, adorned with pleas- 
ing scenery. 



Here is the junction 
of the Aylesbury with the 
Birmingham Railway. 

Mentmdre, the Bhtou 
M^er de Rothscliild. 

To Wing, 6k miles. 

Liscombe Park, H.W. 
Lovett, Esq. 



Leighton Buzzard is half a mile fh)m the station, and is situated in the north- 
«28tem extremity of the county of Bedford, on the banks of the OuzeL Here is 
a pentagonal cross of curious architecture. The church is a very old building, 
containing a font, stone-stalls, &c The Grand Junction Canal passes close to the 
town. Pop. of township, 1851,4465. Seven miles from the station is Wobum, asmall 
but neat town. It is a place of some antiquity, and has been twice destroyed by 
fire. The church is a venerable building, entirely covered with ivy. It contains 
leveral monuments, and an altar-piece by Carlo Maratti. The inhabitants of 
Wobum are chiefly employed in lace-making. Wobum Abbey, the seat of the 
I^uke of Bedford, is a magnificent quadrangular building, and contains a splendid 
collection of paintings, statues, busts, &c* The park is 12 miles in circumference, 
•ad is well stocked with deer. 



I^Battksden Park, Sir! 
E. H. Page Tomer, Bart. 



Linslade Tunnel, 

390 yards in length. Enter 

Bucks. 



Stoke Hammond, andl 
Great Bnckhill Manor, I 
P.I).P.Duncombe,£sq. | 



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202 LONDON TO BISMIN6HAM BT RAILWAY^-ConSmia. 



* Vemalei are also in attcAidanee at the London, Watford, Engbjr, Coventry, and Binmng- 
uu Su*-' — 



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LOHBOir TO BI£ldN6HlM BT HAILWAT— Citw^tMi. 



203 



ON UOHT FBOM LOVD. 



rates the waters of the 
Avuu from those of the 
Ome and Nen. 

Stamford line branches 
off. 

To Lutterworth, 7 m.; 
toMarketHarboro', 19m. 

Midland Railway joins. 



m 



height above the rails, and 
cost upwards of £800,000. 

Enter Warwickshire. 

^^ cross Ojcford and 

CJoTentry CanaL 

RU6BT Junction St. 




82} 



HillMoreton. 



One mile distant is Rugby, a market-town in the county of Warwick, famous 
for its grammar-school, founded in the reign of Elizabeth by Lawrence Sheriff. 
The school is now considered one of the best in the kingdom. The late cele- 
brated scholar, Dr. Arnold, author of the History of Rome, &c, was one of its 
head masters. Adjacent to the town is an eminence called Castle Mount, from 
its haying originally been the site of a castle supposed to have been erected in 
the time of King Stephen. The Midland Counties, the Trent Valley, the Stam- 
fbrd and the Leamington Railways commence here. Pop. of Rugby 1851, 6317. 
One mile and a half from Rugby is Bilton Hall, remarkable as having been the 
residence of Addison. In the garden is a long avenue called Addison's Walk, 
this having been his favourite promenade. To Dunchurch, three miles. 



Trent Valley line joins. 

Newbold Grange. 

Newbold Hall, Sir T. 
6. Skipwith, Bart. 

Holbrook Grange, T. 
Caldeoott, Esq. 

Wolstoo. 

At a distance, Combe 
Abbey (Eurl Craven). 



Branch to Nuneaton. 



AUetley Turk, E. T. 
Keale, Esq. 

Berkswell Hall, Sir J. 
E.£ardlev Wilmot, Bart. 

At a distance, Packing- 
ton Pa., Earl of Ayles- 
ford. 

The Birmingham and 
Derby JunctiMi branches 
off here. 



28i 



m 

16 
18J 



Brandon Station. 

Sowe Viaduct 

COVENTRY (see p. 199). 

Allesley Gate Station. 

Booker's Lane Station. 

1^ cr. Woonton Green 
Viaduct. 

Hampton Junction St 

Marston-Green Station. 

Stechford Station. 

BIRMINGHAM St 



94 

97i 
99 



103i 
106i 
109 

112} 



Branch to Leaming- 
ton. 



Brandon Hamlet 



Whitley Abbey, Vis- 
count Hood. 

Branch to Warwick. 
To Southam, 18 miles. 
To Kenilwoith, 5 miles. 



Efandon Hall, A. 
Spooner Lillingston, Esq. 



BiBMiNOHAii, a large conmiercial and manufacturing dty, is dtnated in th# 



y Google 



204 BIRMINGHAM. 

nortb-east comer of Warwickshire. It is seventy-nine miles south-east firom 
Liverpool, and the same distance north-east from Bristol, both in a straight line. 
As Birmingham is nearly in the centre of England, its situation is elevated. The 
soil aromid it is light, but has lately been much improved. The appearance of 
the dty itself is mean — a great mnltitade of the houses being inhabited by 
workmen. St Martin's church is the only building of great antiquity. Its ex- 
terior is poor, having in 1690 been cased with a covering of bricks to preserve it 
from falling. The spire alone remains in its original state, a graceful monument 
of olden architecture. The interior is grand and imposing, though disfigured by 
a coating of plaster and by tawdry ornaments. St Philip's Church is an elegant 
building, and, in the opinion of many, forms the chief architectural ornament of 
the city. Besides these two, there are upwards of 12 churches and chapels be- 
longing to the Established Church, and forty-five Dissenting chapels, several of 
them elegant in form. Till lately, Birmingham possessed few public buildings 
worthy of notice, but the citizens are adding to their number. The town-hall is a 
splendid edifice of the Corinthian order, the material being Anglesea marble. 
Its length is 166 feet, breadth 104 feet, and height 83 feet The saloon, 140 feet 
long, 65 feet wide, and 65 feet high, contains one of the largest organs in Europe. 
The grammar-school is a fine Grothic edifice, designed by Mr. Barry, and erected 
at an expense of L.4000. The theatre, the banks, the libraries. Society of Arts, 
&c are also worthy of notice. The schools in Birmingham are numerous and 
flourishing. Among these may be mentioned the free grammar school founded 
and chartered by Edward YI. Its income derived from land is L.3000 per 
annum ; the Blue Coat School and the Protestant Dissenter's charity school are 
supported by subscriptions. There are several associations for moral and intel- 
lectual improvement, such as a mechanic's institution with a library of more 
than 1600 volumes, the Society of Arts, and a philosophical institution. The old 
library contains above 30,000 volumes, and the new library above 5000. The 
savings banks, and provident institutions and societies, are numerous and highly 
beneflciaL There are also many charitable institutions well supported. The 
Diq>ensary, Humane Society, and Magdalen Institution merit great praise. 
From a very early period Birmingham has been renowned for its manu&ctures in 
steel, iron, &c This trade is now carried on to an extent elsewhere unequalled. 
The principal branches of it are, plate and plated wares, ornamented steel goods, 
jewellery, japannery, papier mach^, cut-glass ornaments, steel-peps, buckles and 
buttons, cast-iron articles, guns and pistols, steam-engines, toys, &c. Birming- 
ham is connected with London and various places by means of canals, and 
forms a centre of railway communication with every part of the kingdom. The 
railway from London to Birmingham, which was opened in 1837, is now 
amalgamated with the Grand Junction line, the two forming the London and 
North Western Railway. Binhingham returns two M.P. The population in 
1831 was 110,914; including tihe suburbs, 138,252. In 1841 it was 182,922; 
;uid in 1851, 232^841. 



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LONDON TO DENBIGH THROUGH BIRMINGHAM. NEWPORT. &e. 205 

The journey is performed in about five hours. Omnibuses leave the follow- 
iug offices in London and Birmingham for the railway stations. London offices : 
—Spread Eagle, Giacechurch Street ; Cross-Keys, Wood Street ; Bolt-in-Tun, 
Fleet Street ; Swan with Two Necks, Lad Lane ; George and Blue Boar, Hol- 
bom ; Spread Eagle, Begent Circus ; Golden Cross, Charing Cross ; and Green 
Man and Still, Oxford Street Birmingham offices : — Swan, Castle, Hen and 
Chickens, Albion, aad Nelson. 



LXXXV. LONDON TO DENBIGH THROUGH BIRMINGHAM, NEWPORT. 
WHITCHURCH. WREXHAM. AND MOLD. 206^. 




Aston Park, once the 
residence of Jamea Watt. 



Perry Hall, J. Oough, 
Isq. 

Great Barr Hall. Sir F. 
E.Scott. Bart. 
2 mOes distant Aldridge 

To Lichfield« 9i miles. 



Forwnd to Cannock, 
ile. To Castle Brom- 
wiefa. 15 miles. 

Hatherton Hall, and be- 
yond, TeddealeyHall, Lord 
Hatherton. 

8 miles distant Stretton 
HaU. 

1 mile south of Ivetsey 
Bank is Bosoobel House, 
wbere the Penderellslived 
who concealed Charles II. 
after the battle of Worora- 
ter. In a field near the 
|hoiue is the Royal Oak, 



2064 
97 



95} 

94} 

91J 
884 



85} 
81} 

79} 
771 

72i 
701 



From Hicks's Hall to 

Birmingham, (p. 199.) 

^ cr. the Warwick 

CanaL 

Hockley Brook. 

Enter Staffordshire. 

Handsworth. 
J^ cr. the river Tame. 

Snail*s Green. 
WALSALL 

htm A fine and spacioos charch. 
and three others, » town hall, a 
snbanrfptiDn Hbrary, several 
meetint; hoaaes, and other dU- 
sentinr cbaioela. afreefrranmiar, 
ExMcUsh Blue Coat, and Sundny 
Bohools. The inhabitants arc 
principally employed in i 
faeturtn^ hardm 
aaddlery. 
2ff.680. 




■^^ or. the Essington 

and Wirley Cantd. 

Bloxwich. 

Church Bridge. 

Four Crosses Inn. 



Spread Eagle. 

London and North 

Western Railway. 

Ivetsey Bank* 

Weston under Lizard. 



1091 
110} 

111} 

115J 
118 



EdRbaston Hall, Lord 
Calthorpe. 



Soho, M. B. Boulton, 
Esq. 

, Sandwell Park, Earl of 
[Dartmouth. 

Hampstead Hall. 



120} 
1241 

126} 
129 

134} 
136} 



S miles distant Bentley 
House. 

To Wolverhampton, 6i 
miles. 



Hilton Hall, 

To Wolverhampton, 7i 
miles, Brewood, 2i miks. 

2 miles distant Somerford 
HaU. 



Weston HaU, Earl of 
Bradford. 



y Google 



206 LONDON TO DENBIGH THB0U6H BIBHINOHAM. NSWPOBT. te. 



UN RIGHT FROM LOND. 



ilantedontheoriginal spot 
jom an acorn of the tree 
n which Charles was shel- 
tered. The existing re- 
ireaentativeaof this family 
lad a small pension grant- 
ed to them a few years 
igo. 

Aqualate Hall, Sir T. F. 
'(\ Boughey, Bart. 

To Stafford, 12] miles. 

To Ecdeshall, 9^ miles. 

Newport affords the title, 
of Viscount to the Earls o( 
Bradford. 



Chetwynd Park, B. 
Borough, Esq. 

To Drayton, 4} miles. 



To Drayton, 3 miles. 

Buntingsdale HaU, J, 
Tayleur, Esq. 

To Whitchurch by Ight- 
Beld, 8 miles. 2 miles 
distant, Cloverly HaU, J. 
W. Dod, Esq. 

Sandford Hall. 



To Newcastle under 
Lyme, 22 m.,— Nantwich, 
11 m.,— Chester, 20 m.,— 
Malpas, 5 miles. 

At a distance. Comber- 
mere Abbey, Yiscoun^ 
Combermere. 




67 1 Bloomsbmy. 
Enter Shropshire. 
Woodcote. 

NEWPORT, 
asmalltown near the Roman 
64^ Watliug Street, possesses ai 
old church, (part of which 
has been rebuilt in such a 
stxle as totally to destroy 
itsvenerable character,>aiid 
several other places of wor- 
ship. The humorous poet, 
•Tom Brown, is said by some 
to have been bom here; 
but others aflirm that Shiff- 
ual was his birth-^ce. 
Pop. 1861, 2906. 
Chetwynd. 



62J 
601 

m 

56i 
641 

521 
51 



481 
44J 



Stanford Bridge. 

Hinstock. 

Shakeford. 

Sntton Heath. 

■^ cr. river Tern. 

Tern HilL 

Bletchlej. 

Sandford. 
Great Ash. 



^^ cr. the Ellesmere 
Canal. 

431 WHITCHURCH 1631 

is pleasantly situated on an 
eminrace, at the summit of 
which stands the church, a 
haxidsome edifice rebuilt in 
1722, on the site ot a more 
aneient structure. It con- 
tains several effigies of the 
Talbots, one of which is 
to the memory of the fa- 
mous Earl of Shrewsbury, 
"the EnsUsh Achilles.'^ 
Here are also a house nf in- 
dustry, a free school, meet-' 



1581 
161} 



1391 ToShifihal, 4i miles. 
Woodeote Hall, John 

1392 Ootes, Esq. 
^ The ruins of Lilleshall 

Abbey, belonging to the 
Duke of Sutherland, one 
1421 of the finest vestiges of 
^ Norman architecture in 
the kingdom. 

2i Dules distant LUles- 
hall, Duke of Sutherland. 

To Wellington , 8i miles, 
thence to Shrewsbury, 1{ 
miles. 

Longford Hall, R. M, 
Leake, Esq. 



143| 

1461 
148 
1501 
1521 

1541 
1554 



To Shrewsbury, 16 m. 
WelUngton, urmiles. 



S miles distant Hawke 
Btone (Viscount Hill), eele 
brated for its combinatkm 
of natural and artificial 
beauties. In the nounds 
there is an obelisk sur- 
mounted by a statue of Sir 
R. Hill, first Protestant 
Lord Mayor of London. 



y Google 



LOHDON TO DENBIGH THBOOGH BnUCINOHAM, 6tc-Continuid, 207 



ON RIGHT FROM LCNd4 S g 



iKoedPark. 



EninaPurk,SirB.Fa< 
lestoB^Bart 



Cefo. 



To Chester by Holt 14 
" by Pulford IH m. 

1 mile distant, Acton 
Paik, (StrB.H.CuDliffe, 
But) the birth-plaoe of 
the infiunous JvJage Jef- 
freys, beyond, — Hoseley 



Gwenyllt Hall. 



PlaslBsa. 



39} 

30| 
274 



ing-houses, chanty schools, 
and alms-houses. Pop. of 
town, 1861, b6l9. 

Little Green. 



I67i 



Bangor Iscoed, (Flint' 

tkire,) 
■^^ cr. the river Dee. 
Marchwiel, {Denbighr 

ahire.) 
The church contains several 
monuments, and a stained 
window, executed by 



174} 



176J 



WkEXHAM, 179 

a flourishing town, noted 
fior its fairs. The principal 
object is the church, a noble 
structure of the fifteenth 
century, surmounted by a 
tower of great beauty. The 
interior is highly ornament- 
ed, and cmtains a superb 
altar piece, besides a num- 
ber of monuments of pecu- 
liar beauty. Fop. of Pari, 
bor. 1861. 6714. Both 
Wrexham and Ruthin are 
incladed in the Denbigh 
district of borgha. (See 
also p. 148.) 



Ibere is another load 
from Mold to Denbi^ by 
Allen Kilken, liangwyfan, 
LlandTrnog, and Whit- 
eimrcb, Sf miles shorter 
than tlie route desGiibed. 



Uwyncgrin. 

Owysaney Hall, P. D. 
Cooke, Esq. 

KUkeoHanv , 

HaUkyn Castle, Marquii 
of Westminster. 

To Caerwysy 1 mile. 



22i 



IBi 



H 



Caergwrle, (Flimtth,) 



184 



MOLD, ^ 191 
small neat town, with a 
diurch containing some 
good monuments. In the 
vicinity are cotton-mills. 
On an eminence called the 
Moel 1* amman is a monn- 
ment, erected in honour of 
the Geo. III. jubilee. Pop. 
ofPar. bor. 1861,8432. It 
forms one of the Flint dis- 
trict of burghs. 



Naimcrch. 



UN LEFT PROM LOND. 



197 



1 mile distant Hanmer 
Hall, Sir J. Hanmer, Bart. 

Gredingtcm, Lord Ken- 
on, and Bettisfield Park, 
>ir J. Hanmer, Bart. 



To Ellesmere, 10 miles. 
Erthig, S. Yorke, Esq. 



To Oswestry, 16 m.,— - 
Llangollen, 12 miles, — 
Buthm. 16 miles. 

Another road, 84 miles 
in length, leads f^ 
Wrexham by Buthin, 3} 
miles shorter than th^road 
by Mold. Buthin is sitii 
ated on the declivity of 
hill in the vale ofOlwyd. 
The principal ottjects are! 
the churdi, the town-hall,, 
the f^«e sdiool which has 
produced many eminent 
scholsrs, and the remains 
of the casUe. Pop. of Pari, 
^or. 1861, 8378. 8 m. 
from Ruthin is Pool Park, 
LonhBagot. 

Leeswood, J. W. Eyton, 
Esq., and beyond Nerquis 
h3\ Tower. 



To Buthin, 8 miles. 



Bhual. 
Bhual Issa. 
Penbedw. 

Moel-y-Oaer mountain, 
1880 fieethigh. The sum- 
tmit has upon it 



upon 

|flne remains of a military 
work. 



nnl 
fir 
«wi 



y Google 



208 LONDON TO DENBIGH THROUGH BIBMINGHAM, S».— Continued. 



on UOHT FKOM LOND. 




Bodfari. 


^1 
^1 


ON LSFT JROU LOMD. 


Brjn Bella, (Sir J. S. 


2^ 


3 mUes distant, Glany- 


Piozzl Salusbury,) onoe 
the residence of Madame 








wem, J. Madocks, Esq. 










Piozzl, friend of Dr 


H 


Pont Rvffyth. 


208} 


Near this bridge i» 


Johnson, while Mrs 
this property to the 




^^ cr. the river Clwj'd. 
and enter Denbighshire. 




Lleweny Hall, contain, 
ing a fine Gothic hall 
fitted up as an armoury. 










At a short distance 


of her last husband. 


1 


Whitchurch. 


205} 


are extensive bleaching 


LUnerch Park. 








works, established by 
the late Hon. T. Htz- 






DENBIGH. 


206i 


maurice.* 



Denbigh, the capital of Denbighshire, is pleasantly situated on a rocky emi- 
nence in the beautiful yale of Clwyd. The castle^ now in ruins, was founded in 
the reign of Edward L It underwent a si^ duiing the civil wars, and after the 
Restoration of Charles II. was blown up with gunpowder and rendered completely 
untenable. The ruins cover the summit of the craggy hill,and the prospect through 
the broken arches and frittering walls is extensive and beautifiiL Denbigh has 
been compared to Stirling in Scotland, and has a very imposing aspect frx)m a dis- 
tance, with the ruinous castle crowning the summit of the hill The parish church 
is situated at \^liitchurch, one mile from the town, but is seldom used by the in- 
habitants, who generally attend divine worship at the ancient chapel of St Hilary. 
In the porch of the parish church, partly ruinous, are the effigies in brass of 
Richard Middleton of Gwaenjrnog, and Jane, his ivife. He was governor of Den- 
bigh Castle in the reigns of Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. William, his 
third son, was a sea captain, and a poet ; Thomas, fourth son, became Lord Mayor 
of London, and founder of the family of Chirk Castle ; Hugh, the sixth son, ex- 
pended an immense fortune in bringing the new river into London. An ancient 
priory for Carmelites existed at Denbigh, but the conventual church, now con- 
verted into a malt-house, is all that remains of the institution. Denbigh had 
formerly a considerable manufactory of gloves and shoes. It unites with Hult> 
Ruthin, and Wrexham, in returning one M.P. Pop. of Par. bor. 1851, 6498. 
The vicinity abounds with beautiful and interesting scenery. It gives the title 
of Earl to the Fielding fiunily. 

* Mr Fitzmaurioe was brother of the first and unde of the present Marquis of Lands- 
downe, and having married Mary third Countess of Orkney in her own right, was grand- 
father of the present Earl. In order to encourage his tenantry in Ireland, and pranoie the 
national manufacture <tf linens, he erected a bleaching establishment here at an exp&aaa of 
L.2000, in which, under his own sup«rintendence, 4000 pieces were bleached yeariy. It is 
said he usually travelled in his coach to Chester, and when there stood behind a connter. 



y Google 



inXYL LONDON TO CHESTEE AND HOLYHEAD, THROUGH ST AL- 209 
BANS, WOBURN, NORTHAMPTON, LUTTERWORTH, LICHFIELD, 
STAFFORD, AND NANTWIGH, 274 Miles. 



y Google 



210 



LONDON TO CHESTER AND HOLYHEAD, kc^OouHnited. 



oir uoHT rmoM lond. 



To Ashby de la Zovch, 
16i nules : Markat Bos- 
worth, 7 miles. 



Lindley HaU. 



Athentone Hall, G. 
H. Bracebridge, Esq. 
2^ m., Grendon Hall, Sir 
6. Chetwynd, Bart., and 
4 m. dist., Gk)p8a]l Hall, 
(Earl Howe.) 

To Barton upon Trent, 
20 miles; to Tarn worth, 
by Grendon, 9 miles. 

U mile distant, Pooley 

To Ashby de la Zouch, 
13 m. ; Barton npon 
Trent, 16 miles. 

Tamworth Castle. 

Wigginton Lodge. 



Camberford HaU. 
Packington Hall. 
Stowe HalL 



178 

175J 
174i 



167^ 



166i 



ie2i 

161 



168} 



166i 



160i 



WatUng Street, cross each 
other. 

Smockington. 
Burbage. 

HINCKLEY, 
noted for its ale and manu- 
facture of hosiery, has a 
church with an oak roof, 
curiously ornamented, a 
very ancient town-hall. &c. 
Pop. of town, 1851, 6111. 
In the vicinity is a spring 
called the Holjrwell, for- 
merly dedicated to the 



Witherley. 



M^ cr. riverAnker, and 
enter Warwickshire. 
ATHERSTONE 
carries on a considerable 
trade in hats. In a meadow 
north of tlie church the 
Earl of Richmond en- 
camped previous to the 
battle of Bosworth Field, 

HaU End. 

Wilnecote. 

Enter Staflfordshire. 

TAMWORTH, (p. 357.) 



Jl^ cr. river Tame and 

Grand Junction CanaL 

Hopwas. 




96 



106} 



107} 



111} 
113 



115} 



I17f 



123} 



To Nuneaton, 6 miles. 



Weddington Hall, 
Nuneaton, and 3 miles 
beyond, Arbury Park, C. 
N. Newde^ate, Esq. 

AnsleyHall, Sir J.N. 
Ludford Chetwode, Bart. 



2 m. distant, Caldecote 
HaU. 

Oldbury Hall. 

Mancetter House, 
Mancetter Hall, and 
Mancetter, a Roman 
station. 

Merevale Hall, W. S. 
Dugdale, Esq.; and 2 
miles beyond, Baxterly 
HaU. 



To OoleshiU, 9f miles, 
Sutton Coldfield, 7^ m. 

Drayton Manor, Sir 
R. Peel, Bart. 

BonehiU, and beyond 
MidcUeton Hall, Lord 
Wenlock. 

Hint's HaU, W. H. C. 
Floyer, Esq. 

Swinfen HaU, J. Swin- 
fen, Esq. 

Freeford HaU, R, 
Dyott, Esq., Maple 
Hayes and Pipe Grange. 



LICHFIELD 

is finely situated on a branch of the river Trent It is divided by a sheet of water 
into two parts, the city and the dose, the latter being fortified. The cathedral, 
erected chiefly in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, is the most interesting object 
in the town, and, from its elevated situation, visible at a great distance. It is 491 
feet by 153, and sorroonded by a waH. It sufivred much in the fiunous siege 
which it underwent during the Parliamentary war, but has since been twice tho- 
roughly repaired. The exterior is ahnost unrivalled for the elegance of its archie 
tecture, and the interior corresponds in splendour and magnificence. Of the 
numerous monuments, those of Dr. Johnson and Garrick, the former a native of 



y Google 



LONDON TO CHESTER AND HOLYHEAD, kc—Ckmtiiwed. 



211 



the town, chiefly merit attention. There are also monuments to Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu and Miss Seward, and the celebrated work of Chantrey repre* 
senting two sleeping children. The other places deserving notice are, the house in 
Bacon Street, where Dr Darwin wrote his Zoonomia, and the house on the west side 
of the Market Place, the birth-place of Dr Johnson, a statue of whom now adorns 
the same street. This statue is 19 feet high, in a sitting position, and on the 
pedestal are three bas reliefia illustrative of the doctor's life. Also the market- 
house, the town-hall, the Hospital of St John, the spot where Lord Brooke fell 
daring the siege of the cathedral, indicated by a pavement of white pebbles, and 
an inscription recording the event, and the free school of St John, where Ashmole, 
Addison, Johnson, Garrick, Wollaston, Hawkins Browne, and many other emi- 
nent nien received the rudiments of their education. Lichfield contains three 
parochial churches, several cbapels and meeting-houses, charitable institutions, a 
theatre^ library, &c. The city is a county in itself, with exempt jurisdiction, 
and sends two members to the House of Conmions. It affords the title of Earl to 
the Anson family. There is little trade except with the interior by means of 
canals and railway. The brewing of ale also yields considerable profit. The 
markets are held on Tuesdays and Fridays. Pop. 1851, 6573. 





a§ 






Qgdon Green. 


126} 


Longdon. 


127i 


Brereton. 


129i 


RUGELEY 


131 


on a considerable 




in hats, and has 




mills and iron 




The chnrch has 




Bbuilt, but has an 




er at the west end. 




! miles north of the 




in Cannock Oiase 




10U8 spring. Pop. 

154. 




laeley Bridge. 


183i 


UGlford. 


137 



ON LEFF FBOM LONI>. 



To Birmingham, 16| 
miles, Walsall, 9 miles. 

Beaudesen (Marquis 
of Anglesea,) a noble 
building in a noble park. 



Hagley Park, the 
Baroness de la Zouche. 
Stoke House. 



Wolseley Hall, Sir C. 
Wolseley.Bart. 
Haywood House. 

Brockton Hall, W. 
Chetwynd, Esq. 
BrocKton Lodge. 
MilfordHall. 



y Google 



212 



LONDON TO CHE8TBB AND HOLYHEAD, ac-^anUmied. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



135J 



Weeping Crosa. 

■i^ cr. the Stafford 

and Worcester Canal, 

and the river Penk. 

^^ cr. the river Sow. 

STAFFORD, 



138i 



ON LBPT FROM LOMD. 



To WabaU, 16 miles. 



To Newport, 10 miles. 



«J'i-.^?°1\J* miles; 1331 STAFFORD, 140i 

sendon, 5 miles. ^ 

the capital of the county of that name, is mtuated on the north bank of the 
river Sow, about three miles above its junction with the Trent The sitoatioB 
of the town is low but pleasant, the streets being in general regular, and built of 
stone. A castle, erected here at a very early period, was several times demo- 
lished and rebuilt, but finally destroyed during the Parliamentary war. Its 
ruins now occupy the summit of a neighbouring hilL The county-hall is an 
elegant and spacious edifice in the centre of the town. Near it is the market- 
place, well adapted to the purpose intended. There are also four chnrdieSy (the 
most remarkable of which, St Mary's, is cruciform, and contuns a curious foiA), 
several Dissenting places of worship, a free school founded by Edward VI., a 
county infirmary, county jail, and lunatic asylun. The inhabitants are chiefly 
employed in the manufacture of boots and shoes, cutlery, and the tanning of 
leather. Isaak Walton was i native. There is also considerable traffic wifli 
the neighbouring counties by means of railways and canal. The town returns 
two M.P., and has done so since the reign of Edward I. It gives the title of 
Marquis to the Dukes of Sutherland, and that of Baron to the Jemingham fiunily. 
Population, 1851, 11,829. 



Johnson HaU. 



130 

128i 

I26i 



Great Bridgeford. 

M cr. the river Sow. 

Walton. 

ECCLESHALL, 



144 

145| 

147J 



Cieswell Hall. 
Seighford Hall, 
EsqT 



P.] 



Acton HaU 

Eccleshall Caitle^ Bidwp 

of Liohfield and Corentiy 



a neat and pleasant town, situated on the banks of a small stream that flows 
into the Sow. In its church Bishop Halse concealed Queen Margaret when 
she fled from Muckleston. It contains a few monuments of the Bosville far 
mily. Eccleshall Castle, tlie rendence of the Bishops of Lichfield and Coventry, 
was founded at a very early period, and rebuilt in 1310, in consequence of damage 
received in the civil wars, was repaiised in 1695. 



I To Stone, 6 miles. 
Ghames Hall, W. 
Yonge. Esq., and Broogh- 
ton Hall, Sir H. D. 
Broughton, Bart. 



123 
121 



Croxton. 
BrongfatOB, 



To Newport 9 miles. 
SagnallHalL 



y Google 



LONDON TO CHESnXB AND HOLTHEAD» ^.-'CtrnHnwd, 



21B 



OH BIOHT VmOM LOND. 


1 

USi 
lUf 
1062 

l(Hf 


Mackleston. 

Enter Shropshire. 

Dorrington. 

Woore. 

Enter Chesliire. 
Bridgemore. 

Walgherton. 
Stapeley. 


^1 


ON LMT 7B0M LOND. 


To Newcastle-under- 
I'Tme.lOinules. 

To NewcasUe-imder- 
LymcSinules. 

Hough House. 

Creire Station, and be- 
yond, Crewe Hall, Lord 
Crewe. 

To Newcastle, Um. 


15«| 

mi 

162J 
166i 

169J 


To Drayton, 4 ZDiles. 

Muckleston Hall, Oak- 
ley Hall, Sir J. N. L. 
Chetwode, Bart. 

Adderiey Hall, and be- 
yond, Shavington, Earl of 

To Drayton, 8 miles. 
Dorrington Old Hall. 
To Whitchurch, 13im. 
Drayton, 7 miles. 

Doddington Hall, Sir 
H. D. Broughton, Bart. 

Stapeley House, Rev- 
Jas.Folliott. 

To Whitchurch, 10 m. 
Drayton, 12} miles. 



Stands in a low flat situation on the east bank of the Weaver. The houses are 
for the most part old, and bnflt of timber and plaster. The church is large and 
crodfoim, -with stalls, stone pnlpit, and an octagonal tower. The Dissenters 
bare sev^al meeting-hooses, and there tbre several ranges of alms-houses. The 
prosperity of the town was formerly owing to its brine springs and salt-works, 
which were of great antiquity and celebrity, but only one spring is now worked. 
The chief manufactures are of shoes, cheese, gloves, and cotton goods. The 
Chester, the EUesmere, the Liverpool, and Bumingham Junction canals, and the 
Ifiddlewich Branch canal unite in the neighbourhood of the town, and the Grand 
Junction canal passes at no great distance. The Crewe station, a great fbcns of 
railways, is dose to Nantwich. Pop. of township, 1851, 6426. 



Two miles distant, the 
Hookery. 



Pool HaU (F. E. Has- 
ley. Esq.) was built in 
me 16th century, and is 
one of the most vener- 
^le specimens of domes- 
tic architecture in the 
ooonty. 

Cilveley Hall, E. D. 
Bavenpoil Esq^ and 4 
m. to Uienght, Damhall, 
T.6.Corbett,£sq. 



1082 
102} 



lOli 



^^ cr. river Weaver. 



Acton. 
Hurleston. 



Barbridge. 



J^ cr. Chester CanaL 



I70i 

171J 



172| 



DorfoldHall. 

7 miles distant, Gom- 
bermere Abbey (Vis- 
count Combermere) an 
ancient Cistercian abbey. 
It is beautifully situated. 
6 m. distant is Cholmon- 
deler Castle (Marquis of 
Cholmondeley), to whom 
Nautwich gives the title 
of Baron. 



Haughton. 



y Google 



S14 



LONDON TO CHB8TSB AND HOLYHEAD, ^Be.-Contimud. 



ON KIOHT FROM £01^). 



Tilitone Lodges J. ToU 
tanadi^ Cm* 

To Northwich, 10 mfles. 

The Bank, and 2 milei 
fkrther to the right Onl- 
ton HaU, Sir P. DeMalpaf 
Of ey Egerton, Bark. 



8 miles distant Aston 
Hayes, Grey Booth, Esq. 
^ To Frodgham, 7i miles 
Northwich, IS miles. 

To Frodsham, 9k milcB. 



Hode House. 

To Prodsham, 11 miles; 
liTerpooIaciofis theFerry, 
li: Park Gate, 12. 



Hawarden gives the 
title of VisoGont to the 
Maude family. 



Alton Hall. 

The picturesque ruins of 
Bwloe Castle are delight- 
AlUy situated in a sylvan 
dingle, in which theforoes 
of Henry II. met with a 
risnal defeat fhnn the sons 
of Owen Owynedd. 

To FUnt, S Q 



94 
93 
91i 



Highway Side. 175^ 




95i TARPORLBY 1781 

is pleasantly situated, clean- 
ly and neatly built, and is 
noted Ibr its annind fox- 
hunt The church ban an- 
cient structure, oontainmg 
several monuments with in- 
scriptions, interesting to the 
antiquary, and some armo- 
rial bearings in windows of 
coloured ^ass. The inha- 
bitants are diiefly employed 
in the manufactureof stock- 
ing and leather breeches. 
In 1642, a battle was foi ' 
at this place between Sii 
Brereton and the Royalists 
ftom Chester, who, on this 
occasicm, were victorious. 
Pop. 1114. 



76 



73i 



Clotton. 
Dudden. 
Tarvin. 



90 Stamford Bridge. 
Vicar^ Cross. 

^^ cr. Chester CanaL 
Boughton. 

854 CHESTER (p. 149.) 

1^ cr. the river Dee, 

•l^cr. Ellesmere Can. 

81 Bietton {Flimtskia^) 193 

HAWARDEN. 
a well-built town, with the 
ruins of an ancient castle. 
Many of the inhabitants are 
employed in the collieries 
and in the mannfoctnre 
of earthen-ware. Pop. of 
township, 906. 

Ewloe, 198 



Northop. 



180 
181 
1824 

184 
185} 

187i 
1884 



Twomiks distant sie the 
ruins of Beeston Csstle, 
erected by Bandle Bluii- 
deU, Earl of Chester, h 
1220. Ic was dismantled 
during the dvil wars by ol- 
den of the Parliament 
This fortress stands on t^ 
slopeand summit of asand- 
stone rock , whidi f<mns od 
one side an almost perpen- 
dieular precij^ of great 

■ *it The outer court 
ses an area of aboutfi 
acres. The walls are pro- 
digiously thick, and have 
several round towers. A 
deep ditdi, sunk in the so- 
lid rock, Mirrounds th 
keep, which was entercx 
by a drawbridge oppoeitc 
two drcular watch-towtf 
stlU ronaining. Camdei 
^leaksof a draw-well bored 
to the base of the rock, i 
depth of 90 yards, and era)- 
munlcating with a brook 
m the vale 



2004 



LittktmHiU. 



ToWhttcfamoh, 19 m. 
Boughton HaU. 
Eaton HaU (Marqnis of 
Westminster). 
To Wrexham, 10} m 



To Mold, 6i miles. 
Hawarden Castle, Sir & 
B. Glynne, Bart 
Hawarden Httyei. 



Northop HaU. 

To Mold, 3 mfles. 

Lower Sauj^iton, Mid- 
dle Saughton, and Upper 
SMighton* 



y Google 



LONDON TO CHESTER AND HOLYHEAD, ix^CoiUimud. 



Sl$ 




To Hint, 2| miles. 

Three miles beyond 
is Downing, (Viscount 
Feilding), formerly the 
residence of the cele- 
brated topographer, T. 
Pennant, Esq., and one 
mile beyond it, near the 
sea, Mostyn Hall, Hon. 
E. M. Lloyd Mostvn, and 
farther along is Talacre, 
Sir P. Most^, Bart. 



The see of St Asaph 
was founded so early as 
543, and comprises parts 
of the counties of Flint, 
M<mtgomery, Denbigh, 
Merionetb, and Salop. 



Bodhyddan, W.S; Con- 
wy. Esq.; farther 'to the 
rinit Pengwern, Lord 



Bodelwyddan, Sir J. 
H. Williams, Bart. 

Kinmel Park, late Lord 
Dinorben. 



Owiyeh GaftlCjL. H. 
B. HesKetti, Esq. ; Bryn* 
dulas, J. Hesketh, Esq. 

Marie. 

Bodyscalbui. 



61i 
67 



60 



47f 
88i 



Halkin. 

HOLYWELL 
derires its name from 
spring called St Winifred's 
Wdl. In the vicinity ^re 
extensive lead mines, and 
numerous manufactories of 
paper, snuff, copper, and 
cotton. It joins with 7 
other Flint boroughs in 
returning 1 M.P. Fop. of 
Pari. Bor. 1851, 5740. 

Brick Kiln. 
^ cr. river Cl-wyd. 

ST ASAPH, 
a small but pleasant and 
very ancient city, situated 
between the Clwyd and 
Elwy. The cathedral is a 
neat plain structure, and 
the east windowhas painted 

glass. This see has'uum- 
ered among its bishops 
the excellent Dr. W. Beve- 
rid«Ee. In the churchyard 
is the tomb of Bishop Isaac 
Barrow, who was tutor to 
the great mathematician 
and divine, Dr Isaac Bar- 
row, his nephew. The 
Episcopal palace, recently 
reonilt, is a commodious re- 
sidraoe, uid the scMiery ei 
the Clwyd is particularly 
beautiful. It affords the 
title of Viscount to the 
Earls of Ashburnham. Pop. 
1861,2041. This is one of 
the Elint dist of burgfas, 
■^^cr. the river Elwy. 
Llan St Sior or St 
George (Denbighshire.) 

ABERGELE 
is much frequented in the 
batbrag season, there being 
excellent sands, and the 
sceneryin the vicinity beau- 
tiftiL Near it is a huge cal- 
careous rock called Cefn-yr 
Oge, in which are several 
natural caverns. Pop. of 
pariah 1851, 2866. 

Llandulas. 
H^ cr. river Conway. 
ABERCONWAY (Omt- 

narvonshire,) 




208i 
207 



Halkyn Castle, Mar- 
quis of Westminster. 
Brynfoed. 



212| 
217 



221| 
224 



226i 
8861 



Ihvaie (list. Bryn Bella, 
Sir J. S. Piozzi Salusbury, 
the heir of Madame 
Piozzi. 

Llanerch Park and 
Bronwylfa, Col. Sir. T. 
H. Browne, K.C.H. 

Wygfair and Cefo. 

Three miles distant 
Plas Heaton, J. Heaton, 
Esq. ; and beyond,Faeuol, 
one of the best old houses 
in the county of Flint. 

To Denbigh, 8| miles. 



Dyifiynaled, P. W. 
Yorke, Esq. 

Three miles distant 
Coed Coch, J. L. Wynne, 
Esq.; fartlier to the left 
Oarthewin, B. H. Wynne, 
Esq. ^ 



Brynsteddfod, J. C. 
Jones, Esq. 



y Google 



S16 



LONDON TO CHESTER AND HOL^HBaD, ^n^-^-Oonttnued, 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Oloddaeth. 



To Besumaris acroM the 
Lavan Sands and Ferry, 
5i miles, but this route is 
by no means safe, as the 
sands frequently shift. 

Penrhyn Casfle, Hon. 
E. G. Douglas PennaiLt 
LtmeQrove. 



To Beaumaris, 4 miles, 
and Baron Hill, Sir B. B. 
W. Bulkeley, Bart. 



29} 

25] 

24 
21* 



Over Penmaen Bfawr. 
Mountain to Aber. 

Lland^ai* 

BANGOB (p. 182). 

Menai Bridge. 

(See p. 182.) 

■^ cr. the Menai 

Strait, and enter 

Anglesea. 

HOLYHEAD (p. S48). 



I OK LBFT FROM LOKH. 



244} 

2484 

250 
252* 



274 



Xb Uanrwst, 18 mikf. 



Snowdon In the dis- 



Trebortb, and beyond 
Vaynol, T. A. Smith, Esq. 

To UttgcAii, H ToOm. 



LXXXVn. PROM LONDON TO CHESTER THROUGH NEWPORT AND 
WHITCHURCH, 183^ If ile8,-«ontinued to PARKGATE, 1901 Ifiks. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Combermere Abbey, 
yiaooant Combermere. 

About 2| miles distant 
is Cholmondeley Castle 
(Marquis of Cholmonde- 
ley), an elMant mansion, 
adorned with a library and 
a fine collection of paint- 
lings. 

Bolesworth Castle. 






32 



30 



DM LBFT FROM LONI>. 



From Hicks'b Hall to 
Whitchurch, p. 206. 

Enter Cheshire. 

Giindley Bridge, 



163i 



1654 



25* Hampton Guide Po6t 169} 



23 



Broztoiu 



172* 



llmfledistttitliMtl. 
pas, a veil built town, si- 
toated on an eminence 
neartheDee. Theohurch 
is a handsome boildinff, 
oontainlnff a Tanlt of the 
Cholmondelfly fionily. 
Bishop Heber was a nap- 
tiye of this town. 

Garden Hal^ (J, B. 
Leehi^Ei)^ 



y Google 



FROM LONDON TO CHESTBR— C^(Mtied. 



217 



ON RIORT FROM LOND. 


I 


Handley. 


l| 


ON LIFT FROM LOND. 




m 


1764 


Aldeney HaU, S. Alder- 
8ey,£8q. 


HboleHalL 


m 

17 
131 


Golboum Bridge. 

Higher Hatton. 

Boughton. 


176i 
178i 
182 


Eaton Han. Maiqnia of 
Westmlniter. 

Rowton 
BouffhtoQHaU. 


BadwHalL 


12 


CHESTER, p. 148. 


183| 




MolUngton HaU, J. 


9* 
6i 


MoUington. 
The Yacht 


1851 
188i 


Puddington Hall 
Burton Hall, B. Con- 
greye,EBq. 




n 


Endertoni 


193 




To LiTerpool, by Wood 
iide Fmy, m no^es. 


H 


ORBAT NESTON. 
PARKOATB. 


194 
195| 





Parkgate ii much resorted to for searbathing. It is also noted as a station 
from which packets sail for Ireland. 

LXXXVni. LONDON TO LIVERPOOL THROUGH DUNSTABLE, COVENTRY, 
LICHFIELD, STONE, KNUTSFORD. AND WARRINGTON, S06 MUes. 



ON BIOBT FROM LOND. 



Packiiigton HaU, Earl 
ofAyleif&rd. 



3 milet distant is Max- 
stoke Castle (T. Dilke, 
Esq.), a ontriderable part 
of which remains in the 
same state as when erected 
bjr Edward in. Here also 
an the remains of a priory 
btdit 1^ die same nnmarch. 

Blytti HaU (W. S. Dug- 
dale, Eeq.). formerly the 
paoperi y of Sir W. Dog- 
dale, author of the 
lionastlooii. 

Hnns Hall, a B. Ad* 
4«l^,Bn. 



106i 
102i 



From Hicks^b Hall to 
Stone Bridge, War- 
wickshire ^. 199). 

COLESHILL. 

The diurch is a fine 
specimen of Gothic archi- 
tecture^ containing nu- 
merous mcmummts, par- 
ticularly of the Clinton 
and Digby families, and 
two of cross-legged 
knights. It aflbrda the 
title of Viscoimt to thf 
Earls 2>igby. 



II 



To Warwick, U miles i 
to Birmingham, 9t miles. 



99f 
103| 



ON LBFT FROM LOND. 



ColeshiU Park. Barl 
Digby. 



y Google 



218 



LONDON TO LIVERPOOL, SeC'-Continwd. 




Moxhul Hall, B. P. G. 
C. Noel, Esq. 

Middleton Hall, Lord 
Wenlook. 

To Tamworth, 5 miles. 

Canwell Hall, Lord 
Wenlock. 

Hints Hall, W. H. C 
Hoyer, Esq. 

Swinfen Hall, J. Swin- 
fen, Esq. 

Freeford Hallj B. Dyott, 
Esq. 



To Derby, 28| miles; 
Abbot's Bromley, 11^ m. 

Stowe House. 

Elmhurst Hall, J. 
Smith, Esq. 



Armytage PariE. 



Bellamore Hcmse. 
Coiton Hall, Btehkon 
Hall. 



Blifhfield Honse, (Lord 
Bagot.) 



98} 



941 

91i 
894 



87i 

83i 

811 
79J 

774 



76i 



754 



72i 



Curdworth Bridge. 

•^^ cr. river Tame. 

|£^ cr. Birmingham 

Canal. 

Wiahaw.. 




Enter Sta^rdshire. 
Bassefb Pole. 



Weeford. 
Swinfbn. 

^8 cr. Wyrley and 
Essingion Canal, 

LICHFIELD.* 
(See p. 210. 

Longdon. 



Bferotaii. 

RUGELEY 
carries on a considerable 
trade in hats, and has seve- 
ral mills and iron forges, 
an ancient church, &c. 
Pop. of town, 1851. 8064, 
(Seep. 211.) 
Wolseley Bridge. 

1^ cr. river Trent 

and Grand Trunk 

CanaL 

Colwich. 

The church contains a 
number (tf monuments ol 
the Ansons and Wolseleya. 

Great Haywood. 



Shirleyvridi. 



Uli 

ll4f 
1164 



114| 



122} 



1241 



1264 



1284 



1294 



130} 



ToSattonColdfidd,2| 
miles, and beyond Sutton 
Pai^ 



Thickbroom Cot. 

Shenstone Pa., E. 
Grove, Esq., and beyond, 
FotherleyHaU. 



To Birmingham, IS^ m. 
Walsall, 9 miles. 
Pipe Grange. 
Maple Hayes. 

Beaudesert Park (Mar- 
quis of Anglesea } a mag- 
nificent mansion, 8ur< 
rounded by fine trees. 



The Grand Trunk Canal 
is here carried over the 
Trent by a noble aqueduct. 

Bagley Pailc, thor 
Baroness De la Zonche. 

Two miles distant, on 
Cannock Chase is a £». 
mous spring. 

Wolseley Hall, Sir C. 
Wolsdey, Bart. 



1334 



Shngborongfa (Earl of 

Lichfield), the birth-place 

of the great Lord Anson. 

Tixall Park, Sh: T. A 

C. Constable, Bart 

Ingestre Hall, 



Bartj 



This load to Liehileld is 41 miles.neaier than that through NorthmptGn and Lutterwocfh. 



y Google 



lONDON TO IITEEPOOL THB0U6H DUNSTABLI!, 9ui.-CoiUimt$d, 219' 



on UOHT imOM LOND. 


II 




2"? 


Oir LIFT XIOM LOKD. 




S^ 


» 


^^ 












Talbot. This seat has be- 










longed to the same family 
since the time of Edward 










Sandon HaU, Earl of 
Harrowbyj and beyond 


72 

m 


Weston. 
Sandon. 


134 
136J 


m. 

To Stafford, 4| miles. 


Cawrtley, Earl Ferrers, 










and the rains of CharUey 










Castle. 










To Leek, m miles; to 


n 


Stoke. 
STONE 


ISOf 
140| 


To StaiTord, 7 miles; 


Cfaeadle, 10 mQes. 




has a handsome modern 




to£cde8hall,5imiles. 


Stone Park, Earl Gran- 




church, a free school, and 






Tille. 




other charities. Pop. of 
township, 1861, 3448. 
.^43 cr. Grand Trunk 
Canal and the Trent 






StYincent. 


63f 


Darlaaton. 


142i 


Darlaston Hall, S. 8. 
Jervis, Esq.; and be- 


Barla8ton,B.Adderley, 
Esq. 


61f 


Tittenaor MilL 
^Q cr. river Trent 


144J 


yond, Swinnerton Park, 
T.ritrherbert,Eaq. 




60 


Trentham Inn. 


146 


Trentham Park. (Duke 
of Sutherland), sur- 
rounded by beautifta and 




m 


JtlAnMtfci. 


14«i 


extensive grounds. 


Penton Hall; and 1} 










mile distantifl Stoke upon 








Bntterton HalL 


Trent 








. Clayton. 
Keele Hall, R. Sneyd, 


EtmriaHaU. 


56i 


NEWCASTLE. UNDER. 
LYME, p. 221. 


149i 


Esq. 


To Bnrslem, 2 m. 


6^ 


Chesterton. 


161i 




GkmghHall. 


61J 


Talk-on-the-HUl. 

4^cr. Grand Trunk 

CanaL 

Enter Cheshire. 


164i 


Linley Wood. 




60 


Church-Lawton. 


156 


Lawton Hall, C. B. 
Lawton, Esq. 
Rode Hall. RWilbra. 










HoretonHan. 


47 


Moreton. 


15d 


ham, Esq. 




45i 


Astbury. 


160i 




Bnglawton Han. 
Eaton Hall, G. C. An- 


44 


CONGLETON, 
a neat town near the banks 


162 


Somerford Park, Sir 


tiobi>a,£«|. 




of the Dane, having manu- 
factures of silk, ribands, 
cotton, ind leathei. Pop. 
1861, 1C.620. 

.^cr. river Dane. 




C. P. Shakerley, Bt., and 
beyond Brereton Park. 
Somerford Booth's HalL 
C. Swetenham, Esq., and 
Swettenham HaU, T. J. 

HuhneWalfieldT 




40} 


Marton. 


165f 




Tlioniyeroft HaU. 


39i 


Siddington. 


166i 


Capesthome Hall, £. 
D. Davenport, Esq. 



y Google 



220 IX)NDON TO LIVERPOOL THEOUGH DUNSTABLE, Sec.- OmtinMH, 



OH IIOHT raOM LORD. 




• 


i 


ON LEFT nOM LOND. 


Henbuiy. 










Birtles, and Aldcrlev 
Park, Lord Stanley of AI- 


















derley. 


84} 


Chelford. 


m\ 


AstlePark. 

Withington Hall, J. 
Glegg, Esq., and 8 miles 
distant, Over Peover, Sir 
H.M.Mainwaring,Bart. 

Toft Hall, B. Leyces- 










NorbuTT Booth's HaU, 
P. L^h, Ksq. 

Tatton Park. W. T. 
Egerton, Enq^ M.P. 


81} 


OnertonGate. 


174i 


29J 


KNUT8F0RD 


I76i 


ter,Esq. 
Tabley Hall, seat of 




is said to have derived its 




Lord de Tablev, a hand- 
some edifice of the Doric 






name from Canute or Kuut 




' 




passing the ford here with 
his army. Many of the in- 












picture gaUery. Within 






habitants are ebgaged in 




the grounds is the old 






the manufacture of cotton. 




hall of Tabley, a vener- 






Annual races are held here 




able structure covered 






in July. Pop. of town 
1851, 8127. 




with ivy, standing on an 








island in a lake which 










adorns the park. 
Mere Hall, P. L. 




26} 


Mere. 


1791 


Higli-LeghHall,G.C. 
LeghTEMT WestHaU, 
E.Lcgh,E8q. 


24J 


High Legh. 


181i 


Brooke, Esq. 

Two miles distant Ai^ 
leyHaU. 


OutlmnKton Hall, T. 
Trafford,£8q.,2m.; and 




* 






Dunham Massey Park, 
Earl of Stamford and 


20} 


Duke of Bridgewater's 

Canal. 

Latchford. 


186} 


Appleton Hall. 


Warrington, 8 m. 
Thelwall Hall and Sta- 


19 


187 




tham Lodge. 




1^ cr. river Mersey, 
and enter Lancashire. 








17} 


WARRINGTON. 


188} 




Fairfield Hall and Or- 




(see p. 288.) 






fordHall. 










Bank Hall, J.W.Pat- 
ten, Esq. 
Bewsay Hall, Lord 


16J 


Sankey Bridge. 


189J 




Lilford. 




cr. Sankey Navi- 






Bold Hall, Sir H. Bold 


16J 


gation. 
Sankey. 


190} 




Hqekton, Bart. 
Two m. dist. Sherdley 


11 


RainhilL 


195 


Halsnead Hall, K. 
Willis. Esq. 


House and Sutton Lodee. 
Knowsley Park, the 


8 


PRESCOT, 


198 


In Prescot was bom 




noted for its manufocture 




the celebrated actor, J. 


magnificent seat of the 
Ban of Derby : and one 




of watch-tools and move^ 




P. Kemble. 




ments. At Bavenhead are 




TheHasles, SirT. B. 


mUe to the right Eccles- 




celebrated pkte- glass 
works. Pop.oftown,I861, 




Birch, Bart. 


tonHalL 






Roby Hall. 
ChilHwaU HaU, Mar- 






7398. 




Croxteth Park, Earl of 
Sefton. 


4 


Knotty Ash. 
LIVERPOOL, p. 221. 


202 
206 


quia of Salisbury. 



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IiONlX)N TO LIVERPOOL THBOUGH DUNSTABLE, kc^OonHnued. 221 

NKwcA8TLB-uia>EB-LYMB is a place of conBiderable antiquity, and a corpo- 
rate town 80 early as the reign of Henry Yl. A castle was built here during the 
reign of Henry YII. ; but no vestiges of it remain, except a portion of the mound 
on which it was built The town has an old church, several meeting-houses, and 
a range of alms-houses, founded by the second Duke of Albemarle. The chief 
mannfactnre is that of hats. There are several silk mills, a paper and a cotton 
mill ; a few of the inhabitants are engaged in the potteries. Two M.P. Pop. 
1851, 10,669. 

Stokk-upon-Trent is one of the new Parliamentary boroughs created by 
the Reform Act. This borough has this peculiarity, that instead of comprehend- 
ing one principal town and its suburbs, it consists of a considerable district, ex- 
tending 7^ miles in length, and about three miles in breadth, and including the 
market-towns of Burslem, Hanley, Lane-End, Stoke, Tunstall Court, &c This dis- 
trict is commonly termed the ** Potteries," and is the chief seat of the earthen-ware 
manufacture in England. In the borough, or in its immediate neighbourhood, a 
very large proportion of the population is engaged in the manufactory of earthen- 
ware. Goals, marl, and potter's clay are dug in the vicinity. At Etruria is 
the superb mansion erected by the late Josiah Wedgwood, the great improver of 
the earthen manufsu^ture of the district Stoke-upon-Trent returns two M. P. 
Pop. of Parliamentary borough, 1851, 84^027. It is connected by railway with all 
parts of the kingdom. 

LiVEBPooL, now second only to London, is situated on the right side of the 
Mersey. A castle is said to have been built here by Roger of Poictiers, which 
was demolished in 1659. St. George's Church now stands on the site. During 
the dvil wars, Liverpool held out against Prince Rupert for a month, but at last 
it was taken, and many of the garrison and inhabitants were put to the sword. 
The town was very soon after retaken by Colonel Birch, and continued to remain 
true to the popular cause. Liverpool was merely a chapelry attached to the 
parish of Walton till the reign of William III., and in 1650 but 15 ships belonged 
to the port. It was at one time deeply engaged in the African slave trade; 
and in 1764, more than half this trade was carried on by the merchants of liver- 
pool. Since the great extension of the cotton manufacture it has become the port 
where the great bulk of the raw material is received, and whence the exports of 
manufiictnred goods are chiefly made to all parts of the world. It also enjoys a 
very large proportion of the trade between England and Ireland, the value of 
Irish produce imported in 1844 having been £4^618,957. Liverpool is supposed 
to possess one-tenth part of the shipping of Great Britain ; one-third part of the 
foreign trade ; one sixth part of the general commerce; and more than one-half 
as much trade as the port of London. The customs dues amounted in 1850 
to je3,356,570:7:7; and the cotton imported to 1,573,100 bags. The imports 
are about thirty millions in value, the exports exceeding that sum by a tenth, 
and it is calculated that more than 1600 tons of goods pass daily between 
Liverpool and Manchester. Nearly one-third of the tonnage inwards and 
aotwards is engaged in the trade with th^ United States. Considerable traffic 



y Google 



222 UYEBFOOL. 

is carried on also widi Africa, the West India Islands, with Brazil, and other 
parts of South America, and with the East Indies. Its interooorse with Irehuid 
is greater in amount than that kept up with all the other ports in Great Britain. 
The inland trade of Liverpool is much assisted bj means of canals and raUways 
and it has benefited more than any port in the kingdom, (London alone excited) 
by the application of steam power to navigation. The docks are constructed 
on a most stupendous scale. They consist of wet, dry, and graving docks, and 
are connected with wide and commodious quays, and immense warehouses. 
The wet docks occupy an aggregate area of about 174 acres, and the quays 
measure 14 miles in length. The dry dodcs occupy an area of twenty acres. 

Till tiie beginning of the present century, the streets of Liverpool were narrow 
and inconvenient, and the buildings devoid of architectural beauty, but successive 
improvements have given to the town an elegance not to be met witii in any 
other commercial port in the kingdom. The most important public buildings are, 
the Town-hall, the Exchange buildings, the Custom-house, and St George's Hall. 
The town-hall is a handsome Palladian building, surmounted by a dome, which is 
crowned by a statue of Britannia. It contains a number of portraits and a statue 
of Boscoe by Ghantrey, and on the landing of the staircase there is a statue of Can- 
ning by the same artist. The interior of the town-hall, besides the rooms on the 
basement story, contains a saloon, two drawing-rooms, two ball-rooms, a ban- 
queting-room, and a refectory, the whole elegantly fitted up. The exdiange 
buildings form three sides of a square, in the centre of which is a group of statuary* 
in memory of Nelson, executed by Westmacott in 1813. The new custom-house, 
a very fine building, both in magnitude and architectural execution, contains 
also the post-office, the excise-office, the stamp-office, the dock-treasorer'a and 
seofetaiy's offices, the board-room, and offices of the do<dc conmdttee. The finest 
building in Liverpool is that allotted to the assize courts, and includes a noble 
apartment called St George's Hall. The whole cost about L.192,000. At the 
junction of the London road and Pembroke Place, there is an equestrian statoe 
ot George IIL by Westmacott St James's cemet^y was once a quarry of red 
stone, and consists principally of catacombs. On the summit of the rock near the 
entrance is a beautiful chapel, containing some good sculpture. Here the late Mr. 
Huskisson was interred, and a monument to his memory has been placed over the 
spot, with a statue of fine white marble, habited in a toga. Liverpool contains 
thirty-five places of worship connected with the Establishment, and seventy be- 
longing to Dissenters of various denominations. There are in Liverpool numerous 
Sunday, evening, and day schools, with many medical as weU as provident and 
religious charities. There are also several literary institutions and places of 
public amusement. Among the literary institutions may be mentioned the Royal 
Institution, formed in 1814, by Mr. Boscoe—the Literary, Scientific, and Com- 
mercial Institution, set on foot in 1885 — the Mechanics' Institution, opened in 1887 
— the Liverpool Institution of the Fine Arts — ^the Atheneum — ^the Lyceum— the 
Collegiate Institution, &c Liverpool has ten prisons. 

The markets of Liverpool are very remarkable stmctnreg; that of St John 



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LIVERPOOL. 



occupies nearly two acres of gronnd, the whole being under one roof, and sup- 
ported by 116 cast-iron pillars. 

The zoological gardens comprise ten acres of ground, and are laid out with a 
good deal of taste. Its attractions have recently been increased by the munifi- 
oesee of the late Earl of Derby. 

The manu&ctures of liyerpool are not important Hiere are several sugar 
refineries, some small fbunderies, a good deal of ship-building in wood and iron, 
t mann&ctory of steam-engines for vessels, and manufactories of anchors, chain 
cables, and similar articles naturally in demand in a large port 

The value of the corporation estates is estimated at three millions of money, 
and the annual income deriyed from dock dues alone, amounted in 1850, to 
L242f989 : 14 : 9. A great proportion of this income has been devoted to the 
mprovement of the town, including the building of churches and other public 
edilfees. The sum expended in these objects and in widening the streets, between 
1786 and 1888, amounted to L.1,668,300. 

The site of Liverpool is low and unhealthy. According to the Registrar-Ge^ 
nend*s return of births and deaths, the deaths and marriages are double, while 
the births are little more than half, the number of the average of all England. 

In 1700, the population of Liverpool was only 4240 ; in 1851, it amounted to 
376,065. It returns two members to Parliament 

The country around Liverpool abounds in every direction with fine residences. 
Of these, the most important are, Knowsley Hall (Earl of Derby) ; Croxteth Park 
(Earl of Sefton) ; Ince Blundell, the seat of the Blundell fsunily ; Childwall Hall 
(Marquis of Salisbury); Speke Hall (R. Watt, Esq.); Hale Hall (J. T. Black- 
bome, Esq.) ; Woolton Hall, &c. 

At Everton is the cottage where Prince Rupert established his head quarters 
when he besieged the town in 1644. 

LXXXIX. LONDON TO MANCHESTER THROUGH ST ALBANS, NORTHAMP- 
TON, LEICESTER, DERBY, MACCLESFIELD, AND STOCKPORT, 186 Miles. 



OH MGHT MOM LOND. 


4 

148f 
14H 

136 


From London to Hock- 
liffe^Bed/ordsh. (jp. 196- 

WOBURN, (p.201). 

Enter Buckinghamsh. 

IM cr. river Ouse. 

NEWPORT PA6NELL, 
an ancient town on the 
banks of the Ouse, formerly 
famous for its lace trade. 
Cowper the poet lived manv 
years at Olney, in the vici- 
nity. Pop. 1861, 8812. 


4 

37i 
41J 

60 


ON LBFT niOM LORD. 


Mflton Bryant, Sir B. 
H.Inelis,Bart. 

Wobum Abbey, Duke 
of Bedford, see p. 201. 

WaTendonHall,H.C. 
Hoare,E8q. 

„Hort<in HouM, SirR. 
H.Giuuuuc,Bart. 


Hockliffe Grange, R. 
T. Gilpin, Esq. 

Battlesdeu Park, Sir E. 
^. p. Turner, Bart. 

GayhnrstPark. A mom 
in this mansion was the 
retreat of Sir Everard 
Digby, one of the Guy 
Fawkes conspiraton. 



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S24 LONDON TO MANCHBSTEB THBOUGfl ST ALBANS, Acr-CanUnmd, 




2 m. distant is Castle 
Ashby* the seat of the 
Marquis of Niuthampton. 

Delapre Abbey, E. Bou- 
verie, Esq. 



To Kettainff, 131 m. 
To WdlingDoiough, 11 

miles. 

Abington Abbey, now 
a Lunatic Asylum. 

Boughton House, B 
W. Howard Vvse, Esq.; 
and beyond Overstone, 
Lord Overstone. 

Pitsfoi-d Hall and 
Moulton Grange. 

Lamport Hall, Sir C. 
E. isham, Bart. 



Arthineworth Hall, 
Rev. H. R. Bokeby. 



DingleyHa]l,H.H.H. 
Hungerfofd, Esq 



Carlton Curlien Hall, 
Sir J. H. Palmer, Bart 

Mosely HhII, Sir A. 6. 
Hazlerigjr, Bart. 

Stretton Hall, Bey. Sir 
O. S. Bobiiison, Bart. 

Staughton Grange. 



Birstal House. 
Wanlip Hall, Sir O. J, 
Palmer, Bart. 



Qnomdon HalL 

To Nottingham, 15} m. 

8 miles distant Frest- 
wold Ha. C. W. Packe, 
Esq., and Barton HalL 



1274 
122 

120 

1184 

113} 
1114 

109f 
107i 
105 

1024 



Horton Inn, North- 
am^ototuhire, 

Queen^s Cross, 
one of those crosses erected 
by Edward I. in memory of 
Queen Elean<nr. 

NORTHAMPTON, p.S96 



97 

944 
914 

88 
861 

81 



Kingsthoipe. 

Biixworth. 
Lamport 



MaidwelL 
Eelmarsh. 

Oxendon Magna. 
J^ cr. river Welland, 
and enter Leicestersh. 
MARKET HARBO- 
ROUGH, a small town car- 
rying on a trade in carpets. 
Jt is supposed to be of Ro- 
man ori^n, and there aretra- 
ces of a Roman camp in the 
vicinity. Charles I. fixed his 
head quarters here immedi- 
atdy previous to the battle of 
Naseby. Pop. 1851, 282S. 
Eabworth. 

Great Glen. 
Oadby. 

LEICESTER, (p. 354.) 
Belgrave. 



4^ cross river Soar. 
Mountsorrel, (p. 352.) 
originally called Mount Soar 
Hill, from its situation on 
the banks of the Soar. 

LOUGHBOROUGH, 

(p. 352) 

Kegwortb. 




584 
64 

66 

674 

72i 
744 

76i 
78i 

81 
834 



89 



944 



8 miles distant, Coor- 
teen Hall, Sir C. Wake. 
Bart 



8 miles distant, Upton 
Hall. 

To Daventry, 12 miles. 



Kingsthoipe House, 

To Welford, 13 milesi 
thence to Lutterworth, 8i. 

At a distance Cottes- 
broke Park, Sir J. H. 
Langham, Bart. 

Kehnarsh Hall, Lord 



105 



109 
115 



To Lutterwortti, 13 m. 



Wistow HaU, 
Halfbrd, Bart. 



Sir H. 



Bradgate Park. 

Bothle3> Temple, T. 
Babiugton, Esq. 

Swithland Hall, Earl 
of Lanesborough. 

Ouomdun House, E. 
B. Farnham, Esq. 

Garendon Park, C. M. 
Phillipps, Esq. 

ToAsfabvdelaZoadw 
12 miles. 

Whatton HouM. { 



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LONDON TO MANCHESTER THROUGH ST ALBANS, ^k.- Continued. 225 



CN EIGHT FBOM LOND. 



Thtirlstoii HalL 

Elvaston Castle, Eail 
of Harrington 

To Notttagham, 16 

.; Mansfield 22 m.; 
Alfreton 15^ m.; Ches- 
terfield, 23| m. ; Belper, 
^m.; HaUock,17im.; 
Wirkswortli, 14 m.; 
Buxton, 81i m. 

Kedleston, Lord Scars- 
dale. 

Bradley HalL 

Asbbonme Hall, once 
a seat of the Boothbys, 
and where the Pretender 
spent a night in 1746. 

A short distance from 
Ashbonme is the pictu- 
nsqne village of Tissing- 
ton, celebrated for the 
annual custom of '* Well 
dressing" on Holy 
Thursday. 

TisshiKton Hall, Shr 
H. Htzherbert, Bart. 

Sandy Brook Hall, Sir 
M. Blakiston. 

Okeover Park. 

11am HalU (J. W. 
Rnssell, Esq.), noted for 
its pictoresque scenery. 
On the grounds is a 
grotto in which Con- 
greve wrote the "Old 
Bachelor." 

ToBakewell,18mUe8. 

To Buxton, 12 miles. 

Ball Hay. 

The Abbey. 

Highfield House. 

Horton Hall. 

Kadyard. 

2 m. distant, Swith- 
amiey Hall. 

Fbdeu Bank. 

To Boxton, 11 miles; 
to Chapel-en-le-Frith, 
l^iBiles. 

Hordsfield House, J. 
Brocklehurst, Esq., jr. 

ntberfaigtoa HalL 



II 



461 



37 
31} 



80J' 

27 

25} 
18} 



15} 



J^ cr. river Trent, and 

enter Derbyshire. 

Elvaston. 

DERPY, (p. 366.) 
About \ mile from Derby, 
on the banks of the river, 
is Little Chester, the 
Derventio of the Romans. 



ASHBOURNE 
is noted for its cattle fairs. 
Many of the inhabitants 
are employed in the cotton 
manufacture. The churdi 
is a good specimen of 
early English, and has 
various brasses and tombs 
to the Boothbys, 8u5. Pop. 
1861, 2418. 



.^C cr. river Dove, and 
enter Staffordshire. 



Winkhill Bridge. 

.^Q cr. the riv. Hamps. 

LEEK, p. 227. 



Pool End. 

Rusbton Marsh. 

iS5^ cr. river Dane, and 

enter Cheshire. 

MACCLESHELD, p. 227. 



J^ cr. river Bollin. 
Butley. 



il 



123 
126 



139i 



148 



164i 



155J 
159 

160J 
167i 



ON LEFT raOM LOND. 



170}^ 



Bonnhigton Park, 
Marquis of Hasthigs. 

Osmaston Hall, Sir R. 
E. WUmot, Bart. 

To Burton-npon- 
Trent, llj miles. 

To Uttoxeter, 18} m. 

Radbome Hall. £. 8. 
Chandos Pole, Esq. 

Longford Hall, Hon 

. K W. Coke. 

At Mavfield, near Ash- 
bourne, is the cottage in 
which Moore composed 
"LallaRookh." 

6 miles distant is the 
romantic vale of Dove- 
dale. 



Mayfield Hall, and 2 
m. distant, Calwich Hall, 
C. Granville, Esq. 

To Uttoxeter and 
Doveridge Hall (Lord 
Waterpark), 101 m. 

Wooton Hall, and 
beyond, Alton Towers, 
(Karl of Shrewsbury), a 
noble seat. 

Ashenhurst Hall. 
Westwood House. 
To Cheadle, lOJ miles. 
To Burslem, 9^ miles. 
To Newcastle under- 
Lyme, 11^ miles. 



Reservoir of the Trent 
and Mersey Canal. 
East Cliff HalL 



Gawsworth, Earl of 
Harrington. 

Park House. 

To Kuutsford', U m. 

Birtles, and beyond, 
Alile.ley Park, Lord 
Stanley of AMerley. 



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226 fX)NI>ON TO MANCHESTER THROUGH ST ALBANS, Ac-^JenHmted. 



ON RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Two miles dist. Styper- 
son Park. 
Shrigley Hall. 

Two miles distant Lyme 
Park. T. Legfa, Esq. 

Poynton Hall, Lord 
Yemon. 

Two m. beyond, Marple 
HaII,T.B. Isherwood,Eaq. 

To Bamsley, 33 miles ; 
Huddersfield, 38 miles. 

Woodbank. 



II 



124 

114 
104 

94 

6i 



Hope Green. 

Poynton. 

Norburr. 
Bullock Smithy. 

STOCKPORT, p. 227. 

■^^ cr. river Mersey, 
and enter Lancashire. 

Heaton Norris. 

Levenshnlme. 

Ardwick Green. 
MANCHESTER. pggflL 



ON LEFT FROM LONft 



1734 

174i 

1754 
1764 

179J 



180i 
182 
184 
186 



AdUngton Hall, C. K 
B. Legb, Esq. 
Two m. distant Mottrani 
St. Andrew, L. Wriglit, 
Esq. 

Two m. dist. Bramall 
Hall, W. Davenport, Esq, 



Trafford Park, Sir H- 
De Trnfford, Bart. 



Northampton is situated on the north bank of the Nen. It is a place of con- 
siderable antiquity. During the wars of the Roses, a great battle was fought 
near the town (July 10th 1460,) in which the Lancastrians were defeated by the 
Kingmaker, Earl of Warwick, and Henry YI. taken prisoner. In the ci-vil wars 
of Charles 1., Northampton was taken by Lord Brooke, and fortified for the 
Parliament The principal objects deserving of notice are, All-Saints Church; 
St Peter's, a remarkably fine and curious specimen of enriched Norman architec- 
ture ; St Sepulchre's, supposed to have been erected by the Knights-Templars 
about the beginning of the twelfth century; St. Giles*, adorned with several 
curious monuments ; the Castle Hill meeting-house, which contuns a tablet to 
the memory of Dr Doddridge, who exercised his ministry, and conducted an 
academy fbr the education of ministers, in this town for more than twei^ty years ; 
the Baptist meeting-house, in which is a'monument to John Ryland ; the town- 
hall; the county-gaol ; the county-hall ; sessions-house; new corn-exchange, &c. 
Of the several religious houses which existed before the Reformation, the Hospitals 
of St Thomas and St John yet remain. Of the castle, which was near the west 
bridge, there are only the earth works, and of the town walls there are no traces. 
The principal branch of trade carried on in Northampton is boot and shoe-making. 
Considerable business is done in currymg leather, and* some stockings and lace 
are made. It has also several iron foundries ; and its horse-fairs are much fire- 
quented. It is connected by railway with all parts of the empire. It returns 
two members to Parliament. Pop. 1851, 26,657. Six miles distant is Althorp^ 
the seat of Earl Spencer, containing numerous fine pictures, and a very extensive 
library * of curious and scarce books, chiefly collected at great expense by the 
Mcond Earl, one of the greatest bibliopoles of his day. 
* See Dr Dibdin's description of it. 



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U)NIX)N TO MANCHESTER THROUGH ST ALBANS, kc—OoHlinued. 227 

Lebk is an ancient town, poasessing extensiye mannfiEustoriea of silks, twists, 
Imttons, ribands, shawls, &c There is in the churchyard a carious pyramidal 
cross, the origin of which is involved in obscurity. It is about 10 feet high, and 
is deoorated with imagery and fretwork. Here are the remains of Dieu la Croix 
Abbey. The scenery surrounding the town is peculiarly romantic Pop. 1851, 
8877. To CJongleton 6 J miles. 

Macclesfield is situated on the edge of a dreary district called Macclesfield 
Forest It is now the principal seat in the island of the silk throwing trade, and 
is connected by railway with all. parts of the empire. It is likewise the chief 
place for the manufacture of silk handkerchiefs, and possesses extensive copper 
and brass-works. The most important factories are situated on the BoUen. 
Macclesfield has a church founded in 1278 by Eleanor, Queen of Edward I. but 
sisee restored. There are two chapels adjoining this church, one belonging to 
the Marquis of Cholmondeley, the other to the Legh family of Lyme. An ancestor 
of the latter &mily served under Edward III. and his son the Black Prince, 
daring all their wars in France, and the estate of Lyme was given him for re- 
covering a standard at the battle of Cressy. Besides St Michaers, there are 
four other churches in the town and suburbs, various meeting-houses, a Roman 
Catholic chapel, town-hull, assembly-rooms, a subscription library, containing 
upwards of 20,000 volumes, a mechanics* institute, a free grammar-school, with 
an annual revenue of L.1300, and more than fifty schools of all kinds. When the 
Factory CJommissioners visited Macclesfield, it was found that, of the children 
in the employment of the manufacturers, 96 per cent could read. Macclesfield 
returns two members to Parliament It affords the title of Earl to one of the 
noble femilies of Parker. Pop. 1861, 39,0^8. 

Stockport, situated on the Mersey, is a town of great antiquity, fiunous for its 
manufactures of cotton and hats. By means of a canal, this town has water com- 
munication with the rivers Dee, Ribble, Trent, and Severn, and thus with the 
greater part of the kingdom. It is also a focus of railways. The trade which 
it carries on is very extensive. It contains three churches, several meeting- 
houses, a Catholic chapel, a theatre, a library and news-room, a free grammar- 
school, and other charitable institutions. It returns two members to Parliament 
Pop. 1851, 53^835. Stockport is 176 miles from London by the nearest road. 



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228 



XC. IX)N1X)N TO MANCHESTER THROUGH BUXTON AND STOCKPORT. 

im\ MUes. 



ON BIGHT nU)M LOUD, 



Bradley HalL 

Ashbotune Hall, for- 
merW a seat of the 
Boothbys. 

Sandy-Brook Hall, Sir 
M. Blakiston, Bnrt. 

Tiuington Hall, Sir H, 
Fitzherbert, Bart. 



To TidMWell, 7 miles. 



Bank HaU. 






I 



3 



42: 

4i 

38 

29* 

28; 



20 



From Hicks's HaU to 
D;!:RB¥, p. 226. 

ASHBOURNE, p. 225. 

Sandy-Brook. 

Bentley. 

New Iiin. 

Newhaven Inn. 

Hnrdlow House. 

Over Street. 

BUXTON. 



White Hall. 
Whaley Bridge, p. 232. 

STOCKPORT, p. 227. 
MANCHESTER, p. 229. 






on LEFT 7R0M LOND. 



126 

13^ 

140i 
141| 

148} 
153 
154 
1591 



1G2\ 
166i 
175} 
182i 



Ham Hall, J. W. Rns- 
sell, Esq. 

ToHadd(mHall,a)nke 
of Rutland), 9 m. and be- 
yond Chatsworth, (Duke 
of Devonshire). 

To Leek, 12 miles ; Con- 
gleton, 16 miles; Mac- 
clesfield, 10 miles. 

Lyme Park, T. Legh, 
Esq. 

Trafford Park, Sir H. 
De Trafford, Bart. 



BoxTON is situated on the lower part of a deep valley surrounded by bleak hUls 
and extensive tracks of moorland. The old town stands upon much higher ground 
than the new, ^d has the remains of a cross in the market-place. Buxton is 
celebrated for its waters, which annually attract from 12,000 to 14,000 visitOfTs. 
They are of the calcareous class of mineral waters, and have long been cele- 
brated for their medicinal virtues. Their temperature is lower than those of 
Bath, and they are more agreeable for bathing. They are administered inter- 
nally to persons in whom the digestive organs ftre feeble, and are found very effi- 
cacious in the cure of gout and rheumatism. The Crescent at Buxton is an ex- 
tensive and elegant structure, comprising two hotels, a library, an assembly- 
room, &c. The stables, which are of very great extent, are built in a circular 
form, and have a covered ride 160 yards round. This immense pile of building 
was erected by the 6th Duke of Devonshire at a cost of L.120,000. Near the " 
Crescent is the Old Hall, built in the reign of Elizabeth by the Earl of Shrews- 
bury, in whose custody Mary Queen of Scots was placed. Here are still shown 
the apartments which the unfortunate Queen occupied in one of her visits to Bux- 
ton. The public baths at Buxton are very numerous, and are fitted up with every 
attention to the convenience of the visitors. St. Ann*s Well is remarkable, be- 
cause, by means of a double pump, either hot or cold water may be obtained 
within a few inches of each other. The church at Buxton is an elegant edifice 
built in 1812 by the present (6th) Duke of Devonshire. Here are ako places of 
worship for Presbyterians, Independents, and Wesleyan Methodists. The public 
fralks at Buxton are laid out with much taste, and the environs abound with 



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MANCHESTEE. 229 

natural curiosities and romantic scenery. Half a mile distant is Poole's Hole, a 
oarem of considerable dimensions, containing among other curioos objects an 
immense congelation, called the ** Flitch of Bacon," and a large mass of stalactite 
called the ** Queen of Scots Pillar," firom having been visited by Mary daring her 
sojoom at Buxton. Two miles from Buxton is the Diamond Hill, where the 
Buxton diamonds are found, close to which there is a tower buUt by the Duke of 
Devonshire. Four miles distant is Chee Tor, a huge mass of limestone, which 
rises above 300 feet perpendicular firom the river Wye. There are various other 
places in the vicinity, which deserve a visit, such as Idler's Dale, Cresbrook, 
Monsal Dale, Ashford, Axe Edge, firom which on a favourable day the mountains 
of North Wales may be seen, the Marvel Stone, &c About five miles from 
Buxton, on the road to Castleton, is a spring called the ** £bbing and Flowing 
WelL" Pop. of Buxton 1604. 

Manchbstbb, as its name shows (Man-castra) was a Boman station, and is 
supposed to have taken its rise in the reign of Titus. Under the Saxons, it be- 
came the abode of a Thane. After the Norman Conquest, William gave the 
place to William of Poictou. The barony descended to the Gresleys, and the 
De la Warres, and at length the manorial rights became vested in the family of 
Moseley. In the civil wars, Manchester ranged itself on the side of the Parlia- 
ment, and sustained a siege conducted by Lord Strange, afterwards Earl of Der- 
by. Manchester was distinguished for its manufiictures so early as the times of 
Henry Yill. and Edward YI. At first the woollen was its chief branch of 
trade ; but since the middle of last century, cotton has taken the lead, and Man- 
chester has now become the great centre of that manufacture. Of late, the spin- 
ning and weaving of silk have been introduced, and the printing and dyeing 
of silk are also extensively carried on in this city. The manufacture of ma- 
dunery has risen to great importance and perfection in Manchester, and it has 
also manufactures of linen, small-wares, hats, umbrellas, &c Its commerce 
is greatly aided by its commhnications with almost every part of EngUnd, 
Vy means of railways and canals. The district in which the city stands con- 
tains some of the best coal strata in England ; a circumstance to which the 
place is indebted in no small degree for its prosperity. One of the most interest- 
ing buildings in Manchester is the collegiate church (now the cathedral), a 
noble Gothic building, containing several chapels and chantries, a richly orna- 
mented choir, a number of monuments, &c. It was built in 1422. The reputed 
founder was Thomas Lord De la Warre, but several other persons assisted in 
boilding it. Considerable additions were made in the sixteenth century 
and many alterations and additions are of recent origin. Of the numerous 
chapels all but one are private property. The chapel of the Derby family 
is that lirhich possesses the greatest share of historic interest St Mar>''s 
ehapd contains several interesting monuments of the family of the Cheethams ; 
and the Trafibrd chapel, in addition to the memorials of the ancient family 
from which it takes its name, possesses a very handsome monument to 



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230 ICAKCHESTER. 

the meiiKny of Danntfey Hnlme, Eiq. a distrngnished philanthropist There Mrs- 
about 50 churches in Manchester, besides the cathedral ; and a church-build- 
ing society has been formed to promote additional church accommodation. The 
Dissenters have also numerous places of worship, and Manchester has been long 
distinguished as possessing a greater dissenting population than moet other 
towns in the kingdom. The ecclesiastical government of Manchester was fixr- 
merly vested in the warden and four fellows of the collegiate church, but it has 
recently been erected into a bishoprick, and the collegiate church consequentlj 
elevated to the rank of a cathedral. The £rst bishop was consecrated in 1847* 
The free grammar-school of Manchester was founded in the early part of the fif- 
teenth century by Hugh Oldham, Bishop of Exeter, and is very richly endowed»> 
but is tar from effecting the good which its splendid reseurces might produce. 
Cheetham's Hospital, or the College, was originally founded by the De la Waires 
in the reign of Henry YI. After the dissolution, it became the property of the 
Derby family, and was purchased from the celebrated Countess of Derby, in ooBir«; 
pliance with the will of Humphry Cheetham, an eminent merchant, for the pur-, 
pose of forming a Blue-coat hospital and library. This institution provides tor 
the education and support of eighty poor children. The library consists of 
upwards of 25,000 volumes, and there is an annual provision for its augmentation. 
The inhabitants of the town are allowed free access to it under certain regulations. 
The educational institutions in Manchester were long defective both in number 
and qualit}', but great exertions have been, and are now making to extend the 
benefits of instruction to all classes of the community. One of the results of 
this commendable spirit is the Swinton School for poor children ; a model of its 
kind. The Independent and Unitarian bodies have each a cdlege. There are 
two Mechanics' Institutions in the town, several Lyceums, an institution called 
the 4then»um, a literary and Philosophical Society, numerous charitable insti- 
tutions, &c. The other public buildings worthy of notice are, the Exchange, the 
Infirmar}', the Society of Arts or Royal Institution, the Town-Hall, the two 
Theatres, the new Museum of Natural History, the New Bailey Prison, Man- 
chester Commercial Rooms, the Free Trade Hall, &c. &c. A Botanic Garden was 
formed here in 1830, and the Peel and Victoria Parks afford fine open spaces tor 
recreation. There are five railways diverging from Manchester, which fhmish the 
city with the greatest facilities for extending its trade-^viz. the Liverpool and 
Manchester, the Manchester and Leeds, the Bolton and Bury, the Mandtestar 
and Birmingham, and the Manchester and Shefiield lines. The immense mills 
workshops, and foundries well deserve a visit from the tourist Manchester 
returns two M.P. Pop. 1851, 316,218 On Kersall-moor, the Manchester races 
are held three times a year. 

Salford is separated from Manchester by the river Irwell. It is a largo and 
populous town, returning one M.P. Here has been erected a monument to Sir 
Kobert Peel. Pop. 1861, 85,108. 



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XCL LONDON TO DERBY, MATWXJK-BITH, BAKEWELL, CHAPEL-EN^ 
LE-FRITH, AND MANCHESTER, 187 Miles. 



231 




Allestree Hall, 
Evans, Esq. 



W. 



Wigwell Han. 

Haddon Hall, (Duke of 
Rutland.) 

Chatsworth, the noble 
aent of tiie Duke of Devon* 
shire. 

2 miles distant, Hnssop 
Hall, Coontess of New< 
burgh. 

To Sheffield, 17 mikt 



ToCastletou^ 4| miles.* 



54} 

52i 

50| 

48J 

47i 

47 

43 



4* 
24 



Kedleston Inn. 

In the church are several 

monuments of the Curzons, 

Lords Scarsdale. 

Weston Underwood 

Inn. 

Crods-hands Inn. 

The Black Swan. 

Bateman Bridge. 

Wallbrook Bridge. 

WIRKSWORTH. p. 2S2 

Matlock. 

Bake^reU. 
Asbford. 



3U 

29k\ 



) cross River Wye, 



Little Longstone. 

Wardlow. I 

I mile distant from the 



132 J 

134| 

13b'f 

138^ 

139} 

140 

144 

152: 
154 



Mark Eaton HaU, F. 
Mundy, Esq. 

Kedleston, the magnifi- 
oentseat of Lord Scarsdale. 
The grounds are about 6 
miles in circumference. 
In the park Is a spring 
nearly allied in its qualities 
to the waters of Harro- 
gate. The house may he 
seen every day from 11 
o'clock, A.ii. till 8 F.M. 



155i 
157f 



Hopton Hall. 



To Ashbourne, 16 miles. 

Ashford Hall, Hon. G. 
H. Cavendish. In pas- 
ting from Ashford to 
Wardlow, a view is ob- 
tained of Monsal Dale, one 
of the most delightful 
scenes in Derbyshire. 



At Wliestone, one mile 



* Castleton.— This town derives its name firora a castle, the remains of which are situatea on 
a steep rock. It is supposed to have been erected by William Peveril, the natural son of the 
CSonqueror. It has been held at different thnes by various distinguished individuals ; among 
others, by Simon de Moatfort, and John of Gaunt. Owing to its situation, it was almost 
impregnable. This castle has given its title to Sir Walter Scott's Peveril of the Peak, 
and forms the scene of a considerable portion of the events of that popular novel The 
vicinity of Castleton abounds in wild and romantic scenery. For centuries the only «cce8> 
tible road to Buxton and Chapel>en-le-Frith waa by a deep descent called the Winnets or 
Windgates, from the stream of air that always sweeps through the chasm. Dark, rugged, and 
perpendicular precipices are seen on each side of the road. At one of the sudden turns of the 
road to the left, a most beautiful view of Castleton vale opens to the eye. Among the curiosi-^ 
lies in the vicinity are the Peak Cavern or Devil's Cave, a magnificent and extraordinary work 
of nature, situated about 100 yards from the village. The mine called the Speedwell Level ; the 
waterfall in the navigation mine which falls SO yards ; Mam-Tor, or the Shivering Mountain, 
800 feet above the level of the valley, the summit exhibiting traces of a Roman encampment and 
of two barrows ; the ancient lead mines of Odin, at the southern foot of Mam-Tor; Eldon Hole, 3 
miles distant, between 70 and 80 yards in depth ; Bradwell cavern, remarkable for the beauty and 
richness of the stalactites it contains, and the Blue John mine, situated on the side of Tree Cliff, 
opposite Mam Tor, the only mine in which this beautiful material is found in masses of suffi- 
cient size for workhig. Its recesses are supposed to be connected with a series of caverns ex. 
tending over an area of many squaremiles, and including Eldon Hole, Peak cavern, Speedweyi, 
and Bagshaw's cavern at Bragwell. The chaige for exploring the mine is, for one person, 28. ; 
tar three, 4s. 6d. ; for four, 5s. ; and Is. per head for every additional person. The guides 
make an additional charge if a Bengal light be used. The churchyard of Hathersage, 6 miles 
from Ca;ftJeton, is the reputed burial-place of Uttie John the companion of Hobin Hdod. The 



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i32 LONDON TO BBBBY, MAlXOCK-BATH, MANCHKSTER, Ac^Ctrntinned. 



)N RIGHT FROM LOND. 



Marple Hall, T. 
bherwood, Esq. 

Wood Bank. 



20 
17 

13J 
12 

H 

7 



road is Tideswell, a small 
town, situated in a valley 
amid bleaknaked hills. The 
church, a fine building 
erected about the begin, 
ning of the 14th century, [ 
contains some curious 
monuments. The ebbing 
well, which is supposed to 
have given a name to the 
town, has ceased to flow.* 
CHAPEL-EN-LE-PBITH, 
a neat small town, sup- 
porCed by the manufacture 
of cotton. 



Whaley Bridge. 

-^S cr. river Goyt, and 

enter Cheshire. 

Disley. 

Hoo Lane. 
Bullock Smithy. 

STOCKPORT, 
or by the new road, whidi 
avoids the steep and disa- 
greeable passage through the 
town. 

■0^ cr. river Mersey. 
MANCHESTER. 



ON LBFT FROM LOND. 



167 



170 

173i 
175 
1774 
180 



187 



tram TidesweO, theieisaQ 
ancient cross (tf ratha ele- 
gant design. 



Bank Hall. 

Horridge, T. G. Gis- 
borne, Esq. 
TaiallLodge. 



Lyme Park, T. Legli, 
Esq. 

Poynton Hall, Lord 
Vernon. 

BramaU Hiril, W. D. 
Davenport, Esq. 



Traiford Park, Sir H. 
De lYafford, Burt 



WiRKSWORTH is a place of great antiquity, and the capital of the lead-mine 
district The church is a handsome Gothic structure of the fourteenth centurj^, 
and contains some interesting monuments and tomb& The lead-mines afK)rd 
the chief means of employment, but there axe cotton, hosiery, hai, and some 
other manufactories, in the neighbourhood. 

The Barmote Courts for determining disputes among the miners, and offences 
against their ancient laws, are held here twice &-year ; and here is deposited the 
ancient brass dish used as a standard for measuring the ore. Sir John Gell, the 



road passes through Hope- Dale, a beautifUI vale, hi whidi b a very ancient village where a 
church existed before the Conquest. 

« 4 milen ftom Tideswell is the pleasant village of Eyam, remarkable as the spot where the 
devotedness of Monpessoii and his wife was exhibited during the ^at plague of 1666 The dis- 
ease, which was co.iveyed by a box of cloth, spread with an astonishing rapidity^ and carried off 
250 persons out of a population of 390. Mr. Monpesson, who then held the living of EvNni. 
resisted all solicitations to desert his flock. To prevent as much as possible the eflfects of con- 
tagirm, he closed the church, and preadied to the people in a narrow dell, called Cu(^teCt-dale. 
at a little distance from the town. For seven months, during which the pestUenee eontinaed 
its ravages, this devoted pastor watched over Eyam. He retained his health, but hia wife fdi 
a victim to the fury of the d'sease, and was buried in the churdiyard, where her tombfttonejci 
remains. Hiss Seward was bom at Eyam, of whidi her fisther was the rector. 



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XOKDON TO MANCHESTER, DEBBT, MATLOCK-BATH, kc^CtmHnned. 233 

PariiameDtarr general, resided at Hopton, in this parish, but the ancient fomily 
aeat is now palled down. Pop. of town 1851, 2632. 

Two miles irom Wirksworth is Cromford, situated in a deep rallej, enclosed 
on three sides by lofty limestone rocks. This town owes its prosperity to the 
cotton manufacture. The late Sir Richard Arkwright, the inventor of the spin- 
ning frame, erected here a spacious cotton-mill, now occupied by Messrs R. and P. 
Arkwri^t^ who employ about 800 persons. To the left, after passing through 
Scarthin-Nick (a perforated rock), near Cromford, is Willersley Casde, a spacious 
mansion erected by Sur R. Arkwright, and now possessed by his grandson. Two 
miles from Cromford is the village of Matlock on the Derwent, a favourite summer 
resort for invalids and tourists. Matlockdale, in which the village stands, extends 
for two miles north and south, and is bounded on each side by steep rocks, whose 
naked sides rise to the height of about 300 feet The Derwent flows through the 
dale, and its banks are lined yrifh trees, except where the rocks rise almost per- 
pendicularly from the water. Of these tlie most striking is the High Tor, which 
rises to a height of 396 feet Opposite to it is Masson, a rock of greater elevation 
than the Tor, but inferior to it as a picturesque object The mineral springs and 
beautifid scenery of Matlock have caused a great influx of visitors, for whose ac- 
commodation excellent inns, lodging-houses, and bathing establishments have been 
efected. The buUdings are grouped in a singular manner up the mountain side: 
Katlock is not only a place full of interest in itself^ but is also the centre of a dis- 
trict every part of which has its attractions. The usual amusement of strangers 
consists in visiting the caverns and mines, the petrifying wells and the rocka 
Of the caverns, the Rutland cavern is the laigest, and, when lighted up, has h 
very magnificent appearance. The Cumberland cavern is the most interesting 
to the geologist The Devonshire cavern is remarkable for its flat roof and pei^ 
pendicular sides. The Fluor cavern is the one from which the fluor spar is ob- 
tained. The Speedwell mine contains fine stalactites and spars ; and in the Side- 
mine is a grotto, in which are to he found crystaUizations of calcareous spar of 
imequalled beauty and richness. At the museums, the mineralogical production s 
are on sale, formed into vases and ornamental designs, and specimens of spars, 
Ibasils, &c. may be purchased. 

The walks in the neighbourhood of Matlock are very delightfuL The sum- 
mit of Masson commands most attractive views over a vast extent of country. 
Two miles from Matlock, on the Wirksworth road, are the crags of Stonehouse, 
conmianding a magnificent prospect About the same distance is.Bonsall, a pic- 
turesque mining village, with an ancient church and a curious old cross. The 
village of Old Matlock, two miles from Matlock-Bath, is inhabited chiefly by 
persons employed in the lead-mines and in the cotton manufacture. The ** Ro- 
mantic Rocks** are a very interesting series of masses and fragments, which 
appear as if just torn asunder, the angles exactly corresponding, so that if the 
spectator could by any possibility move them back, they would fit with the 
greatest nicety. Altogether, at Matlock the tourist, the geologist, and the mi* 
oeraloipsty may enjoy advantages which few other places can afford. 



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234 LONDON TO MAKCHB8TBB. DERBY* MATLOCK-BATH ite^-ClumHued. 

Eight miles north-west by west is Haddon Hall, the seat of the Duke of Rutlanil, 
situated on a bold eminence on the east side of the Wye, and affording a complete 
picture of an ancient baronial residence. No part of the building is of a date 
later than the sixteenth century. The tower over the gateway on the east side of 
the upper quadrangle is supposed to have been built in the reign of Edward III. 
The chapel is of the time of Henry VI. ; and the tower at the north-west cor- 
ner, on which are the arms of the Vemons, &c. is nearly of the same period. The 
gallery was erected in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. All the principal rooms, 
except the gallery, were hung with loose arras, a great part of which still remains* 
The doors were concealed behind the hangings, but there were great iron hooks 
by whidi the tapestry could be held back, to avoid the inconvenience of lifting 
it up every time of passing in and out. The workmanship of these doors is very 
rude and ill-fashioned. The chaplain^s room is an interesting old place, and 
contains a number of objects calculated to convey an idea of the mode of living 
two centuries ago. The park was ploughed up and cultivated about sixty years 
since ; but in the vicinity of the mansion there is still a sweeping group of luxu- 
riant old trees. The gardens are composed of terraces ranging one above ano- 
ther, each having a sort of stone balustrade. The prospects from the leads and 
the watch-tower are extremely fine. 

Haddon was, soon after the Conquest, the property of the Avenells, from 
whom it came to the Vemona. The last male heir of this family. Sir John Ver- 
non, was commonly called the King of the Peak, on account of his hospitality 
and magnificent mode of living. He died in the seventh year of Elizabeth,and 
Haddon passed by marriage with one of his daughters into the posseemon of the 
ftaoily of Manners, then Earls of Rutland, and was their principal seat till the 
beginning of the last coitury, when it was superseded by Belvoir Castle in Leices- 
tershire. In the reign of Queen Anne, the first Duke of Rutland maintained seven 
score servants in this ancient seat of old English hospitality. 

The Duke of Rutland has a shooting seat at Stanton Woodhouse, in Darley 
Dale, a short distance from Haddon. 

Twelve miles north by west of Matlock is Chatsworth, the magnificent man* 
sion of the Duke of Devonshire. The public entrance to the domain is near the 
pretty village of Edensor, where there is on excellent inn for the accommo- 
dation of visitors. Chatsworth was among the domains given by William the 
Conqueror to William Peveril, his natural son ;* but in the reign of Elizabeth, it 
was purchased by Sir W. Cavendish, who commenced a mansion house here, 
which, after his death, was completed by his widow, the. famous Countess of 
Shrewsbniy. The present building was nearly completed by the first Duke of 
Devonshire previous to 1706, but a wing has been addtd by the present (6th) 
Duke. It is composed of four nearly equal sides, with an open quadrangular 
court within. The middle of the court is occupied by a marble statue of Orion, 
seated on the back <^ a dolphin, round which the water of a fountain is con- 
tinually playing. The rooms of this palace are spacious and lofty, some of them 
hung with tapestry, and adorned vnth beautiful carvings, executed by Gibbons 
aud Watson. The pictures are not numerous, but there is a valuable ool* 

* Seo Scoit's Peveril of the Peak, chap. L p. 1. 



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LONDON TO HAHCHESTER, DE&BY, MATLOCK^ATH, kc—Coutinued. 235 

lection of books, and many exquisite works of scolptore by Canova, Thorwaldsen, 
Chantrey, Wyatt, Westmacott, &c Cbatsworth gardens are among the most cele- 
brated in the kingdbm. The grand conservatory is 300 feet long l^ 146 feet 
wide, and comprises an area of about an acre, in the centre of which is a car- 
riage road. Not*iing of the kind was ever before planned on so gigantic a style ; 
but the Duke of Devonshire was fortuttate in the possession, as his servant, of Sir 
Joseph Paxton, now of Ciystal Palace notoriety. To the south and south- 
east of the mansion are some curious water-works, formerly much celebrated. 
The park is about nine miles in circumference, and is beautifully diversified with 
hill and dale. The prospect from different parts of it are exceedingly fine. The 
old House of Chatsworth was for thirteen years the prison of Mary Queen of Scot% 
—a circumstance which caused her name to be given to a suite of apartments in 
the building, which are supposed to correspond in situation with those which she inl 
habited. It was here also that Hobbes, the philosopher, passed many of his days. 
Four miles from Chatsworth is Bakewell, a place of great antiquity, much 
resorted to by anglers, as the river abounds with trout, grayling, &c. The ma- 
nor of Bakewell origmally belonged to William Peveril, natural son of William 
the Conqueror. It is now the property of the Duke of Rutland. In the town 
there is a cotton manufactory established by the late Sir R. Arkfrright, and in 
the vicinity are marble works and lead mines. The church, an ancient crudforra 
structure, exhibits the styles of three different periods of architecture, and con- 
tains several curious monuments of the Yemon and Manners fiunilies. In the 
church-yard is an ancient cross. On Stanton manor, four miles distant, are 
rocking-stones and a Druidical circle. 

A delightful excursion may be made from Matlock to Dove Dale,* distant 18 
miles. The scenery of this far-famed spot is of the most ronumtic description. 
In the vicinity is the town of Ashbourne, the church of which contains numerous 
monuments, including a beautiful specimen of sculpture by Banks, to the memory 
of a daughter of a former Sir Brook Boothby. Ashbourne Hall, till lately the 
mansion of this family, is situated in the vicinity. Here the Pretender spent a 
night in 1745. At Mayfield, near Ashbourne, is the cottage in which Moore com- 
posed '* Lalla Rookh." On the Staffordshire side of the Dove is Bam Hall, the 
mansion of Jesse Watts Russell, Esq. Ham church is a venerable ivy-covered 
edifice, and contains an interesting monument by Chantrey. 

Pleasing excursions may also be made from Matlock to the Druidical remains 
at Arbor Low, — the Router Rock, — Robin Hood's Stride, — the masses of rocks 
bearing the name of Bradley Tor, which are all within a short distance, and are 
objects of attraction to the antiquarian, the artist, and the lover of remarkable 
and picturesque scenery. 

Winfield Manor House, Hardwick House, and Newstead Abbey, formerly the 
property of Byron, and now that of Colonel Wildman, are frequently visited by 
parties from Matlock, and will amply repay the notice of the tourist 

* See deicription of the Dove in Walton and Cotton's Angler, Major's Editioo, p. S77, ike. 



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286 



XCII. 



BIRUINOHAM TO LIVERPOOL OR MANCHESTER, 
BY RAILWAY* 97i Miles. 




Perry Hall, J. Oough, 



Orest Bar Hall, Sir F. 
£. Soott, Bart 



S m. distant is WalsalU 

BenUey Hall, the hcmse 
in which King Charles lay 
concealed after the battle 
of Worcester. 

Moseley Court. 

Hilton HaU. 



Hathertoii HaU, Lord 
Hatherton. 



Teddesley Hall, Lord 
Hatherton. 

Tillington House. 



3| miles distant is Stone, 
on the line of the North 
Staffordshire Railway, 
which branches off at the 
Norton Br. station. 

Swinnerton, T. Fitzher. 
bert, Esq., and beyond, 
Darlaston HaU, S. S. Jer- 
▼is, Esq., and Meaford 
Hull, Viscount St Vincent. 

Trentham Park, Duke 
of Sutherland. 

Whitmore Hall, £. 
Mainwaring, Esq. 

Bnttertou UaU. 



97i 
93} 



dOi 



87J 
854 
83 



77i 
75i 
73i 

68 

58} 
54i 




From Birmingham to 
Perry Bar St. 

Newton Road St 
■^^ cr. river Tame. 



Bescot Junction St 

Willenhall St 

WOLVEKHAMPTON. 

I. 237, 0-26i miles from 

Loudon.) 



Four Ashes St 

Spread Eagle St 

Penkridge St 



STAFFORD, p 211. 

Here the Trent Valley 

line joins. 



Norton Bridge St. 



Suindon Bridge St 



Whitmore, (from 
London, 155 J miles.) 

Newcastle-under-Lyme 
is 4i miles distant, and 
Stoke upon Trent 61 miles 
distant. Ihis station is 
fixed heie as an accom- 
modation to the potteries. 



9* 



20 

214 

24 

29i 
35 

38i 
43 



Hampstead Hall. 



Sandwell Park, Earl of 
Dartmouth. 



Charlonont. 

Darlaston is $ m., and 
Bilston, 2| qules distant. 



To Wrottesley Hall, 
(Lord Wrotteslcy) 6 ni. 

Dunstall Hall, H. Hor- 
dem, Esq. 

Ozley Ball, A. Hordem, 
Esq. 

Somerford Hall. 

2 miles distant, Stretf on 
Hall, and bevond Weston 
Park, Earl oi Bradford. 



Seighford HaU, P. Eld, 
Esq. 

S| m. distant is Ecdes- 
hall, hi the church of 
which Bishop Halse con- 
cesled Queen Margaret 
after her escape from 
Muck1eston6. Near it is 
Eccleshall Castle, iBishop 
of Lichfield,) founded at a 
very early period, and re- 
built 1510. (See p. 12.) 



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BIRMINGHAM TO LIVERPOOL OR MANCHESTER- C?(m/tiiu«i. 



237 



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238 WARMNGTON-^WINWinC 

Warhington is one ofQie principal stations on the line, being midway l>etwe*?n 
liTerpool and Manchester. About half a mile from the station is the large and 
populous town of Warrington, on the north bank of the Mersey in Lancashire. It 
is one of the oldest towns in Lancashire, and was a Roman station. A bridge 
was built here over the Mersey by the Earl of Derby, for the purpose of enabling 
Henry VII. t© pay him a visit with greater convenience. The principal mauu- 
&cture8 are cottons, shoes, and fustians, and in the vicinity are pin, glass, and 
iron- works. Vessels of 70 or 80 tons burthen can come up the river to within 
a short distance of the town. The church is of Saxon origin, and erected 
before the Conquest, but the injuries which it received during the civil wars 
have destroyed moat of the traces of its antiquity. It contains some curious mo* 
numents, especially one to the memory of Sir Thomas Boteler and his lady. 
There are also chapels of ease, meeting-houses, free schools, &c. During th? 
Civil Wjtrs, Warrington was the scene of several severe conflicts. From the press 
of this town, the first newspaper ever published in Lancashire was issued, and it 
was also the first town in the country from which a stage-coach was started* 
Howard'^ work on Prisons was printed at Warrington, as were also the most of 
Mrs Barbauld^s poems, the earlier writings of the late Thomas Roscoe, the 
works of Dr Ferrier, Gibson, and many others. In 1757, an academy was esta* 
blished here, which rapidly rose into celebrity, under the direction of Dr Aikin, 
Dr Priestley, Dr Taylor, Dr Enfield, and the Rev. Gilbert Wakefield, but the esta- 
blishment was unfortunately broken up in 1783, and from its fragments a col- 
lege was formed at York, which has been recently transferred to Manchester. 
Bradley Hall, in the neighbourhood of Warrington, is supposed to occupy the 
site of one of the castles of the Haydocks, a powerful £Euni]y in Lancashire during 
the time of the Plantagenets. One M.P. Pop. of pari, borough 1851, 23^363. 
Warrington affords an earldom to the Grey family. Earls of Stamford and 
"Warrington. 

Abo\it two milea and a half from Warrington station is Winwick, which (with 
the exception of Doddington in Cambridgeshire) possesses the richest rectoiy in 
,ihe kingdom^ the patronage of which has been lodged in the hands of the -Stanley 
family since the reign of Henry VI. According to tradition, this place was the 
fiivourite residence of Oswald, King of Northnmbria, and near the chimsh is 
pointed out the spot where he fell fighting against liie pagans of Mercia, AJ>. 642* 
St Oswald's Well, about half a mile to the north of the church, was originaQy 
formed, according to Bede, by the piety of pilgrims who visited the spot. The 
eart^ and water are supposed to be possessed of peculiar sanctity, and from it all 
the neighbouring Roman Cathplio chapels are supplied with holy water. The 
chureh, a large irregular structure, of very remote antiquity, contains a number 
of interesting monuments and curious brasses. There are no less than thirty- 
seven endowed charities in the parish. Pop. of parish, 18,148* 

Two miles and a quarter from Winwick is Newton JuNcnoH Statics, (84 
miles fh>m Birmingham, 196} from London,) where the Grand Junction Bailway 
terminates, and the journey to M; nchester or Liverpool is continued on the 
Liverpool and Manchester Bailway. 



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XCm. LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY, 81i Mile«. £39 

This Railway waa opened September 16, 1830, and cost nearly L.1,000,000 stermiK. The 
principal station is in Lime Street, LiverpooL 





84 




SS- 




OV MOHT FBOH LIVES. 


l| 


Lime St. Station. 




01IL«ITf»0MLIVBE. 






Newriuun House. 


Childwal! HaU, Mar- 


28 


Broad Green St. 


3J 


Croxteth Park, Earl of 


quis of Salisbury. 








Sefton. 


RohT Hail. 


26J 


RobySt 


H 


The Hasles, Sir T. B. 


Hal8neadHall,R.Wil. 


26 


Huyton St. 


5} 


Birch, Bart., and beyond 


lis, Esq. 








Knowsley Park, Earl ot 
Derby. 

Prescot, noted for its 
manufacture of watch 
tool0 and movements. 




22I 


Hnyton Quarry St 
RainhillSt 


P 




21i 


Lea Green St 


lOi 


In the vicinity are nume- 
rous collieries. Pop. 
1851, 7893. 


Bold Hall, Sir H. Bold 


19i 


ST HELEN'S JUNC- 


iH 


Eccleston Hall. 


Hoghton, Bart 




TION ST. 


Shirley Hall. 

St Helen's. Here are 






(90 m. from Birmingham 








202i m. from London ) 




copper and glnss works. 




18 


Collin's Green. 


13J 


A coal railroad leads to 








Runcorn. The manu- 


At a distance Bewsay 




^^ cr. Sankey Viad. 




factory of plate-glass at 
Ravenhead is the largest 
estabUshment of the kind 


Hall, Lord Lilford. 


16i 


Warrington Junction 

Station. 
NEWTO.N STATION. 


14| 


Winwick Hall. 


16| 


16| 


in the kingdom. Pop. of 
St Helens 1851, 14,866. 






Here the Grand Jnoction 




At a distance G ares- 






Railway joins. 




wood Hall and New HhU. 
Sir J. Gerard, Bart. 




16i 


Preston Junction St 


16 


Haydock I'Odge, and 
Golborne Park, T. Legh, 












15 


PARKSIDE ST. 


16J 


Esq. 
At Newton there is an 






(85J miles from Binning- 






ham, and 198J from Lon- 




old hall, said to have been 
formerly the residence 






don.) There is a tablet 








erected near the spot where 




of royalty. | of a mile 






Mr Huskisson was killed on 




distant there is an an- 






the day of the opening of 
this railway. The North 




cient barrow covered 








with very old oaks. 






Union Railway branches oft 










here to Wigan and Preston. 








m 


KENYON JUNCTION 

STATION. 

Here the Bolton and Leigh 

Railway joins. 


181 


Pennington and Pen- 
nington Hall. 




lOi 


Bury Lane St 

Flow Moss. 

The Railway here crosses 

Chat Moss, which, until the 


20f 
















formation of the railroad, 




















treacherous bog, in some 










places 30 feet deep. 






Trafford Park, Sir 
Homphciy Dc Trafford, 
BarU 


P 


Astlev St 

Barton Moss St 

Patricroft St 


28 

23| 

26J 


Worsley Hall, the 
noble residence of the 




4 


EoclesSt 


27i 


EarlofEllesmere. 



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240 



LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY— CVm^mwi. 



ON RIGHT VBOM LXVIE. 


3 

If 


Weaste Lane St 
CroHs Lane St. 
MANCHESTER. 

188^ m. from London. 




OM LKFT FROM LITER. 




81J 





XCIV. BIRMINGHAM TO MANCHESTER, BY RAILWAY, DIRECT, 85 Miles. 



ON MOHT ffROM BIRX. 


n 




u 


ON LK7T FROM BIBM. 




81 


From Birmingham on 


p^« 






the Grand Janet. Rail. 
CREWE St. (p. 247.) 


64 




Cr*w«H«n,LordCww«. 




Somcrftnrd pSrk. Sir & P. 
SbMkerley, Bart. 


f 


SANDBACH ST. 


^S 




HOLMES CHAPEL. 
CHELFORD ST. 


62} 
68 


PeoverHalLSirH.M. 
Mainwaring, Bart. 


teiSLTEt"^'"''''^ 


13i 


Alderley St 


11^ 


To Altringham, or Al- 


12 


Wilmslow St 


73 


trinchRm, 8 miles, a mar- 


Withiiij(toii H«U. A«ti« 


10} 


Handforth St 


74} 


ket town, which has 


Alderley Park. Lord Stw- 
leyof Aidertey. 
N..UnMn H»1L 


& 


Cheadle St 


76} 


!-ome maoafactories of 


4 


STOCKPORT ST. 


79f 


yam, worsted, and cot- 
ton. It is connected 


PoynloB Parte, Lord Vcr- 








with Mancliester bv u 




5i 


Seaton, Norris St 


79i 


railway 7* miles ' in 


iqUm. 








length. Pop. 1861, 4488. 




H 


Heaton, Chapel St 


80} 






3 


Levenshulme St 


82 






H 


Longsigbt St 
MANCHESTER. 


83} 
85 





This railway commences at a spacioiu station in London Road, Manchester, 
wliich is to be used jointly by this and the Manchester and Sheffield Railway 
Company. The railway is conducted through Manchester upon a viaduct, in 
which occiun an extraordinary skew arch, crossing Fairfield Street at an angle of 
only 24} degrees. The span of the bridge is about 128 feet 9 inches. It is 
considered to be one of the finest specimens of iron-bridge building ever executed. 
The viaduct, at the Manchester end of the line, contains considerably more than 
100 arches. At Stockport is an inmiense viaduct, which crosses the Mersey at 
an elevation of 1 1 1 feet measured to the top of the parapet Soon after leaving 
this viaduct the railway enters a deep cutting, in which occurs a short tunnel 
297 yards long, the only one on the line. On the remaining portion of the line 
are several extensive viaducts. The Boiling viaduct consists of 1 1 arches, of 49 
feet span. The Peover viaduct, crossing the river of that name, consists of 9 or 
10 arches of about 40 feet span, and 70 feet high. The Dane viaduct consists 
of 23 arches of 63 feet span, and crosses the river Dane at an elevation of aho«t 
95 feet from the sur&ce of the water to the top of the parapet 

This railway was opened throughout the whole line on the 10th of August 
IU42. 



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XCV. LONDON TO LIVERPOOL, BY TBENT VALLEY LINE OP 
LONDON AND NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY, 201 MUes. 



241 




Hidland ^ailwav, to 
Leicester and Derby 
(diap. cxxrii.). 

Newbold. 

Harborough Mnena. 

Newbold Revel, Sir 
T. G. Skipwith, Bart. 

Monks Kirby, 2 m. and 
beyond, Newnham-Pad- 
doz. Earl of Denbigh. 

Withybrook. 



Hinckley, 4 m. (see p. 
210). 

Weddington Hall and 
Lindiey Hall. 

Caldecote Hall. 

Line of ancient Wat- 
OngSt 



Gopsall, Earl Howe, 

m. 

To Ashby de la Zoncb, 
ISf miles. 

Grendon Hall, Sir G. 
Chetwynd, Bart. 

Shnttin^rton. 
Amiugton Hall, CH. 
W. A'Coort, Esq. 

Baflway to Derby, 84 



Wiggingt(ai. 
Camberford Han. 
FlBhenrielu 



From London to 

118J RUGBY, (pp. 1W.20S). 

4&^ cr. riv. Avon. 

^^ ct. Oxford Canal- 

113} Stretton St. | 87i 

Stretton is on the Posm 
Way, an ancient line oi 
Roman (or probably Bri- 
tish) road. 

1104 Shilton St 904 

108J Bulkington St. 92j 

■^^ cr. Ashby de la 
Zouch Canal, and en- 
ter valley of R. Anker, 
a tributary of the 
Trent, 

104i Nuneaton St. 

Nuneaton is a consider- 
able and well-built mar- 
ket town, 8i miles from 
Coventry, and 23 m. trom 
Birmingham. The ribbon 
manufacture is carried on 
here, and abundance of 
oool is procured in the 
ndghbourhood. Popula- 
tion, of town, 1851, 4859 
99i Atherstone St (seep. lOlf 
210). 
Cross Watling Street 
■1^ or. Coventry 
Canal twice. 

M cr. riv. Anker. 

96 J Polesworth St 105 J 

■^^ cr. riv. Anker. 

Cross Birmingham and 
Derby Railway. 

914 TAM WORTH ST. 1 094 

Enter Staffordshire. 

J^ cr. riv. Tame, 
(an affluent of the Trent), 
and Coventry Canaii 
which for some distance 
runs parallel to the furmer. 



ON LXFT FROM LOND. 



Leave main line of N. 
Western Railway, 

Holbrook Grange, 

Oxford Canal. 

Brinklow, and beyond, 
Combe Abbey, Earl Cra 
ven, 8 miles* 



To Coventry, 6 miles. 
Anstey Hall. 
Coventry, 6 miles. 
Bedworth, 2 miles. 
Arbury Park, C. N. 
Newdegate Esq., 2 miles. 
Chilvers Colon. 



Stocldnpford, 2 miles. 

Ansley Hall, Sir J. N. 
L. Chetwode, Bart, 3J 
miles. 

Oldbury Hall. 

1 m. before Atherstone 
is Maucetter, the site of 
the Roman Manduesse- 
dum. 

Mancetter House. 

Bentley Park. 

Baxterley Hall, 24 m. 

To Coleshill, 10 miles. 

Merevale Park, W. S. 
Dugdale, Esq. 
Coventry Canal parallel 



Pooley Hall. 



Railway to Binning, 
ham, 17 miles. 

Drayton Manor, Sir R. 
Peel, Bart. 

Wigidnfrton Lo. 

WhktingtoM. 

Swinfen Par!^ J. Swin- 
fen, Esq., 2 miles. < 

Frecford HhH, R. 
Dyott Esq., 1 mile | 



y Google 



242 



LONDON TO L\^ZR,VOOlr-Continued. 



OM RIGHT FROM LOlTOw 



Burton on Trent, Him. 85 J 

The road between Lich- 
field and Burton is part of 
the Icknield St., an an- 
ient British way. 
Kings Bromley, 2| m. 

AbboU Bromley, 6 m. 80j 
distant, is a market-towB; 
Pop. 1208. 



Cotton HaU. 

Cotton, and beyond, 774 
Blithfiad Hall, Lprd 
Bajjot. 

BiBhtonHaU. 



II 



Sfangborongh Park, 
Earl oFUchAeld. 

Tixal Park, Sir T. A. 
C. Conatable, Bart., and 
beyond. Ingeatre Hall, 
EailTalboU 



Queensbury Lo. 



Crewe Hall, (Lprd 
Crewe). 

Branch from Crewe to 
Manchester, as in p. 240, 
81 m. i— makinsr the 
total from London to 
Manche9te^by this route 
19Sk miles; 

Knowsley Park, Earl 
of Derby. 

CroxtethPark^JBarlof 
Sefton. 



744 



Lichfieia St 116| 

Cross Hne of S. Staf- 
fordshire Railway. 

Armitage St 120^ 

■i^ cr. Grand Trunk 
Canal, and riv. Trent 

Rugelej St (see p. 1234 
211). 

Proceed along valley 
of riv. Trent 

North Staffordshire 
line branches off to 
right, shortly before 
reaching 

Colwich St 1264 

l^cr. riv. Trent, and 
along valley of small 
liv. Sow, 

.^ cr. Stafford and 

Worcester Canal, and 

riv. Penk. 

Rejoin main line of 
N. Western Railway 
shortly before reaching 



STAFFOBD ST. 1324 

Thence to 

43| CREWE, as in pp- 236, 7* 157) 

From Crewe, by 
Warrington, to 

l^ Newton Bridge (on 187) 

the Liverpool and 

Manchester line, 

p. 233). 

Thence to 
LIVERPOOL (p. 239). 201 



ON LEFT FROM LOND. 



Town of Lichfield, H 
mile (see p. 210). 

Stow House and Stow 
HUl. 

ElxnburstHalL 

Haunch HalL 

Longdon. 
Amntage, 1 mile. 
Beaudesert Park, Mar- 
quis of Anglesey. 
Armytage Park. 

Hagley Park, Baroness 
de la Zouche. 

Wolaeley HaU. 



WolselCT Park, Sir C. 
lyBart 



Wolaeley 1 



MilfordHaU. 



Baswick. 



Branch to Shrewsbury, 
29 miles (total from Lon- 
don to Shrewsbury by this 
route, 1611 miles). 

Brandi from Crewe, by 
Chester, to Birkenhead. 
aH| m., making the total 
distance from London to 
Birkenhead by this route, 
193} mUes. 



I Childwall HaU, Maf 
qnia of Salisbury. 



y Google 



XCVI. LONDON TO WAEWICK AND LEAMINGTON, BY RAILWAY, 
972 Miles. 



243 



OH HOIR f»eil lOHB. 


Ij 


From London, by 


^J 


on uKFT nov lond. 










NoiUl Western Bail- 










way, to 






Leave mam line to 
Birmiiigliam, 18^ miles. 


9J 


COVENTRY (p. 203). 

The railway here tnitis 
to the southward. 


86J 


"Whitley Ahbcy. Vis- 
connt Hood, 1 ^miles. 

Bagintoa Hall, 2 m. 


Kenflwoith Castle, 1 


4J 


Kenilworth St 


93J 


Stoneleigh Abbey, 
Lord Leigh, 3 miles. 
Stoneleigh Park, Lord 


mile (see p. 194). 








Leek Wootton. 




1^ cr. river Avon^ 

A short distance to the 
right of the line is Chiy*8 
cBff, and, near it, Blade 




Leigh, Urn. 
Ashow. 


Hilverton 








WHTwick Cattle, Earl 
of Warwick 1} n^e (p. 




low Hill (see p. 194). 








LEAMINGTON. 


97 


|mUe(8eep.l94). 


198). 











XCVn. LONDON TO SHREWSBURY, THROUGH BIRMINGHAM, BY RAILWAY, 
156i MUes. 



ON KIOHT 7E0X LOND. 



Leave main line to Li- 
verpool and Mandiester. 

Bilbrook House. 



Chfllington Pak, T 25 
W.Giifard, Esq., li mile. 



431 

281 



DoningtoB. 

Tonge, and Tbnge 
OasUeibeyond, WMton 
Park, Eart of Bradford, 
2} miles. 



22 



From London to 
Birmingham (p. 203). 

Thesoeto 

Wolverhampton St 

(p;236). 

Stafford Road St 

1^ cr. Staflbrd and 

Worcester CanaL 

GodsalSt 

Enter Shropshire. 

Allmghton St 






ON LXFT VBOK LOND. 



112| 
126} 

1272 

ISli 
134} 



In the distance Him- 
ley HaU, Lord Ward. 
Dunstall Park. 
Tettenhall. 
The Wergs. 



Wrottesley Park, Lord 
Wrotteslev, 1 mile, and 
beyond, Fatshnll Park, 
Sir R. rigot, Bart., 1} m, 

Albrighton HaU. 
Boning^e,l|.miIe. 
Hatton HaU, R. A. 
Slaasy^Esq. Ifmile. 



y Google 



244 



LONDON TO SHREWSBURY- Cimtfn««d. 



ON EIGHT PBOM lOVD, 


IT 


smrFNAL, (see p. 199) 
1 large market town, fo^ 
nerly a great tharongli- 
fare for coach traffic Po- 
pulation of parish, 1861, 


m 


ON LBFT FROM IX)ND. 


AstooHall. 

Decker HiU. 
Fkton Leigh. 


17* 


Shifnal Manoi^ Lud 
Stafford. 

CMebrook Dale, 8 miles 
(p. 178). 

New Dawley. 


Wombridge. 




Through OakeDgates 
TunneL 






Hadley. 


18J 


Oakengates St. 

Oakengates. a iroall 
place on the line of Wat- 
Kng St., is the Uxacona 
of the Roman Itmeraries. 


143 


Ketley Iron Works. 


Jonctionof brandi ftom 
Stafford, S9 mile*. 

Admasfeon. 

Allaoot. 


lOi 
H 


Wellington St. 
(see p. 179). 

Walcot St. 


146 
150 


ColebrookDa]e,4|m. 
The Wiekin. isao feet 

OrletonHalL 
Wrockwardine. 
Uppington, 1} mile. 


WithingtoD. 




^^ cr. riyer Tern 
and Shrewsbury 








3| 


Upton Magna St. 


1524 


Attindiam Park, Laid 
BcrwictT 


Uffington, and beyond 
Sundorae Gastl^ K W. 
Corbet, Esq. 




JM cr. Shrewsbury 
Canal 

M cr. river Serem. 




Longner GasUe. 






SHREWSBURY 

(p. 147). 


156} 





XCVm. SHREWSBURY TO CHESTER AND BIRKENHEAD, BY RAILWAY, 
67 J miles. 



ON SIGHT VXOX 8HBBW8. 


53t 


LeatonSt. 


4 


ON UR 7B0X SmtXWS. 


Green Fields. 

Preston Gubbal8,l mile, 
and beyond, Hardwick 
Grange. Yisconnt Hill, and 
Acto£ Reynald Hall, Sir 
A. V.Corbet, Bart. 


H 


Berwick Hall, iion. H. 
W. Powys. 

Beyoud ri?er Seren, 
Boss HaU, and ftirtheroB. 
Isle Park. 



y Google 



SHREWSBURY TO CHESTER AND BIRKBNHBAD-^onttniMtf. 245 





RIGHT PROM SHREW. 


"siT 


Baschurcli Si 


-1 


DK IBFT FROM 8HRBW. 


Middle, 9 mileik 


50 


74 


Walford. 








^^ cr. river Perry, a 


Buyton.Sli miles. 
Boreatton HalL 




Bagley. 




■mall affluent of the 
Severn. 




Boieatton Park. 
Pradoe, T. Kenyon, 




WoodhouM, li mile. 








EatK li mile 






4^i 


RednallSt. 


13 


Tedsmore Hall, £. B. 




ToEUennere,6milet. 




^S or. Llanymynech 




Owen, Esq., 1 mile. 




HalftonHalL 




branch of Ellesmere 
CanaL 

Cro6S high road firom 
London to Holyhead. 




Aston Hall, W. Lloyd, 
Esq., U mile. 




Wldttington Castle. In 








Oswestry, 3 miles (see 




ndni. ^ 


414 


WhittingtonSt. 


16 


p. 180). 




£Ue«ieTe,5S mite (see 






Branch to Oswestry, 2^ 




9. 148). 


39i 


GobowenSt 


18 


miles ; near Oswestry, 




BebDOiit 






Porkington, W. 0. Gore, 






371 


Presgwyn St 

^^ cr. Ellesmere 
Canal, and river 
Ceriog, and enter 


m 


Esq. 

Aqnednct of Ellesmere 
Canal. 




CbiikBtfik. 




. Wales. 




Chirk Caatie, M. Bid- 




Brynkinalt, Tteooani 


86| 


Chirk St (see p. 180). 


20i 


dnlph, Esq. 




DaBgaimon. 








Llangollen, 5 miles. 




Vale of Llangollen, cele- 
brated for the beanty of 


851 


Llangollen Road St 


22t 


Corwen, 14 miles. 




ita scenery. 




Viaduct across valley 
of Dee. 




Pont-y-Cyssyllte aque- 
du<jt, by which the Bles- 




Bellan Place. 




CefhSt 








84 


23i 


mere Cuial is carried across 




Wynnstay Park, ffirW. 
W.Wynn,Bart. 








the river Dee, a fine s^ 










^wi^n of engineering skill. 




Overton, 6 milei. 


82| 


Ruabon St 


24i 


The scenery in the neigh- 
bourhood of Ruabon b of 
the roost romantic and 




Hafod. 
Erthig. 


801 
274 


RhosSt 
WREXHAM St 


26* 
30 


striking description. 
Mold. 11 mUes. 




Acton Park» Sir E. H. 




Oee pp. 1^207). 




Owersylt HalL 




Cimliife^Bart. 




Pop. of par. 1851, 16,690. 
1^ cr. river Alen. 




GwersyltHilL 




Gretford Lodge, Sir H. 
A Johnson, Bart. 


244 


OresfordSt 


33 






TrefalenHalL 






Mount Alyn. 






23 


Rossett St. 


m 





y Google 



246 BHREWSBUBY TO CHESTER AND BIRKENHBAD-CfnMiNietf. 



EIGHT FROM SHREW. 


^1 


■i^ cr. Pul.ord 

Brook, and enter 

Cheshire. 

PnlfofdSt 

Saltney St. 


1 


ON LSFT FROM 8HRIW. 


Eaton Hall, U mOe. 
Mai^u^ of Westmintur 
(seep. 149). 


21i 

m 


m 

40 


DoddlestoiL 






Join Chester and 










Holyhead Kne, and 
^^ cr. river Dee. 






miles. Joins here. 
MostonHalL 


154 


CHESTER (see p. 149). 


42 


Chester Lnnatie Asylum. 




|F^ cr. Dee and 










Mersey Canal 






Backford. 
Stanney Wood. 
Great Sutton. 

HootonHan.lfmile. 


124 
84 

n 


MoUington St 

Sutton St 
Hooton St 


45 

49 
50 


MoUington Hall, ¥. 
Ffielden, JBsq. 

Capenhunt. 

Burton Hall, 3 miles. 

Willaston, li nUeb 




ek 


BrombOTough St 


61 


PoBltonHalL 




44 


Spitsl St 


53 




Derby House. 

Birer Mersey, and <m 
opposite side, 

tlVJBIUPOOL. (Sm 
p. 221.) 


2i 


Bebington St 

Rock Lane St 

Limekiln Lane St 
BIRKENHEAD. 


54 
65 

574 


BeUngton. 

Traamere. 

Leasowe Castle, M^oi^ 
General Hon. Sir iL (mk, 
4 miles. * 



From an insignificant Tillage, Birkenhead has, within the space of a few years, 
grown into an important and flourishing seaport town. According to the census 
of 1831, it contained at that time only 2599 inhabitants, which number had in 
1851 increased to 24^175. The astonishing rapidity with which it progressed lor 
some time has not however been maintained more recently. Extensive docks, of 
sufficient capacity to receive vessels of the largest class, have been constructed 
here, and a variety of public worioi undertaken ; and the town alt(^ether promises 
to become in time a rival in importance to its gigantic neighbour on the opposite 
side of the Mersey, 



y Google 



LONDON. TO CHEBTER AND HOLYHEAD, BY EAILWAY. «J3 Milet. 2A7 




Crewe Han, (Lord 
Orewe). 

Leave main line to Li- 
verpool and Manchestor. 



Wettenhall, 2^ railea. 



lOSi 



102 



From London, by 
North Western Rail- 
way (Trent Valley 
line), to 

CREWE (p. 242). 157i 
Thence, by Chester 
And Crewe line, 
^^ cr. river Weaver. 
Nantwich St 161 



J^kg cr. Middlewich 
branch of EUesmere 
and Chester Canal 



ON LBFT FROM LOND. 



Calrcley HaU, E. D. 
Oavenport, Esq. 

4 mfles distant, Onlton 
HaU, Sir P. De G. E 
ton, Bart 

TiisUme Feamall. 

Tilatone Lodge* 
tbllemache, Esq. 

Tarporley, 2 mUes <se« 
p. 214), and | mile be- 
yond, to the right, Eaton| 
Banks. | gjj 

Ha^grave. 

Waverton. 

88} 



974 Calveley St 1654 

i§^ et. EUesmere and 

Chester Canal, 
The course of which the, 
Unb follows hearly the 
whole way to Chester. 

96J BeestonSt 1671 



At Crewe are extensive 
refl^hment and waiting 
looms, with every conve- 
nience for the accommo- 
dation of passengers. 



Nantwich, 3i miles i'. 
p. 213). 

Worleston, and beyond, 
the Bookery. 

Poole H*1L 

Wardle. 



Tattenhall St 



1711 



Hanghton HaU, and in 
tiie dirtance Ohoknende-' 
ley Castk, Marquis of 
Cholmondeley. 

Banbury. 

Beeston CasUe, in mina, 
l^mile. 

Burwardsley, 2 miles; 
beyond Bolesworth Castle. 

Tattenhall, 1} mile. 



Rowton Heath. 
Christletoh. 



Chester and Birkenhead 
Bne, lEi miles. 

River Dee, here run 
Aing in a straight line, in 
*n Brtifldal channel. 



Bstuary of the Dee, 
which changes with the 
Mate of the tide flrom a 
aagniflcent arm of the 
tea, more than three miles 
lin width, to a dreary ex 



84i 



aagnincent 
Ilea, more tha 
lin width, to 
Ipanse of san 
lin which the 
Ian inaigniflc 
|iow channel. 



Ipcnae of sand and ooae, 
in which the river forms 
an insigniflcant and nar 



Waverton St |l74| 

jg^ cr. EUesmere 
and Chester Canal 

CHESTER. 1781 



1851 



72 



The railway , — -_ 
Tound the dty on the 
northern ana western sides, 
land, bending southward, 
Icrosses the river Dee, 
nbarly along the iouth 
Ibank of which it runs to 

Queen Ferry St 

I Along south side of 
estuary of Dee to 

Flint St 191 

I Flint is a borough and 
(seaport town, the mhabi- 
tants of which are chiefly 
' nployed in the coal 



fiatton Hall 
Saightou. • 
Boughton. 

Eaton Hall, Marquis of^ 
Westminster, 4 miles (set 

P- 14®)' , ^ 

Two mUes beyond Ches- 
ter, enter Wales. 

Branch line to Monld, 9 
miles (p. 207). 
Broughton. 

lSawarden,aud Hawar. 
den Castle, Sir S. R. 
Glynne, Bart. 1| m. (p. 
214). 

Aston Hall. 

Welsh mountains. 

Northop, 9^ miles. 

Halkyn Castle, Marqnia 
of Westminster. 



y Google 



848 



LONDON TO CHE8IEB AND BOLrBMSy-OonHmtsd. 




Ruins of ilint Cattle. 
Bichard IL was a pri- 
soner here, and the 
castle was besieged and 
taken by the Paniamen- 
tary army daring the 
civil warn. 



Point of Air, with 
lighthouse on its sum- 
mit. 



Bhyl Hall. 

After leaving the estu- 
tLTf of the Dee, the sea is 
visible on the right hand 
nearly the whole way. 

Ilandrvlloyn Rhos. 
Bryn Dinarth. 
Llangwystenin. 
Marf 

Boddyscallan. 
Gloddaeth, Hon. £.M. 
L. Mostyn. 



Mouth of river Con- 
way, and beyond, Great 
Orme's Head, a mass of 
hard limestone, which 
contains copper ore, 673 
feet high. 

Lavan Sands, and en- 
trance to Meuai Strait. 

Penrhyn Castle, Hon. 
£. 6. Douglas Pennant. 

Lime Grove. 

Bangor (see p. 140). 




works and lead mines in 
the vicinity. It has ex- 
tensive wharfs, accessible 
to vessels of 900 tons bur- 
den. It is also a bathing 
place. Conjointly with St. 
Asaph, Holywell, Mold, 
and four other small 
burghs, Flint returns 1 
MJ. Pop. 1861, 8296. 
198 BagiUt St 

67} HOLYWELL St. 



64} Mostyn St 

Two miles beyond, leave 
the shore ; again approach 
the sea, before reacmng 

58} Prestatyn St 

54} RHYL St. 

IM cr. river Clwyd. 
60} Abergele St 

Penmaen Rhos Tunnel. 



44} 



34} 
80} 

25 I 



Colwyn St 

6} miles beyond, leave 
the shore, which stretches 
out, and terminates in the. 
promontory of Great Or< 
me's Head. 
Cross mouth of river 

Conway by tabular 
bridge. 

Conway St (p. 250.) 

Penbach TimneL 



Penmaenmawr St 

Aber St. 
Leave the shore^ and 
proceed inland to i 
BANGOR St 1238 



77 
19H 



1981 



204| 

208i 



2121 



218} 



Holywell, U mile (see 
p. 215). 

Greenfield Hall, R. 
Richardson, £8q. 

Downing, 1 mile, Vis- 
count Feilding. 

Mostyn Hall, Lord 
Mostyn. 

Gronuit. 

Tftlaere. Sir P. Uottjn, Bt. 

Rhnddlaii, 1 mOw. The 
old oattle b an otjeet of 
great interest. 

St Auph, 6i milei (Me p. 

Kininel Parii, late Lord 
Dinorbea. 

^Gwryeh Ca«tK L. H. B. 
Heiketh. Emi- 



Bryndalai, J. Hwkcth. Esq. 
Moranedd, BroaywendOB, 
and Tanfrraili. 
Coed Coeh, 3^ mnei. 
Colwjrn village. 
Minydon, Mrs. doofh. 
Glaayden, H. Hedce&i,Eiq. 
GrocnmeirioB. 
Moehdre. 

Brynsteddfod, Arch* 
deacon Jones. 

PwU-y-Crochan, Lady 
Erskine. 

Llansaintfraid, 1| m. 



Pendyifryii, Muor- 
General Sir C. F. Smith. 

Lknnrit, 13 miles distant, 
Is a small town on the «ast 
bank of the river Conway, 
situated in a beautlAU valley. 
It was fbrmerly celebrated 
for the manufacture of Webh 
harps. Close to it is Gwydyr 
House, Lord Willonthl^ d* 
Eresby. 

Penmaen Hawr Mountain, 
IMO feet high. 

Uanfair, and. In the dis- 
tance, the mooataiaa vf 
Caernarvonshire. 

LlaaUediid. 

CaemanroB» • allea (see 
p. M0> 



y Google 



LONDON TO CHBSTEB AND HOLYHBAD-.-(^mMiMie(i 



249 




if enai Suspension Bridge 
(seep. 183). 

Beaumaris, ^| miles. 

Beunnarta, the eotnity town 
o< AoflMeMa plcMMittr •itu- 
atedon the Menai Stimlt. A 
eastle «m erected here aboat 
the eloee of the thirteenth ceiw 
tDrr.by Edward L. the reoiahM 
o< whleh are iadnded within 
the domains oT 6ir R. a W. 
Bnlkelej Bart. BeMunailsis 
Buidi retorted to during the 
months, and has of 
. II 



waHs, wUeh in some . 
ave Km entire. Thetown-hall 
i> an shganT modem bnilding. 
The diiudk oontatneneurloai 



lAdjr Beatrix Herbert, daogh- 
ter of the oelebrated Lord Her- 
bert of Cherbnrr. In " 

ndiriiboarfaoodorBeaiima. , 

Bhtfon HiU,the seat of Sir B. 
B. W. Bolkeley. Bart., oom- 
wandlng beantiftil pro«eetst 
and about 4 miles from the 
lawn are the remains of Pen- 



OMB Prloty, oonslsttng of the 
ittfeotory,^ the^donnitcNrjr, and 



with Amlwob, Holrhead. and 
Uaagalkii, in rsttunbg 1 If .P. 
Plop. 1801,1009. 




Three miles aftef 

Bangor, cross Menal 

22i Strait by 240} 

BRITANNIA* TUBU. 

LAR BRIDGE, 
and reach LUn&ir St 242 



21 



Thence, through the 
Isle of Anglesey, by 
Oaerwen, Bodoigan, 
and Tycroes Stations, 
to 
HOLYHEAD. 

At a short distance if 
Penrfaoi, a seat of Lord 
Stanlcjof Alderlej* 



The island of Anglesey 
is rich in mineral produce. 
The copper mines in the 
Parys mountain (situated 
near Amlwch, on the N. 
coast of the island), which 
were disoorered in 1768, 
produced at one time as 
much as 8000 tcms of me- 
tal annually, but they 
have now greatly declin- 
ed. Lead ore and asbes- 
tos have also been found, 
and coal is worked. 

Anglesey was fimnerW 
a principal seat of Druid(- 
cal 8uparstiti<m, and con- 
tained sacred groves, 
which were cut down by 
the Bomans under Sueto- 
nius PauUnus, a. d. 61. 
It wa« subjugated with 
the rest of Wales, by Bd- 
ward I., and made a coun- 
ty by Henry VUI. 



Holyhead is a place of 
etj remote antiquity, 
and appears, fh>m theves- 
tiges of military works 
stul to be seen, to have 
been an important Roman 
station. The prindpal 
tradeof this port condstsin 
the importation of agricul- 
tural produce ftom Ire- 
Iand{ and the town is great- 
ly increased and im proved 

in consequence of its being the most convenient place of embarkation for Dublin. 
Steam-packets leave Holyhead for that dty thrice daily, in connection with the 
express and mail trains which leave London at 9-30 A.M., 5 P.M., and 8-46 
P.M., and which arrive at Holyhead at 5-15 P.M., 12-S5 A.M., and 5-45 a.m. 
The distance to Kingstown is about 60 miles^ and the voyage is peiformed 
ia 4} hours, the packets arriving at Kingstown at 10 P.M., 6-30 A.M., and 11 
▲.M. respectively; the whole distance between London and the Irish metropolis 
being thus accomplished in less than 14 hours. Communication is besides 
constantly kept up by si:d)inarine electric telegraph between the sister king- 
doms. A religious house is said to have been erected at Holyhead in the 
latter part of the uxth century ; but the house for canons regtdar, called the 
College, appears to have been founded about 1137. The church, which is a 
handsome building, was erected about the time of Edward III. Holyhead con- 
tains also an assembly room, baths, a light-bouse, an extensive harbour, and a 
pier. The promontory of the head is an immense precipice, hollowed by the 
ocean into magnificent caverns, afibrding shelter to falcons and sea^fowls. In 
the neighbourhood a harbour of refuge on a great scale, is in the course of forma- 
tion. Pop. 1851, 5622. 

* See acoonnt of it, p. SSO. 



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f50 CONWAT. 

Conway, or AT)er-ConwB7, was fonnerly sorrounded by high and maashr* 
walk, stawngthened by twenty-four towers, which, with four gateways, still re- 
main in tolerable preservation. The principal object is the remains of th« 
magnificent castle erected by Edward X. It is seated on a rock, washed on two 
aides by the Conway, and is of an oblong form, flanked by eight embattled 
towers. During the civil wars it wbs garrisoned for the Eling, but was taken 
by the Parliamentary army. It remained entire, however, tiU H was granted 
by Charles IL to the Earl of Conway, v^o dismantled it for the sake of the 
timber, iron, lead, ^c It is now the property of the Harquk of Hertford, to 
whom it gives the title of Baron Conway. Over the river is a fine suspen^on 
bridge^ erected from designs by Telford. The church contains several mona^ 
ments of the Wynne family. In Castle Street is a very old structure, called the 
College, inhabited at present by a few poor families. Near the market-place is a 
very laige antique building, erected in 1565» by Robert Wynne, Esq. of Gwydyr, 
It is now the property of Lord Mostyn. Aberconway unites with Caernarvon. 
Bangor, Nevin, Pwllheli, and Criocieth, in returning one M.P. Pop. of bor. 
1851, 2105. 



The rsOimy between Chester and Holyhead is rendered pre-emlaently remarkable by thoae 
stupendous and wonderftil triumphs of modem engineering, the Conway and Britannia tubi^ 
lar bridges, by which the line is respectively oarried aoron the estuary ftmned by the mouth 
of the river Conway, and across the Menai Strait These hollow rectangular tubes, sustained in 
their position by no other power than that which they derive from the strength of their ma- 
terials, and the manner in which these are combined, consist of plates of wrought iron firom 
I to i of an inch, in thickness, firmly riveeted together, so as to form a single and continuous 
structure,— one tube (or connected series of tubes) serving for the passage of the up, and the 
other of the down, trains. To attempt any deseription of these great works would be out of 
plaee here; but the folk>wing particulais with reference to the larger structure, that which 
crosses tbe Menai Strdt, will not be iminteresting. In this, the Britannia Bridge, the total 
length of eadi line of tube (regarded as a whole) is 1513 fieet, which is made up by the unkm of 
four separate lefigths of tube— two of longer, and two of shorter, dimensions. Tbe two mam 
loigths of tube, each measuring 47S feet, pass from the towers constructed respectively at high 
water mark oa the Caernarvon and Anglesey shores, to the Britannia tower,— a structure of 
solid masonry, raised in the middle of the strait to the height of 210 feet, and based on a Uttle 
rock formerly covered at high water. The shorter portions of tube connect the hmd-towen 
on either side with the abutments which terminate the embankments upon which the line of 
railway is carried, and by which the shores of the strait are approached. The total weight of 
each tube (regarded as a whole, in its entire length,) is nearly 5000 tons, and the whole struc- 
ture is elevated to a height of 100 feet above the levd of the water, so as to admit of the un> 
hnpeded passage of large vessels beneath it In the construction of the tubes and towen as 
many as 1500 workmen were employed. The tubes were fanned on the ground, upon th« 
Caernarvon shore, and afterwards floated by means of pontoons, and subsequently raised to the 
required elevation by the use of powerful hydraulic presses. The Conway bridge, the con- 
struction of which preceded that of the larger structure, but which is rimiUurin principle, coo* 
sists of only one span of 400 feet, Arom shore to shore, and two abutments of masonry. Its 
height above the levd of the water is only 18 feet The tubes of which it is composed (eadk 
weighing 1300 tons) were biiilt on the adjacent shore, and thence floated and raised in the same 
manner as described in reference to the Britannia Bridge. 



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_ - ■ LONDOK TO LAKCASTEK AND CABUSLE, BY BAILIE AY, 800| MOes. 261 



m 



VGUT ZSOM LOND. 



*10>1^ Manchester, 16i m. 




I 



168 



112J 



111* 



^ HnmueyHiaij Bt. Hon 
Vx'M^emberton Iieigh, 



From London, by 

N. Western Railway 

(Trent valley line), to 

STAnX)BD (p. 242). 
Thence, by Warring- 
ton, to 
Newton Bridge St. on 
Liverpool and Man- 
chester line (p. 238). 
Thence, bv North 
Union Railway, to 
Golbome St. 



rA\ 



.^dish, JMq. 
rGil]ibrand Hall. 
>A8tley HaU, 
X Boston, Bart. 



Sir H 



, Caerdon Hall, B. 
dey Parker, Esq. 



Barton Lodge. 



106} 



102 
99f 



96i 

92} 
90} 
86} 



Claughton Hall, T. F. 
holes, Esq. I 



ON XKTT VmOM LOND. 



WIGAN St. 
(see p. 258). 



Standish St 
Coppnll St 



EUXTON. 

Le^land St 

Farrington Gate. 

PRESa'ON(8eep.254). 

Broughton St 

Brock St 



182} 
188} 

189 
195} 



Junction of lines finom 
Birmineham, 29} m., and 
ShrewBonry, 29 miles. 

To Liverpool, lifiA. 



196} 
3002 



Golbome Hall and 
Haydock Hall, T. Legh, 
Esq. 

New Hall, Sir J. Ger- 
ard, Bart. 



Winstanley Hall, M. 
Bankes, Esq. 

Standish Hall, C. 
Standish, Esq. 

7 m. dutant is Lathom 
House (Lord Skelmers- 
dale), occupjring the site 
of the ancient lionse, 
which, under the com- 
mand of the heroic Coun- 
tess of Derby, success- 
ftiUy resisted the Farlia- 
mentary forces during a 
siege 01 8 months. 



204} 



206} 



Euxton Hall, W. J. 
Anderton, Esq. 

Shaw Hall, containing 
. museum of natursil 
history, and some curi- 
ous frescoes brought 
from Herculaneum. 



210} 
216 

2171 



Fenwortham Priory, 
L. Bawstoue, Esq. 

Branch to Fleetwood, 
20 miles. 

Trenchwood. 

AshtonLodge,J.Fed- 
der, Esq. 

Newsham Hall. 

Myerscough Hall. 

Myerscoa^ House. 

Kirkland HaU. 



• See Introdnction to Scott's « Betrothed," pp. 8-10. 



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252 



IX)inX)N TO I.ANC4STER A^^) CAB,USLE^Oontmued. 



OK miQHT PKOM LOND. 



Qnemmoor, 2 miles. 



To Hornby, 9 mfles. 

To Ingletoii,m miles. 

Si miles distant, 
Qaernmore Paik, and 
Halton. 



Bamacre. 
Lower Wjersdale. 



If 

801 



BorwlckHaU. 



68} 
65i 



Benson Knott, 1098 
feet above the level of 
tbesea. 



50 



41J 



Grarstang, 
seated on the left bank of 
the Wyer, which aboonds 
with tront, g:adgeon, &c. 
The church of the parish 
once belonged to the Abbey 
of Cockersand. In the 
vicinity are several cottcm 
factories, and the ruins of 
Greenhalgh Castle, which 
the Earl of Derby garri- 
soned for Charles I. in 
1643. Itwassubeequentiy 
dismantled by the Farlia- 
ment Pop. of parish 
7659. 

ScortonSt 

^^ cr. river Wycr. 

Bay Horse St 

GalgateSt 

LANCASTEB^ (See p.254.) 

Thence, by Lancaster 

and Carlisle Railway, 

J^ cr. river Lune, by 
viaduct of 9 arches— 3 
of wood and 6 of stone. 

Hest Bank St 

Bolton-le-Sands St 

Camforth St 



219| 



Burton and Holma St 

Milnthorpe St 

■^^ cr. Lancaster and 

Kendal CanaL 



Kendal Junction. 

^^ cr. river. Mint by 

viaduct of 6 arches^ 

each 50 feet span. 

Low Gill St 



ON LBXT nU)X LOND. 



326} 
226} 
231} 



234} 
235} 
237 

242} 
245 



260} 



259 



Forton Lodge. 
Cockerham Hall. 
Ellel-Grange. 
Thumham Hall. 
EUel-HaU. 
Ashton Hall, Duke of 
Hamilton and Brandon. 
Stodday Lodge. 



Tealand Tillage and 
Leighton HaU. 



Beetham^^Uage. 

Levens HaU, a man- 
sion rich in oak carvings. 
The gardens also are 
much admired. 

Sizergh Hall, (W. 
Strickland, Esq.), the 
ancient seat of the 
Stricklands. One apart- 
ment in it called the 
"Queen's Room,'' is said 
to have been occupied 
by Catharine Parr. 

Here the Kendal and 
Windermere Railway 
branches off; Kendal is 
2 miles distant, Winder- 
mere, 10}. 



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LONDON TO LANCASTEB AND CARLISLE-CimWmied. 



253 



OH RIGHT FROM LONOw 



9 miles distant, the vil- 
Ke and township of Bear 



Bronghain Hall, Lord 
Brougham, surrounded by 
fine woods; and Brougham 
Cattle^ supposed to occu- 
py the site of « Boman 



^f milei from Penrith, 
Ildenhall, Sir G. Mnji- 

IgnrebBart. 
6 miles north-east of 
Penrith stands a Druidical 
drde S60 yards in circnm- 
ference, formed of 67 
stones, some of them 10 
feet high, known by the 
name m Long Meg and 
berdanehters. LongMeg 
—an unhewn block of red 
freestone, 15 feet in dr- 
ciunference and 18 in 
height— stands a little 
apart from the circle. 

KewbigRen Hall, H. A. 
Agli(mby,£Bq. 

Aailwav to Newcastle, 
, Kid 4 nniee distant Corby 
Castle, P. H, Howari 



I! 



37 



Tebay and Orton St 
Alternate embank-i 
ments, and cuttinn in 
solid granite over Shap 
Fells. The depth of 
cutting ranges between 
00 and eo feet, and width 
at base 30 feet. 

Shap St 



263i 



ON LEFT FROM IK>N]I. 



270t 



278i 



22 Clifton Moor St 
Clifton Moor was the 
scene of a skirmish be- 
tween the Eoyal troops 
under WilliMm, Duke of 
Cumberland, and those 
of the Pretender, in 1746, 

1^4 l^cp. river Eamont|28(^ 

by viaduct of 6 arches 

50 feet in span, and 

70 in height 

17i Penrith St 

Penrith, an ancient 
market town. Its church 
has been rebuilt, but the 
walls of the old castle re- 
main. The town had a 
population in 1861 of 



Plumpton St 

Southwaite St 

BriscoSt 

CABLISLE. 



Shap Wens, a salfaie 
spa, a few hundred yards 
trmn the line after emerg 
ing Arom the cutting. 

One mile distant are the 
remains of Shap Abbey, 
which at the time of the 
dissolution belo^[ed to 
the ancestors of Hogarth 
the painter. 

Lowther Castle, the seat 
of the Barl of Lonsdale, a 
splendid modem struc- 
ture, standing in a park of 



287i 
293i 

297i 
300^ 



I 4 miles north-west of 
Penrith, Oreystoke Castle, 
H. Howard, Esq. 



Button Hal], Sir H. E. 
P. Vane, B»rt. 
Wreay Village. 

Upperby Vlllageandch. 

Railway to Maryport 



WiOAN is an ancient town, situated near the little river Douglas, on the banks 
of which the Saxons were defeated by King Arthur, It is noted for its manu- 
iactore of cotton, goods, and its large brass and pewter works. The vicinity also 
abounds with cannel coal. Wigan has two churches, of which All-Saints is old, 
and contains tombs of the Bradshaigh family, ancestors of the Earl of Crawford 



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2^4 niSI01f.-LANCASTEB. 

•nd Bslearres. It hts abo s town-haH, several dissentitig chapels and meeting 
houses, free blue coat and national schools, and various literary and charitable 
institutions. There is a monumental pillar here in honour of Sir T. Tyldeslej, 
"who was killed at the battle ofWigan Lane, in 1651, when the Royalists under 
the Earl of Derby were routed by Colonel lilbume. Wigan was visited by the 
Pretender in 1745. In the vicinity is a sulphurous spring, with a neat buildii^ 
for the accommodation of visitors. Two M.P. Pop. 1851, 31,941.* 

Pbbston is a town of great antiquity, on the north bank of the Bibble. There 
were formerly two monastic institutions in Preston, one called the Hospital of St 
Mary Magdalene, the other a monasteiy of Greyfriara The last was occupied as 
a prison until about fifty years ago, and traces of it yet remain, Dunag the civil 
wars Preston was first occupied by the Royal party, but was quickly taken by 
the Parliamentary forces, and the mayor killed in the assault It was afterwards 
retaken by the Earl of Derby, who demolished the defences. At Ribbleton 
Moor, near Preston^ the Duke of Hamilton was defeated, in 1648, by Cromwell ; 
and, in 1715, the frienda of the Pretender were routed by Grenerals Willes and 
Carpenter at the same spot. Preston contains five churches and one chapel, 
betonging to the Established Church, and numerous cbapeis belonging to dis- 
senting bodies. It has also a guild-hall, a town-hall, a com exchange, a clotb 
and a market-hall, assembly rooms, a theatre, &c. What are called the *' Guilds*' 
of Preston are held every twenty yearo^ when the trades meet with banners and 
music, form a procession, and hold a jubilee at considerable cost to the town. 
Preston is well provided with schools of all descriptions.^ About 10,000^ Sunday 
scholars are gratuitously educated. Preston is a port — Tassels of 150 tons ascend- 
ing nearly ta the town, and the customs duties amounted in 1850 to L.76,295 : 8 : 6. 
Sir Richard Arkwright was bom at Preston in 1782 ; and here, in 1768^ he com- 
menced, in connection with a mechanic named John Kay, some of his improve- 
ments iu the co\ton-spinning mechanism. The chief manufacture is cotton, but 
there is also a good deal of flax-spinning executed here. Two M.P. Pop. ef 
borough, 1851, 69,542. 

The N. Westem Railway connects Preston with all parts of the empire, and a 
line 20 miles in lengtfli, cmmects it with the mouth of the Wyre, where is situated 
the new watering-place of Fleetwood, with, an excellent hotel, erected by Sir P 
H. Fleetwood, Bart. As a bathing-place it possesses very superior attmctioiiB. 
Pop. 1851, 3048. From Preston a canal leads to Kendal^ through Lancaster. 

Lancaster is situated on the Lune, at some distance firom. its entrance into 
the sea. The principal object is the castle, a strong fortress, erected in the reig^ 
of Edward III. by John of Gaunt. It stands upon the summit of a hill, and 
forms a very striking feature in the general view of the town. It is now converted 
into the county gaoL- The county courts now attached to thia venerable buOdIng 

* 8ome interesting traditionB regarding Wigan are recorded by Mr Roby in his '' Tradition* 
of Ifaocaiiure.'* A smaU vohime on similar snbjecti by a young author of great promise has 
alio beea recently pnbliihed at Wigan. Seealso Introdnctkm to Scott's "Betrothei," pp.8-10. 



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03 



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CARLISLE. 256 

are chiefly of a modem date, and are extremdj coinmodloi]& On the north of 
tiie castle stands St ICarjs, the old church, which is later English, and contains 
carved stalls, screen, and monuments. A town-hall, lunatic asylum, theatre, 
assembly rooms, sereral alms-houses and an excellent grammar-school are among 
the other public buildings of the town. Lancaster has a considerable trade, the 
river bemg navigable (though with dilficulty) for vessels of between 200 and 300 
tons. Cotton and hardware manufactures constitute the principal exports. A 
large trade in coal and limestone is carried on by means of the canal, which is 
carried over the Lune by an aqueduct erected in 1797, at an expense of L.48,000. 
Lancaster afibrds the title of Duke to the Prince of Wales. Two M.P. Pop. 
1851, 16,168. 

Cabusle is an andent city, pleasantly situate ob an eminence nearly en- 
dosed by three streams, the Eden, the CaJdew, and the Peteril. It is supposed to 
be of British origin, and there is reason to conclude that it was a Roman station. 
It appears to have been first fortified about the time of Agricola ; the erection of 
its castle is attributed to William Rufos. Carlisle was taken by David, King of 
Scots, and afterwards besieged unsuccessfully by Robert Bruce in 1312. It suf- 
Isred severely during the civil wars, having declared for Charles L In 1745, it 
surrendered to Prince Charles Stuart, and on being retaken by the Dnke of Cum- 
berland, was the scene of many cruel severities upon the conquered. After the 
junction of the kingdoms it sank into decay, but has made great progress since 
the commencement of the present century. The principal business of the town 
consists in its manufactures of cotton goods and ginghams, and in a coasting 
tQule. There is a canal from Carlisle to the Solway, and some traffic arises also 
irom its lying on the North Western line of Railway from London to Edmbuigh, 
Glasgow, &c Before the Reformation, there were several ecclesiastical establish- 
ments in the city. It was erected into a see by Henry I. in 1133. Dr Paley was 
Areh-Deacott of Carfisle, and b buried in the cathedral, whoe a mennment has 
been recently erected to his memory. The cathedral is an ancient building of red 
freestone, some parts of which are assigned to the Saxon times. It has however 
soffsred much from neglect and the lapse of time, and contains a few raonuraeDta- 
of interest. There are numerous other churches in Carlisle, several meeting- 
bouses, a Roman Catholic chapel, a Mechanics* Institute, a theatre, a grammar- 
school founded by Henry Y III. and forty-seven other schools of various kinds. 
The court-houses were built at an expense of L.100,000. A considerable portion 
of the old castle still remains, comprising the keep, a lofty and massive tower, in 
which is a veiy deep welL The whole has been restored and is a striking feature 
of the town. Towards the north were the apartments hi which ICary Queen of 
Scots was confined on her fiight to England, after the battle of Lahgside. Car- 
lisle gives the title of Earl to a branch of the Howard family. Two M.P. Pop. 
1351, 26,810. 



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256 CL CAMJ8LB TO GLASGOW a06 Mfles) AND EDINBUK6H aoi Miles) 
BY CALEDONIAN RAILWAY. 



ox UGHT FBOX CAU.. 



Railway to Newcastle. 



101 



96| 



85 
79 

47 

38i 

31i 



101 From Carlisle. 

JS^ cr. river Eden to 
97 Rockcliffe St 

^f^ cr. river Est 
92| Gretna Junction. 
-^^ cr. small river 
Sark, and enter 
Scotland. ^ 

The line is continued 
through the valleys of the 
Annan and Clyde, by 
81 Ecclefechan. 

76 Lockerbie. 

6U Beattock, 

43 Abington, 

and 
34^ Symington, 

to 

27^ Carstairs Junction, 
where it divides, the left 
hand branch passing 
through Clydesdale to 

GLASGOW, 
and the rieht hand branch, 
by Midcalder, to 

EDINBURGH, 



8* 



58 
73J 

105 

101 



OHI.nTIEOXCABL. 



Railway to Mary- 
port and Whitehaven. 

Mouth of river 
Eden, and Solway 
Firth. 



Hoddam, Admiral 
Sharpe. 



Carstairs House, 
H. Monteith, Esq. 



.J 



^\ 



X. 



en. CARLISLE TO DUMFRIES, BY RAILWAY, 82^ Mfles. 





fl'S 




H^l 1 


ON EIGHT raOM CABL. 


II 


From Carlisle, by 

Caledonian Railway, 

to 

Gretna Junction. 

Thence, along north 
side of Solway Firth, 

Annan, 

to 

DUMFRIES. 


0-2 


ON LETT PBOK CABL. 








In the distance, Ne- 
therby, Right Hon. Sir 
J as. Graham, Bart. 


24 


8i 






15 


17} 


Kelhead. 






32} 





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^beri 



hm 



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era. IX>inX)N TO MIOCLESFIELD, BY KOBTH OTAFPOEDSHIEE 
BAILWAY, 166} MUei. 



257 



uanowby. 



imwic]i,2i miles. 

Hildentone, 3 miles, 
and Hilderatone Hall. 

Near Stone is Stone 
HaU, Earl Granville. 



Barlaston Hall, fL 
Adderler, Ei 



LongtonHalL 
FentonHalL 



Branch by Lane End 
to Uttozeter, and thence 
to Birmingham and 
DerliT Bulway, which 
it joUkB at Bnrtcm and 
Wulington« 

EtniriaHalL 

ToBstaU. 
dough Han. 



31J 



27 



24* 



20 



m 

171 



18} 



Sandon St 



Stone Junction St 

Stone is a small market 
town, 6 miles north of 
Stafford, on the buoks of 
the Trent, and near the 
Grand Trunk Canal. A 
considerable mannfactore 
of shoes is carried on here. 
Pop. 1851, 8448. 

Continae along Grand 

Trunk Canal to 

Barlaston St 

Trentham St 

Enter the district of 

** the Potteries " (see p. 

221.) 

Stoke St (see p. 221.) 



j^^ or. Grand Tmnk 
CanaL 

EtruriaSt 

Biurslem St 



Harecastle Junction St 



134 
188^ 



141 

142i 



145^^ 



1462 
1471 



1512 



Stafford, by road, 5 m, 

Branch to main line 

of North Western Bail 

way, which it joins at 

Norton Bridge. 



Darlaston Hall, S. S. 
JenriSyEsq. 

Meaford Hall, \Ib- 
coont St Vincent. 

2 miles distant, Swin- 
nerton Park, T. Iltz- 
herbert, Esq. 



Trentham Park, Dnke 
of Sutherland. 



Stoke Lodge. 



NeweasUe-under- 
Lyne, 2 miles; beyond, 
KeeloHaU. 



Wolstanton. 



Chesterton, supposed 
to be the site of a Roman 
station, perhaps the Me- 
diokmnm of the seTcnth 
Itinerary. 

Talk-<m.the miL 

Branch railway to 
Crewe Similes. 

Chunm Lawton,.and 
LawtonHaU. 



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258 



LONDON TO WLCCLESFIELD^Continued. 



on BIGHT rmoM loud. 


a 


r 

l^cr. Macclesfield 


ii 


ONLBRllOirLOlin. 










Canal, and enter 




Bode Hall. KWUbra- 






Ghesl^re. 




ham, Esq. 
MacclesfieM Cnnnl 


Hill, on tSe borders of 


Ui 


Mow Cop St 


154i 




Cheshire and SUaffofd- 








Bamidill Hall. 


shire, 1091 fert high. 








Astbniy. 


CongktonSdge. 
Bodey. 


8i 


Gongleton St. 
JS%) cr. Macclesfield 


167J 


p. 2l5), and bCTond, 
Somerford Park, Sir C. 




Canal 




P.Shakerley.Bart 


Chumet YalleT liiie 


4} 


North Bode St 


160J 


BoglawtcmHall. 
North Bode HalL 


to Leek and Uttozeter 








Gawsworth, Bad of 


branches off here. 








Harrington. 


SutUMi St JaBMt. 








From Macclesfield a 
branch railway extends 
to CSieadle Station oa 






MACCLSffllBLD 


16H 






(•eep.227). 




the Manchester and 
Birmingham branch, of 
the London and North 
jWestem line. 



CIV. MANCHESTEB TO BOLTON AND PRESTON, BY RAILWAY, 81 Miles. 


OM BIGHT nOM MAN. 


|| 






OH LBR nOU KAN. 






From Salford Station, 




Traflbrd Park, SirH. 
DeTraili>id,Bttl 


Salford(8eep.280). 




Oldfield Road St, and 




BiverLrwell; and be- 


29i 


Pendleton St 


11 




Tond.KersalIHill,IrweU 








Pendlebury. 


tlonse, and Heaton Park, 










IJIari of Wilton. 










Branch to Bury and 


26i 


Clifton JuLction. 


^ 


difkon BalL and be- 
vond, Woratey BaU, Sail 


Haslingden. 




Dixon Fold. 




Clitton Hon e, and be- 








of Ellesmere. 


yond. Stand Hall. 


24 


Stone Clongh St 
HalshawMoor. 


7. 


Kearsley Moor. 


Kearsley HalL 
Barley HaU. 






Famworth and Kears- 


22i 


Moms Gate St 


^ 


ley. 


Darcy Lefer, 1 nu, anrl 
Bradshawa Hall, T. 


















Braddiawe Isherwood, 








Great Lever. 


President Bradshawe^ 


20} 


BOLTON (see p. 269). 


lOi 


Bolton Moor. 
Deane. 


temp. Chas. L 

SmithillsHall,P.Ains. 
worth, Esq., 2 m. 

HalliweU Lodge; be- 








Hulton Park, W.Hal- 
ton, Esq., 8m. 


yond, Moss Bank. 










LostockPark. 








AipaU. 



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ICAl^GHESTER TO BOI^IOlf AMD PBSSTON— OmtimMi. 



2t9 



OR UOBT VaOM MAMC. 


^1 


Lostock Lane St 


141 


OM LKR raOM MAlfC. 




16i 




Horwich. 




Red Moss. 




Haigh Hall, Earl of 


Anderton HaU; be- 


14J 


Horwich and Black- 
rod St 


m 


Cravf^urd and Balcarrei, 
2imilef. (See p. 261.) 
Adlington HiOl, R. C. 


fODd, Bivington Piker 
iadBm0gU»HaU,l|m. 




1^ cr. river Douglas. 




B. Clayton, Esq., IJm. 




m 


Adlington St 
H^ cr. Leeds and 


l^ 


EUerbeck Han. 
Dttxbury Park, W. S. 
Standish, Esq. 
Gilb-brandHall. 






Liverpool CanaL 




M m. from Chorley, on 


9 


CHOB£EY,seep.a0O. 


22 




thenMdtoBUcUranM, 










ii Boston Toirer, for- 




















and, for aeveral genera- 










tiimi, the ndncipal seat 
of Sir H. BTHoghton's 








Asttey HaU, Sir B. 
Bold Hoghton, Bart. 


Cm%, bul now iB a 




















adnence on nftteh It 




















teasreTiewaf the rar- 










"^^r"^- 


6 


EuxtonSt 

where the line joins 

the North Union 

Railway to 


25 


EnztoaHaU. 


Coeidon HaU» K T. 




PB£ST0N^eftp.3M.) 


31 




Parker, Esq. 









Bolton, or Bolton-le-Moors, is said to be of Saxon origin. The principal 
trade is the cotton mannfEustore and its subsidiaiy branches, as bleaching, calico- 
printing, machine-making; &c. There are above thirty coal-mines in the parish. 
Blackrod contains a sulphur spring. The country, for six miles round Bolton, 
has undergone very considerable improivement within the last few years; villages 
bave sprung up where there was not a dwelling, and hamlets have become the 
aeat of a dense population. Within six years, five new churches have been 
erected in the neighbourhood of Bolton, and besides these two or three others are 
projected. BoKon has a town-hall, a theatre, and assembly-roonM, numerous 
ehnrcfaM and meeting-houses, a firee grammar-school, &c. Between Bolton and 
Wlgan are found large quantities of cannel-coa], whidi is often mttnufactured 
kito snuff-boxes, candlesticks, &c. Bolton suffered severely in the dvil wars, 
cspeeialfy during the great siege, when Prince Rupert and the Earl of Derby 
itenaed the town, and dislodged the Republican troops. In consequence of this 
iddevemenf^ the latter was beheaded in Bolton after the battle of Worcester. 
Bolton retnnu two M.P. Pop. in 1861, 61,171. The Manchester, Bolton, and 



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260 



BOLTON-GHORLET. 



Bury Canal was begnn in 1791, and completed soon aflter. About one and s 
half mile N.E. of Bolton, President John Bradshawe, one of the regicides, had a 
seat at Bradshawe ChapeL At a place called Hall-in-the- Wood, one mile firom 
Bolton, Samnel Crompton invented the machine called the '^Mnle.^ A railway 
leads from Bolton to Leigh, and thence to the Liverpool and Manchester Ball- 
way, joining it at Kenyon. Leigh is seven miles firom Bolton. It enjoys a con- 
siderable share of the cotton, and a portion of the silk trade. In the chm^eh 
there is a private chapel of the Tjrldesley £unily, which contains the remains of 
Sir Thomas Tyldesley, the distingnished royalist, who fell at the battle of Wigan- 
lane. Pop. in 1851, 5206. 

The first mile of the railway between Bolton and Preston, from its junction 
with the Manchester and Bolton Railway, is considered a fine specimen <^ engi- 
neering skill. It runs through the south-west side of the town in a curve, and 
crosses nine streets under as many bridges. The construction of the roo& of the 
bridges is much admired. They consist of cast-iron beams and present a flat 
surface to the eye of the spectator underneath. 

Chorlet is situated on the banks of the Chor, whence it takes its name. A 
family of the same name held the manor of Chorley from a very early period. 
The staple manufactures are cotton fabrics, muslins, jaconets, and fimcy articles. 
There are five coal-mines in the neighbourhood, and a lead-mine at Anglezarke. 
The old church is an ancient building. There is a grammar-school, and several 
churches, meeting-houses, and charitable institutions. Pop. 1851, 8907. 



CV. LIVERPOOL TO PKESTON, THBOUGH ORMSKIEK, BY RAILWAY. 26} Miles. 



ON BIGHT F&OX LIVES. 


M 




il 


Oir LEFT 7R0M LIVajL 






From terminus in 










Great Howard Street^ 






Everton. 




Liverpool, to 






Kirkdale. 




Bootle Lane St 
i^ cr. Leeds and 




River Mersey. 
Branch line to Soath- 


Walton. 




Liverpool Canal. 




port, 16 milei> a miall 


Walton Hall, and be- 
yoncL Crozteth Park, 
Earl of Sefton. 








watering place situated 
on the sonth side of the 
entrance to the estuaiy 


Knowslev, Earl of 
Derby. 

Branch line to Wigan 
and Bolton. 








of the mbble, which ba« 
been of late years mncAi 


25 


Walton Junction St 


IJ 


resorted to dnrine the 
snmmer. Broad ana lerel 








sands extend along the 










whole coast between this 










place and Liverpool. 






I 
j 


Bootle. 






■^ cr. Leeds and 




Orrell. 
Stand Park. 






Liverpool Canal. 







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LIVERPOOL TO PKESTON— ConHmie^l. 



261 





2U 


AintreeSt 


4i 


ON LBTT VaOX LIYBS. 










i^ cr. river Alt, and 
Leeda and Liverpool 




Netherton. 

Crosby Hall, W.Blun- 

^fece^iundeUHall,T. 






CanaL 




Moor Hall. 


20 


Maghnll St 
Town Green St. 


ej 


Weld Blundell, Esa. 
LydiateandAughton. 


TDWigan, 11 miles. 


15* 


ORMSKIRK, 
^ market town, 12 miles 
north of Liyerpool, has 


11 


ToSonthportSim. 
Scarisbrick Hall, C. 
Scarisbrick, Esq., 8 m. 


Itihou Hoviie, Lord 
Skdmendale, li mile 
(we p. 261). 




two large annual cattle- 

the burial placcof the Earls 
of Derby. Pop.1861, 6648. 








18 


Bnrscongh St 
j^ cr. Leeds and 
Liverpool Canal 


ISi 




8t.Jolm»«. 












J^ cr. Douglas 










Navigation. 








9i 


Rufford St 
^e cr. river Douglas. 


17 


Rufford Hall, Sir T.G. 
Hesketh, Bait 


Choriey, 7 miles. 
£cdeston,8mik8. 


n 


GrostonSt 

Farrington Moss. 
Chamock Moss. 


19 


Bank Hall. 
Bretherton. 


Leyland. 
Farrington. 




6 milea beyond Cros- 

ton, join North Union 

Railway and proceed 

by it to 

PRESTON (p. 264). 




Longton. 

Hutton Hall, 2 miles. 
Howick Hall, 2 miles. 
Penwortham Lodge. 






26J 


Penwortham Hall, L 
Rawstone, Esq. 



CVL CARLISLE TO WHITEHAVEN, BY RAILWAY, 40 Miles. 



ON aioHT nox cakl. 


ii 

36J 
33} 


From Carlisle. 
jKI cr. river Caldew. 

Dalston St 
#^cr. river WampooL 

CurthwaiteSt 
Along valley of river 

Warapool. 
Cross coach road from 
Carlisle to White- 
haven. 


4J 
7} 


ON LKFT raOM CABL. 


Dalston, fmfle. 
Rose Castle, Bishop of 
Carlisle, 1 mile. 


Tborsby.lmile. 

Croflon Han. Sir W. 
Brisoo,Bart 

Micklethwaite. 



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CARLISLE TO WmTSHAVEN-CiMamaM^. 



ON EIGHT nOM CABL. 



Waverton. 



Bromfield, 1| mile. 
Langrigg. 



Aspatria. 



AJlimby, 2 mfles dis- 
tant, situated on the 
coast, is mnch resorted to 
for bathing during the 
summer season. It com- 
mands an extensive view 
of the Solway Rrth, with 
the opposite shores of 
Scotland. Fop. 811. 

Crosi Canonby. 

Netherhall, J. P. Sen- 
house, Esq. 

Biyer Ellen. 

Shortly after leaving 
Maryport, the railway 
approaches the sea, an^ 
coatinaea4)lose aloag the 
shore, with the sea on the 
right, nearly the whole 
way to Whitehaven. 

Workington, situated 
on the south bank of the 
Derwent, near its mouth, 
has a good harbour, and 
carries on a considerable 
trade in coals and iron, 
the produce of the mines 
in Its neighbourhood. 
There is also anextensive 
salmon fishery. Pop. 
1851,5887. On the east 
side of the town is Work- 
ington Hall, H. Curwen, 
Esq., beautifuUysituated 
on an elevation near the 



ill 



m 

14J 
12 

10 



WIGTON St 
Wigton is a imall mar. 
ket town, in which some 
mauTifectare df cotton is 
carried on. About a mile 
distant, at Old Carlisle, are 
the remains of a Roman 
station. Pop. 1851, 4244. 

Cross coadi road, 
LeegateSt 

Bra3rton St 

AspatriaSt 
Alon^ valW of the 
nver Ellen, 
whidi the line crosses se- 
veral times. 

Arkleby St 

Cross road from AUon- 

by to Cockermouth. 

BulgiUSt 




^ 



U 



Dearham St 
J^ cr. liver Ellen. 

MARYPORT, 
a imaU seaport town, at 
the mouth of the river 
Ellen. It carries on con- 
siderable trade in the ex- 
port of ooala to IrelaBd, 
and has increased in size 
of bite years. Pop. 1861, 
5698. 

Flimby St 



WORKINGTON St. 

J^ cr. river Derwent 

near its mouth. 

Near Workington the 

line recedes inhind, but 

again approaches the shore 

1 mile before readimg 

Harrington St 

1^ cr. Lowca Beck. 

Parton St 



16i 

ISi 
20i 



211 



Basket Newmarket 10 
miles distant, a small but 
neatly bniltmarket town, 
on the banks oi tiie river 
Caldew. Pop. ofpuiah, 
2018. 



BraytonHall. 
AIUmUows, 3 miles. 



26i 



28 



80 
33 

38} 



Plumbland. 
^crux. 



To Cockermouth, 7 m. 
(see p. saO). 

TaUeutire Hail, W. 
Browne, Esq., 8| m. 



River Ellen. 



Bearhara, 1 mile. 

Ellenborough, a Ro- 
man station, gives title 
of Earl to the Law 
family. 

Cockermouth, 6 miles. 



Flimby is a small place, 
mudi frequented for 
bathing durmg the sum- 
mer season. 

RaQway to Cocker- 
mouth, 8( miles, mnnins 
throughout aloi^ thevaf 
lev of the river 
which it croaaei levi 
times. 

Distingtob, 2 miles 
near it Lilly Hall and 
Hays Castle. 

Moresbv, near whi^ is 
the lite of a Roman ata- 



'ent 
'era! 



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O 

< 



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CA&USIJe TO WHITEHAT£N-'Ctoii««NfMl. 







Along the fixyt of the 
cU&of new red sand- 
stone which here line 

the coast, to 
WHITEHAVEN <p. 289). 


88i 
40 


OK MIX nOil CAHL. 


banki of the Donnsnt. 

stractnre, of considerable 
Hiitiqaity. Mary Queen 

oa landine in Enxland, 
after the battle ofLang- 
side; and the apartment 
which she occupied is 

Queen's Chamber. 


tion, probably the iiriWn 
oftheNotitia. 

Whitehaven Castle, 
Earl of Lonsdale. 



CVIL LONDON TO WHITEHAVEN, BY PEESTON, FLEETWOOD, AND 
KAVENtiLASS, 293i MUes. 



ON BIOHT rmOK LOND. 



Leave railway to Lan- 
caster and Curlisle. 
Lsneaster Canal. 
Cottam. 
Salwick. 
Trealet. 



Greenhalgh. 



Sinfdeton, and near it, 
Bankfield. 

Ponltonis called Poul- 
ton-le-Eylde, to distin- 
guish it from another 
place of the same name, 
known as Poulton-le- 
Saad, also in Lancashire 
and sitnirted ftirther to 
the n(»rth, on the shore 
of Morecunbe Bay. 

Thornton. 

Mouth of river Wyre. 



ii 



83} 



80} 
77J 
76} 



G8J 



63 




From London, by 
North Western Kail- 
way, to 
PB£STON<p.261). 

Thence, by Preston 

and Vl^yre Railway, 

to 

Lea Road St 

Salwick St 

Krkham, 
a market town, 19 miles 
south by west of Lancaster, 
is a smidl but improving 
ilace. It has some manu- 
facture of cotton ; sail cloth 
iind cordage are also made, 
H8 well as coarse linens. 
Pop. 1851, 2777. 



POULTON, 
a small market town, two 
miles distant from tiie west 
bank of the Wyre. 



Across west side of 

estoaiy of Wyre to 

FLEETWOOD 

(see p. 254). 



2l0i 



2181 
216 
218 



225 



230i 



River Ribble ; and, on 



opposite bank, Fenwor. 
tham Lodge, i ' "^ 
worthamHall. 



Lodge, and Pen- 



Ashton, and Talketh 
HaU. 
Clifton. 
Newton. 
BibbyHaU. 

Branch to Lytham, 4 
miles, a small watering 
place, pleasantlv situated 
on the north side of the 
estuary of the Bibble. 
Near it is Lytham HaU, 
T. CUfton, Fisq. 

Great Plumpton. 

Hardhorn. 



Branch to Blackpool, 
3^ miles, which is much 
freouonted as a summer 
bathing place. It ex 
tends about a mile along 
the shores in front d a 
fine sandy beach. Pop. 
84a Near it is Bakes 
HalL 

Bossall Hall, Sir P. 
Hesketh Fleetwood, Bi. 



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264 LONDON TO WHTTEHAYEN, BY PRESTON, ke-C(mtma4d, 



on BMBT FmOM LOUD. 


n 


Irom Fleetwood, hy 


§1 


OH uwT nox Lom). 














steamer, acrofls Moie- 
cambe Bay, 1^ mOet, 


















to 




Fid Land Castle (in 




m 


PielPler. 


248 


rains), Fonluey L, Boe 
L, and Wafaiey L 


Sampdde. 










I^eoe. 




Thence^ hy railway, to 






ToUlTentone, bynll- 


46 


Fomees Abbey June- 


848^ 


FomesB Abbey in 


way 6i or by road 6 
mUea (aee p. 27Q). 




turn St 

Along east bank of 
rirer Duddon to 




rains, the property of 
the Eari of Biiilli«too, 
(see p. 279.) 
Ettoaiyof the Dod- 

beyond, Black Combe^ 


Swaitbmon, Conto- 
head Prioxv, and fiard- 
8eaHall,Tr.B.G.Brad- 


88| 


Kirkby St 


256 












dyU, Esq. 
Bronghton Tower. 


85 


Bronghton St 

Bronghton is a small 

mai^et-town, sitoated at 

the head of the estnary of 

theDnddon, which divides 


258 










MiUom Castle 


*■ 






Black Combe. 






Lancashiro fi-om Cumber- 










land. Pop. of parish 1250. 








81 


Under Hill St 


2621 






m 


Holbom HiU St 


264 






28 


Silecroft St 


2661 






21 


Bootle St 


272J 




Muncaster Castle, 


18 


EskmealsSt 


276i 




(Lord Muncaster.) 










Lion, and Irton Hall, 
8.Lrton,£sq. 


m 


RAVENGLA8S. 


277} 






14i 


DriggSt 


279i 




Gosforth^Smiles. 


12} 


Seascales St 


281 


The railway heme 


Fonsonby Hall, E. 








runs along the sespshore 


Stanley, Esq. 
Caldu- Abbey. 




.^ cr. river Calder. 




as fiu: as St Bees. 


CalderBridge,2mneB. 


U 


SeUafieldSt 


288 





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NEWCASTLE & CARLISLE 



.PiJUMied "bT A. t CBUck. Edmlrar^. 



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WSnxm TO WHITEHATEN, by FBJBSTON, i^^CoHtinmed. 



265 



ON UOBT raOM LONO. 


i| 




^1 


ON LKFT FBOM LOMD. 






J^ cr. river Ehen. 






Beckermet. 


81 


Braystones St 


285 


St Bees Head, on the 
tnmmit of which is a 


^^nt.2mile.(.ec 


7 


JSothertown St* 


2861 


light^oose, is afine bluff 




4 


St Bees St 


289} 


sandstone, 222 feet in 


Unethwaite. 




(see p. 291.) 




height 


Henfingham. 




Thenee proceed inland, 




Botington. 


Whitehaven Castte, 
EarlofLonadale. 




through a beaatiM vaUey 
to 

WHITEHAVEN. 


298} 


StBeesUghthonse. 
Sandwith. 






(p. 289.) 





Rom London to Whitehaven, by way of Lancaster, Carlisle, and Maiyport 
0*7 nulway), is 3371 miles. 



CVm CARLISLE TO NEWCASTLE, BY RAILWAY, 69} Mfles. 




Wetheral. Here are 
flie rains of a priory, and 
a rerj curious cavern. 

Corby Castle, (P. H. 
Howard, Esq.) a very fine 
aansion with beautiAil 
sronnds, which are open 
to the public. 



At adistancc^ Feather- 
■tone Castle; mint of 
BeQitter Castle. 



54 



52i 
49 



46 



40} 



ScotbySt 
Wetheral St 

How MiU St 
Milton St 



Low Bow St 



Bose HiU St 



Greenhead St 



If 

3 

.8 



18i 



17 



19 



ON LSn nOM OABL. 



Warwick Hall. 

Edmond Castle, Sir S. 
Graham, Bart 

Brampton, a very an- 
cient p&ce, surrounded 
by hills, and supposed to 
have been the Roman 
Bremeturacum. The 
Castle-hill commands 
very extensive prospect. 
About 2 miles from the 
town, on arock overhang- 
ing the Gelt, is the cele- 
brated Romaninscription 
noticed by Camden. Fop. 
1861, 8074. 

Naworth Castl^ for- 
merly the baronial man- 
sion of the Dacres of the 
North. It is now the 
roperty of the Eail of 
iarlisle. 

Ruins of Lanercost 
Priory. 

Gilsland Spa, a much 
frequented watering- 
place, situated in the 
lomantio vale of Irthing. 
Here Sir Walter Scott 
first met with Ifiss Char- 

iutier, afterwards Lady 



iSS?' 



> See Lockharf B Life of Scott, p. 74. 



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£66 



CAftUSLE TO NEWCASTLE-OM^ttMi. 



OM uem raoM caxl. 



UnthankHalL 
Ridley Heue. 

Rnim <»f Langlev 
Cafltk, ud 13>reapwood. 



Spital,J.Kinopp,£sq. 
Beacon HouBe. 



87 



28i 
24i 

20} 



II 



Eidat of Pradhoe 
CisUe. 



Bradley HaO. 
SUnaHalL 

Axvell Park. Sir T, 
CUnrering, Bart. 

In thediitanceBarens- 
worth Cattle, Lord 
Bsreaiwortii. 

Swahrell, eelehrafeed 
for ite iron-warici, estab- 
liihed near the dote of 
the serenteenth eeutarj, 
by Mr A. Crawley. 



17i 
16} 
18 
10} 

6 



HALTWHISTLE ST. 

(See p. 408.) 

Haltwhiitle Tunnel, SOI 
yarda in lenfth. 

Bardon Mill St. 

Hftydoa BridKa St 

Four Stones St 

HEXHAM ST. 
pleasantly ntuated on the 
aoath Bideof the river Tyne. 
It ia aupposed to have been 
a Eoman station. Here are 
the remains of an abbey of 
vast extent and extraordi- 
nary magnificence. The 
dnuch exhibits a mixture 
of the Gothic and Saxon 
styles of architectare. 
There are various leather, 
hat, and elove manufac- 
tories in we toivB. Fop. 
1861, 460L 

CorfaridgeSt 

Biding Mill St 

StocksfieldSt 

PnxdhoeSt 

WylamSt 
BytonSt 
Blaydon St 
Scotswood St 



NEWCASTLE. 
(See p. 881.) 



22} 

27 
81 
84J 

38} 



OM ixrr noM cakl. 



Bnins of Thirwall 
Castle. 

Blenkinsopp Hall, J. 
B.Coulson,£Bq. 



High Wardon, J. £r- 
ringtonyEsq. 



The Hermitage. 

Beaufiront 

Dilston Castle in ruins, 
the seat of the Earl of 
Derwentwater, which 
was forfeited in the re- 
bellion of 1715. 



41} 

44 

46} 

48} 

61 
68} 
66} 
66} 

69} 



Styford. 
Bywell Hall, W. B. 
BeanmontyEs^. 



Wylam Hall, C. 
Blackett, Esq. 

Close House, C. Be- 
wicke, Esq. 

Benwell Lodge. 

ElfvickfJ.H. Hinde, 
£S4. 



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267 



THE LAKE DISTRICT. 



^ For the aoeotnmodatioii «f strangers about to make the Tour of the Lake Dis- 
trict, and idio are in doobt, fix>m the nmuber of routes, which, and in what order 
to tike them, we have drawn up an abstract of four Tonrs, which it is supposed 
commence and terminate at each of the four prindoal towns lying upon the edge 
of the district, viz, KendaL Ulverston, Penrith, and Whitdiaven. By consohing 
tin map of the Lske District, and charts, Tourists will be able to vary the Tours 
•eoording to theh* couTenience; and bv referenoetothe Index, the' reader wiU 
find the page of the yohime^ in which tbe oljects OMiitifliied in the ahatcaot tm 
described at length. 

ABSTRACfT OP TOURS. 

L KEICDAL. 

KaPit — Bowifi8s«- WMHiaawu » — AxBLmnm — T nwTaaua. Szourion— Oorisioh— 
Meend the Old Han— Circoit of Ck>irx8Toif Lima— AnBLawnw— TiAitOTATJt Bmmioii— Ex- 
ennton round Quammxbm and Btdamobb— Wtthbubn ■asc end Hsltuxtit— Tmau- 
ans^KaswiOK— drsoitaf D aa w aw TW A m— Vam of 8r Jork— ascend Bkxsdaw— Bab- 
nmiWArcx ExogwioB— BoaaowiuLa— BorriBiffm Htat.b Kur-fizeorakHi to &!• 
sntDAu WATKX—EoaKMONT— STEAims at the foot of Wast Watxb— ascend SoawfeU Pike 
-KiBWicK by way of Sty Head— Psvaim— Exearsioa to Hawis WAnm— Exclusion to 

PtUBITATKB— PATTaBPALl— AUBT.Wini^ by HaWKSHIAD Slid ESXHWAIZB WAXBt to 

Bownas— KxMDAL. 

IL ULVEBSTON. 
PLTi MTOif . Coafaton Lake— Waterhead Inn— aaoeDd the Old Man— AiiBLasu)*— €taaiitof 
WistmnucxBJB-^ TaomrBXCK Excursion- Lakodaxjb Excunion.in wfaidi Langdale Pikes may 
be anended— Exclusion to Btdajl, Orasmbrx and Louchrigg Tam— Qi asmi ge W ythhnn»— 
ucend Hxi<r>iJ[iYK—Thirbnere—Kx8wicK— Circuit of Dkrwkntwatbbp— Excuisitm into the 
Valb of 8t Jobn— aaeend Skdoaw— Circuit of BAsenrrHWAirB Lakb— Bxcnrskm tfarongh 
BoBBowDAJUB to BuTTXRBcaBa— Crummock WATBBr— Sgalx Hiu/— Ennxboalk Wat>b— 
KoRKifONT—flCiBBids— ascend Scawtsll Pkk— Wast Watxb— over Sty Head to Kaswicx 
^ftifBR^— Excursion to Hawxb Watbii— Excuxskm to UuiiswATKa— Paxtbxdai.^ 
AjfBLKBiox— Hawkshxad— £8THWArrBWATXR^-Ui.vaBaT0ir— ExcursioDbyBroughtoninto 
l>i'innH]>AJLB and Sbatbwaitb. 

III. PENRITH. 

^RRB—Bxcnttlan to HAWXSWATan—ULIiXBWATBR-PATTXROALS— ascend RXLTILLTir. 

9 Ktfkstone, to AMBLssma— TRomnacK ExcttrBion->€ireuit of WmoBBMBRB— LAN«»aLB 
yo irri on as cen d Lanooalb PDcxs—Ckuuston— Circuit of Coniston Lakb— aaoend theO&o 
■am— retnm to AnBLraxox— Excursion round OBAntBaa and RvDAunsBB— Wtthbobiv— > 
X«aLxifSRlB—KB8WiCK— ascend Skidoaw— Circuit of DBRWBMTWAZBii-^Excursion inta 
Bt Yale of 8t /aim— Circuit of Babsxnthwaitb Watbr— BoAxowDAiiB— BnrrBBiiBBB— 
lULB Hux— Exoivaion to Ebnxrdalb Watbr— EatuBMOMi^-STRANsa at the foot of Wast 
«^— — end SoawliBa Pike— Kbbwick by way of Sty Head— Pbn bith. 

IV. WHITEHAVEN. 
WATBN— Excursion to Ennerdale Lako^EonxMONT— Wast W<»tbb aimnfl SoAwraiA 
-by Sty Head, and throu^ Borrowdale, to Ksbwick— Circuit of Keswick Lake— ascend 
lAw— Exoiivion to the VAUSof St John— Circuit of BAsaBNTBWAixBWATBB—PBNBtnB 
reunion to HaWbs Watxb—Ullxbwatxb—Pattxbdalk— ascend Hklbbutn— Am- 
Buitt by Khrkstane— Oreuitof WiNnBBMNRN—TBouTBBCK Excursioo— Coniston— aseend 
■Old Man— Circuit of Conibton Lakx— Hawkbhbad— Bownbbb— Amblxbidb— Lano- 
fa Excuraton, in whidi Lanodaijb Pikbs may be ascended— Excurskm found OaAaMBBB 
I Rtdauoirb— Onumere— Wythbum— Thirlemere— Kbswb!k~ BoBBownALB—Buma. 
■»"-«'*'^HiiA— WniTiHAViir. 



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THE LAKE DISTRICT. 



Trb section of England, known by the name of the Lake District, occapioB 
a portion of the three counties of Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancaster, 
and extends over an area, the greatest length and breadth of which are not more 
than forty-five miles. The picturesque attractions of the district are probably 
imequalled in any other part of England ; and although some of the Scottish 
lochs and mountains must be admitted to present prospects of more imposing 
grandeur, it may safely be said, that no tract of country in Britain combines in 
richer affluence those varied features of sublimity and beauty which have con^ 
ferred upon this spot so high a reputation. 

For the lover of nature, no tour could be devised of a more pleasmg chani6' 
ter than that which these lakes afford. ** We penetrate the Glaciers, and tar 
verse the Rhone and the Khine, whilst our domestic lakes of Ullswat^, Keswickt 
and Windermere exhibit scenes in so sublime a style, with such beautiful co> 
lourings of rock, wood, and water, backed with so stupendous a dispositicm of 
mountains, that if they do not fidrly take the lead of all the views of Europe^ 
yet they are indisputably such as no Engtish traveller should leave behind 
him.*^ 

Kor is it only to the admirer of external nature that this district preaenfts at- 
tractions. It is no less interesting to the antiquarian, the geologist, and the bo- 
tanist The remains of three Abbey8,~Fumess,— Calder, and Shap, — of nmne- 
rous castles, — of one or two Roman stations, — and of many Druidical erectionsi 
— afford ample scope for the research of the antiquarian ; whilst the rich variety 
of stratified and unstratified rocks, forming a complete series from the granitic 
to the carboniferous beds ; — and many rare plants, with ample fedlities for ob- 
serving the effect produced upon vegetation by the varying temperature of the 
air at different altitudes, yield to the students of geology and of botany abundant 
matter for employment in their respective pursuits. A further interest is im- 
parted to the locality from its being the spot with which many of our great modem 
poets have been more or less intimately connected, and from which many of 
their finest poems have emanated. 

The district may be traversed by many routes, the selection of which will de- 
pend upon the tourist^s convenience and taste, but especially upcm the point 

• COMBBRLANO. 



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THB LAKB DISTRICT. 269 

from which he enters it But as the Lancastw and Carlisle Railway is now, 
undoubtedly, the great avenue of approach, both from the north and south, and, 
by means of the Kendal Junction Line, brings Tourists directly to Kendal and 
) the shores of Windermere, we conceive that we shall best considt his accommo- 
dation by oonmiencing with the description of these places. 



KENDAL. 

[J7ofo29.*— King's Arms; Commerdsl; Crown.] 

KebtdaL) otherwise Elirkby-in-Kenda], the largest town in Westmorland, is 
situate in a pleasant valley on the banks of the river Kent, from which it derives 
its name. It contained in 1851, 11,829 inhabitants, and is a place of consider- 
ate manufacturing industry, having a large trade in woollen goods. The wool- 
len manu£eu!ture was founded as early as the fourteenth century, by some flemish 
weavers, who settled here at the invitation of Edward III. The town is inter- 
sected by four leading streets, two of which, lying north and south, form a spa- 
cioQS thoronghfisre of a mile in length. The river is spanned by three neat stone 
bridges; it is of no great width, though subject to sudden floods by its proximity 
to the mountains. The houses, built of the limestone which abounds in the 
neighboarhood, possess an air of cleanliness and comfort,— their white walls con- 
trasting pleasingly with numerous poplars, which impart a cheerful rural aspect 
totlietown. 

The barony of Kendal was granted by William the Conqueror to Ivo de Tail- 
hhais, one of his followers, in which grant the inhabitants of the town, as villein 
(t. «. bond or serf) tenants, were also included ; but they were afterwards eman- 
dpsted, and their freedom confirmed by a charter from one of his descendants. 
The barony now belongs, in unequal portions, to the Earl of Lonsdale and the 
EoB. Mrs. Howard, both of whom have extensive possessions in Westmorland. 
By tlie Municipal Corporations Beform Act, the government of the borough is 
VHted in a mayor, six aldermen, and eighteen common councillors, six of whom 
am elected by eadi of the three wards into which it is divided. By the Beform 
Act^ which ^sfranchieed Appleby, the county town, Kendal, has the privilege of 
ncaming one member to Parliament 
The Parish Church, a spacious Gothic edifice, dedicated to the Holy Trinity 



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270 KKIDAL* 

slARds in that part of the borough called Eiikland. The tower is square^ and 
p O M o w cB an rititiide oi 72 feet Like most other eceknasticalBtnictiBCfl of an* 
cient date, it contains a numba of curkms momunents and epitaphs. There an 
two other churches in the town, both lately erected, and fbrming handsome edi- 
fices ; that which stands at the foot of Stricklandgate is dedicated to St Tllom8^ 
the other near Stramondgate Bridge to St George. In addition to the churches 
of the establishment, the Dissenters have upwards of a dozen places ci worship. 
The Roman Catholics haye recently erected a beautiful new Chapel, on the New 
Road near the Natural History Societyls Museum. This Museum contains a 
collection of specimens illustrating local and general natural history and anti- 
quities. The Whitehall Buildings, at the head of Lowther Street, form a hand- 
some pile. They contain a news-room, ball-room, auction-room, billiard-room, 
&C. The Lancaster and Carlisle Railway passes within a short distance to the 
east of the town, and the Kendal and Windermere Railway forms a junction 
with the Lancaster and Carlisle at Oxenhotane, two miles from KendaL On the 
east of the town is the termination of the Lancaster and Preston Canal, which 
affords great facilities for the couTeyance of coal to and from KoidaL 

The ruins of Kbndal Castlb, of which only four broken towers, and the outer 
wan, surrounded by a deep fosse, remain, crown the summit of a steep elevation 
on the east of the town.* The remains of this fortress are well worthy of a yisit, 
on account of the views of the town and valley which the hill conmiands. This 
was the ancient seat of the Barons of Kendal, and the birth-place of Catherine 
Parr, the last Queen of Henry VIII., a lady, who (as Pennant quaintly remarks^ 
** had the good fortune to descend to the grave with her head, in all probability, 
merely by outUving her tyrant^ Opposite to the castle, on the west side of the 
town, is Castle-how-hill, or Castle-low-hill, a large circukur moimt of g^vel and 
earth, round the base of which there is a deep fosse, strengthened with two baa* 
tions on the east It is of great antiquity, and is supposed by some to have been 
one of those hills called Zouw, where in ancient times justice was administered. 
In 1788, a handsome obelisk was erected on its summit in commemoration of the 
Revoh]tionofl688. 

About a mile to the south of the town, at a spot where the river almost benda 
upon itself and hence called Water Crook, are the scarcely perceptible remains 
of the Roman Station, Ooncanffvumf formerly a place of some importance^ judg- 
ing from the number of urns, tiles, and other relics of antiquity discovered ther^ 
It is believed that a watch was stationed at this point for the security of tbo 
Roman posts at Ambleside and Overborough. In the walls of a &rm-house m 
the vicinity are two altars, a laige stone witii a sepulchral inscription, and a mu- 
tilated statue. 

« •* A itrai^ng burgh, of aadent charter proud. 

And dignified by batUements and towers 

Of some stem castle, mouldering on the brow 

Ofagraeahai.*' 

WoRnswoHTiL 



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THB LAKE DISTBIOT. 271 

One mile and a-half to the west, at the tenniiiation of a long ascent orer an 
•pen moor, is the bold escarpment of limestone rock, called Undxrbarrov^ 
(or Scout) Scar. It is a remarkable object, and would repay the trouble of a 
visit for the splendid view of the distant lake mountains, and the interjacent 
country, which it commands. A hill, rising abruptly on the east of the town, 
termed Benson Knott, has an altitude of 1098 feet above the level of the sea. 
From the summit of this hill, an extensive prospect is also obtained. 

Lbvbns Hall, the seat of the Hon. Mrs Howard, five miles south of Ken- 
dal, is a venerable mansion, in the Elizabethan style, buried among lofty trees. 
The park, through which the river Kent winds betwixt bold and beautifully 
wooded banks, is separated by the turnpike road from the house. It is of con- 
nderable size, well-stocked with deer, and contains a noble avenue of ancient 
oaks. The gardens, however, form the greatest attraction, being laid out in the 
old French style, of which this is perhaps a unique example in the kingdom. 
They were planned by Mr Beaumont, (whose portrait, very properly, is pre- 
served in the Hall,) gardener to King James II. Trim alleys, bowling-greens, 
and wildernesses fenced round by sight-proof thickets of beedi, remind the be- 
holder, by their antique appearance, of times ** long, long ago." In one part, 
a great number of yews, hoUies, laurels, and other evergreens, are cut into an in- 
finite variety of grotesque shapes. 



* a spacious plot 



For pleasure made, s goodly spot. 

With lawns, and beds of flowers, and shades 

Of trellis-work, in long arcades. 

And dxque and crescent framed by walls 
Of close-clipt foliage, green and tall. 

Converging walks." 

Whm Doe cfR^UUme. 

The gardens, as may be imagined, harmonize well with the old Hall, the inte- 
rior of which also deserves more than a passing glance. It contains some ex- 
quisite specimens of elaborate carved work — 

<• The chambers carved ao curiously. 

Carved with figures strange and sweet. 

All mada out of the carver'a tHaiD.** 

Chritt4a)el, 

The vrork in the south drawing-room is exceedingly rich, as may be conceived 
from its having been estimated that, at the present rate of wages, its executioB 
would cost L.3000. The carved chimney-piece in the Library is a curious and 
interesting piece of workmanship. Three of Lely^ best portraits hang on the 
vails of different chambers, as well as other portraits of personages of conse^ 
qucnce in bygone times. The entrance hall is decorated with relics of ancient 
trmour of various dates, and one of the rooms is adorned with some splendid 
pieces of tapestry, descriptive of a tale frt>m one of the Italian poets. 

SizEBOH Hall» the seat of the ancient fiunily of Strickland, situate three 
tad a half miles south of Kendal, at the foot of a bleak hill facing the east, is 



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272 

•Iflo deserving of A Tisit It is «n antiqiie fortified bofldiiig^ ttanding in an tm- 
dnUting park, delightfully sprinkled with wood. Only a small portion of the 
old Tower remains, frequent additions and repairs having g^ven an bregular but 
picturesque aspect to the whole pile. It contains a considerable collection of 
carved oak, tapestry, portraits, and armour. 

The other seats in the neighbourhood are. Abbot Hall, Eirkland (Mrs Wil- 
son) ; The Vicarage, Kirkland (Rev. J. Barnes); Helm Lodge, two miles south 
(W. D. Grewdson, Esq.); Heaves Lodge, four miles south (James Gandy, 
Esq.); Sedgwick House, four miles south (John Wakefield, Esq.); Dallam 
Tower, seven miles south (George WOson, Esq.); Hoseigh House, four miles 
north (Mr. Machell); Shaw End, five miles north (Henry Shepherd, Esq.); 
Low Bridge House, six miles north (R. FothergQl, Esq.) ; Raw Hnid, fonr miles 
east (Mr Sleddall); Hill Top, three miles east (William WHaon, Esq.) 

WINDERMERE. 

Small steam-boats have withm the last few years been established upon TTHnder 
mere, which during the summer season make several voyages dafly from one 
extremity of the lake to the other. Windermere is now rendered easy of access 
to tourists, by the railway which branches from the Lancaster and Carlisle line 
at Kendal, and terminates about a mile to the north of Bowness, near the ahores 
of the lake at 

BIRTHWAITB. 
[Fotetr;— Windennere.] 

On the arrival of the trains^ coaches leave the station at Windermere for 
Ambleside and Keswick, and the mail daily proceeds by this route to Cocker- 
mouth, and thence^ by railway, to Whitehaven. Coaches also travel dafly between 
the \'nndermere railway terzninus and the towns of Hawkshead and ConisUm. 

We would by all means recommend those strangers who have sufficient time to 
drcumnambulate this, which is the queen of the lakes, and largest sheet of water 
in the district, to do so at an early period of their visit, that the quiet scenery 
with which it is surrounded may not be considered tame, as will probably be the 
case if the survey be delayed until the bolder features of the country have been 
inspected. 

Windermere, or more properly Winandermere, is about eleven mOes in length, 
and one mile in breadth. It forms part of the county of Westmorland, although 
the greatest extent of its margin belongs to Lancashire. It has many feedera^ 
the principal of which is formed by the confluence of the Brathay and Rothay 
shortly before entering the lake. The streams from Troutbeck, Blelham Tarn, 
and Esthwaite Water also pour in their waters at different points. Numerous 
islands, vaiying considerably in size, diversify its sur&ce at no great distance 
from one another, — ^none of them being more than four and a half miles from 
the central part of the lake. Their names commencing with the most northerly 
are^Rough Holm (opposite Rayrigg), Lady Holm (so called from a chapel 



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TflE LAKB DISTRICT. 273 

dedicated to oar Lady, which once stood upon itX Hen Hdm, House Holm, 
Thompstrn's Holifa, Cturwen's or Belle Isle (round which are aevenX nameless 
islets), Berkshire Island (a little below the feny points^ ling Holm, Grass 
Holm, and Silver Holm. Windermere is deeper than any of the other lakes, 
with the esEception of Wast Water, its depth in some parts being upwards of 
240 feet It is plentifully stocked with perch, pike, trout, and char, which last, 
at the proper season, is potted in large quantities and forwarded to the south. 
It is a remarkable fact, that at the spawning season, when the trout and char 
leave the lake, the former fish invariably takes the Rothay, and the latter the 



The previdling character of the scenery around Windermere is soft and 
graceful beauty. It shrinks firom all approach to that wildness and sublimity 
which characterise some of the other lakes, and challenges admiration on the 
score of grandeuf only at its head, where the mountains rise to a considerable 
height, and present admirable outlines to the eye of the i^iectator. The rest of the 
nuugin is occupied by gentle eminences, which, being exuberantly wooded, add a 
richness and a breadth to the scenery which bare hills cannot of themselves bestow. 
Nnmerous villas and cottages, gleaming amid the woods, impart an aspect of do- 
mestic beauty, which further contributes to enrich the character of the landscape. 
Around the shores of the lake there are many places which may be made the 
temporary residence of the tourist while exploring the beauties of the adjacent 
coontry, and probably he may find it advantageous to make several of them his 
abode in succession : Bowness, on the east shore, half way between the two ex- 
tremities, and therefbre the most eligible ; Ambleside, one mile beyond the head 
of Oe lake ; Low Wood Inn, a mile and a half from its head on the east, shore; 
the Ferry Inn on the promontory over against Bowness ; and l^ewhj Bridge at 
its foot^— all f^imish comfortable quarters for the tourist, where boats, guides, and 
all his'other wants can be supplied. 

We shall commence our perambulation at the town first named, proceeding 
along the weat border^ and retaining by the east border of the water. 

BOWNESS. 
[JSTo/tf^j.— Royal; Crown.] 
This pretty^ village is placed on the edge of a large bay, opposite Belle Isle, 
about eight miles from Kendal, and six from Ambleside. It has two excellent 
hotds, which, from the delightful character of the adjacent country, and the con- 
venient situation of the village £or making excursions, are much frequented 
daring the touring season. The Church dedicated to St Martin is an ancient 
stmcture with a square tower, and a finely painted chancel window, which 
originally belonged to >Fumess Abbey. The churchyard contains a monument 
erected to the memory of Richard Watson, the late learned Bishop of Llandaff, 
the author of ** the Apology for the Bible," and other well known works. He 
was bom at Haversham, in another part of the county, in which village his 

s 



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274 WUTDSBMEBS. 

father was schoolmaster for iq>wards of forty years. He was interred at this 
place : the inscriptioii upon his tomb is simple and unpretending. " Bicardi 
Watson, Episcopi Landavensis, dneribos sacram obiit Julii 1, A.D. 1816, 
.£tati8 79." The interior of the church may be described in these lines, taken 
from ** the Excmsion/ which have doubtless been suggested by this, or a similar 
structure. 

<«Not niird in aloe pio|tortioiu wu the pile* 
But, large and maaty, for duration built ; 
With pillan crowded, and the roof upheld 
By naked raften, intricately cross'd 
Like leafless underbougfas, "mid some thick grove. 
All withefd by the depth of shade above. 
Admonitory texts inscribed the walls- 
Each in its (unamental scroU inclosed. 
Each also crown'd with winged heads— « pair 
Of rudely-painted cherubim. The floor 
Of nave and aisle, in unpretending guise. 
Was occupied by oakoi bmches, ranged 
In seemly rows • 

And marble monuments were here display'd 
Thronging the walls, and on the floor beneath 
Sepuldiral stones appear'd with emblems graven. 
And foot-worn epitaphs, and some with small 
And shining efllgies of brass inlaid." 

The school-house has been lately rebuilt through the munificence of the late Mr 
Bolton of Storrs. It stands on an eminence to the east of the Tillage, and forms 
a handsome edifice. The yiew firom the front is exquisitely beautiful, con^»ria- 
ing the whole of the upper half of the lake. The mountains round the head, 
into the recesses of whidi the waters seem to penetrate, arrange themselves in 
highly graceM forms, and the wooded heights of the opposite shore cast a deep 
shadow upon the '* bosom of the steady liJ^e." From this point Belle Isle ap- 
pears to be a portion of the mainland. 

In adcUtion to the villas afterwards enumerated, there are in the neighbourhood, 
HoUy Hill (Mrs Bellasis), The Craig (W. R. Gregg, Esq.), Birthwaite (G. Gard- 
ner, Esq.), Rayrigg (Blajor Bodgers,) The Wood (Miss YatesX St Catherine's 
(the Earl of Bradibrd), Elleray, Orrest Head (John Braithwaite^ Esq.^ Belle 
Grange (Mrs Curwen), Wray (Wm. Wilson, Esq.) 

Several interesting walks will be pointed out to strangers^ amongst vAdfii we 
may mention those through the parsonage4and to the Ferry Point, and to Storrs. 
If the tourist will take the trouble to proceed about half a mile along the road 
to Brant Fell, he will be rewarded by one of the finest views of the lake he caa 
obtain. The Fells of Fumess are seen across the lake, but the murmur of 

** bees that soar for bloom, 

High as the highest peak of Fomeai Fells,** * 

is cf course Inaudible. A pleasing walk of four or five miles may be obtamed 

* WOBOSWOBTH. 



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THE LAKE DISTRICT. 275 

thus : pursae the road to Ambleside until it enters that toom Kendal (this por- 
tion of the walk will be particolarized presently) : torn to the right, and keep on 
this road for about a mile. The Wood, St Catherine's, and EUeraj, are passed 
on the left. The last is the property of Professor Wilson of Edhiburgh, and 
iras at one time occupied by the late Major Hamilton, the author of C}^ 
Thornton, of a history of the Peninsular Campaigns, and other literary worioa. 
The house is perched upon the hill-side, having beautifol views of the sur- 
lomiding scenery visible from its windows. It is thus alluded to in one of the 
poems of its late owner : 

** And sweet that dwelling rests upon the brow 
(Beneath its sycamore) of Orrest Hill, 
As if it smiled on Windermere below. 
Her green recesses and her islands still 1" 

A narrow lane branches off from the Kendal road near the Orrest Head gate, by 
which Bowness will be reached one mile and a-half from Orrest Head. 

The more distant excursions will include the valley of Troutbeck,* the circuit 
of the two sections of Windermere, Esthwaite Water, and Coniston Lake. These 
are but a few, bat an inspection of the chart will suggest others. Boating upon 
the lake will probably be the amusement resorted to earliest and most fre* 
quenily. The various islands should be visited, especially Belle Isle, upon which 
strangers are allowed to land. It contains Mr. Curwen's residence, erected in 
1776, in the form of a perfect cycle. The island is rather more than a mile in 
drcunference, and contains upwards of thirty acres. It is intersected by neat 
walks, over which fine trees throw their massy arms. The islet to the left of it 
is Hen Holm, the next Lady Holm. Wansfell Pike is beheld over the former. 
The eminences to the right are those of the Kentmore Range, Hill Bell, and 
High Street Fairfield is in fiill view, crowning a chain of hiUs terminated by 
Rydal Nab. 



CIRCUIT OF WIKDERMERE, 

FROM BOWNESS. 

Quitting Bowness for Ambleside, the stately woods of Rayrigg are entered 
three-quarters of a mile from the former place. A bay of the lake is then seen 
to progect almost to the road. Rayrigg House stands on the left near the waters' 
edge; shortly before emerging from the wood, the road ascends a steep hill, 
and then pursues a level course, affording from its terrace a magnificent view of 
the lake— a view *' to which," says Wilson, ** there was nothing to compare in 
^ >ift»Tgiwg gardens of Babylon. There is the widest breadth of water— the 
richest foreground of wood— and the most magnificent background of mountains^ 

* For a description of this valley, refer to page 18. 



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276 WIirDE&MBRS. 

not oidyin Wettmoriaad, bot-^belieye ii»-in all ibe wofid.* Ovoid aeqmlmU 
aooM^ ^e two Pikes of Langdale ai« etffly roeognimdb Om the. left la^owftiU^ 
a sqoanrtoppedhfll, between which and the Pikea, Gnat End and <GreatJ6abk» 
peq>iip. OntheleftofBowliBUftheaammitof SoawftU f^&i&&intfyiniiblcu 
The road is intersected two mUes from Bowness by ths Kendid and. AmUeaids 
road, at a plaoe called Cook's Hoose, nine miles from SandaL A road pwarMrti 
into Trontbeck in a line with the one OTer whieh we have been oondnatiBgctiie 
tourist From Ck>ok*s House to TtouIGmi^ Bridge is almost a mOe. Item this 
place a road conducts by the west bank of the stream to the viBage of Trontbeck, 
the nearest part of whidi is a mile and a half distant Continuing our progress 
towards Ambleside, Calgarth, embosomed in trees, is passed on the left. The 
late Bishop Watson built this mansion, and resided here during the latter years 
of his life ; it is still occupied by his descendants. Twq. miles beyond is Low 
Wood Inn, which, standing pleasantly on the margin of the lake at its broadest 
part, is an excellent station for those who are able to devote a few days to the 
beauties of the neighbourhood. Most of the excursions recommended to be ma^e 
from Ambleside may, with almost equal advantage, be p^ormed from this inn. 
Close at hand is Dove's Nest, the house Mrs. Hemans inhabited one sumiper. 
Her description of the place, taken from her delightfrd letters, will not be deemed 
uninteresting : — ** The house was originally meant for a small villa, thoi^h it 
has long passed into the hands of farmers, and there is, in consequence, an air of 
neglect about the little demesne, which does not at all approach desolation, and 
yet gives it something of touching interest. You see everywhere traces of love 
and care beginning to be effaced— rose trees spreading into wHdness — ^laurela 
darkening the windows with too luxuriant branches ; and I cannot help saying 
to myself < Perhaps some heart like my own in its feelings and sufferings has 
here sought refuge and repose.' The ground is laid out in rather an antiquated 
style ; which, now that nature is beginning to reclaim it from art, I do not at all 
dislike. There is a little grassy terrace immediately under the window, descend- 
ing to a small court, with a drcular grass-plot, on which grows one tall white- 
rose tree. Yon cannot imagine how much I delight in that &ir, solitary, 
neglected-looking tree. I am writing to you from an old-fi&shioned alcove in the 
little garden, round which the sweet-briar and the rose-tree have completely run 
wild; and I look down from it upon lovely Winandermere, which seems at this 
moment even like another sky, so truly is every summer cloud and tint of azure 
pictured in its transparent mirror. 



« I am so deHgfated witb the spot^ that I soajvely know how I shall leave it 
The situation is one of the deepest retirement; but the bright lake bef6ra me^ 
with all its. tairy barks and saUs, glancing like 'things of life' over its blue 
water, prevents the solitude from being overshadowed by anything like sadness." 



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THB LAKE DISTfilCT. 277 

Wa^{6f^ HolA (J. B^hkby, Ei^.) h M«ii on liie r^t, immediately before 
leachlng th^ head df WuMermere. The itMid for the last three or four miles has 
been alternately a^prwicbSai/g to and raoeding from the margin of the lake, but 
nevw^^e^frfiig ftotiner <from it than -a few fiithoms. At Waterhead is die neat 
iredd^ee Of Kr. Thomas Jackson, and ftuther on, Waterade (Mr. William New- 
1«fi,)1s i^aflsed^ the left. 

A m3e beydnd is Ambleside, afterwards described, from which we continue 
our perambulation. Passing Croft Lodge (J. Holmes, Esq.) on the right, Bra- 
thay Bridge is crossed at Clappersgate, one mile from Ambledde, and shortly 
afterwards Brathay Hall, ((^ . Redmayne, Esq.) is seen on the left. A bay, called 
Poll Wyke, there makes a deep indentation ; and looking across the lake, Wans- 
Ten Holm, Low Wood Itm, and Itfwer down, Calgarth, the seit of the late Bishop 
Watson, are pleasing objects. Wansfell Hke and the Troutbeck Hundreds tower 
above them. The road to Hawkshead having deviated to the right, the village 
^ High Wray iis gained, -five miles from AmUesid^; and three miles beyond is 
the Ferry Inn. At this place the shores suddehly Contract, aUd between the two 
promontories a public ferry is established, by means of which, passengers, catUe, 
and vehicles are conveyed across the lake at a trifling charge. About the year 
1635, a marriage was celebrated at Hawkshead, between a wealthy yeoman from 
the neighbourhood of Bowness, and a lady of the fiunily Sawrey 6f Siawrey. As 
is still customary in Westmorland amongst the rustic population, the married 
oeuple were attended by <& numerous concourse o£ friends, some of whom were 
piobably more tha^ cheerfol. In conductihg the bridegroom homewards, and 
crossing the ferry, the boat was swamped, either by an eddy of wind, or by too 
great a pressare on one side, and thus upwards of fifty persons, including the bride 
aaad b^degroom, ^rished. While at ^e Ferry Inn, the tourist should not fail to 
visit the Station, a pleasure house bdonghig to Mr. Curwen of Belle Isle, stand- 
ing on a apot whence fine views of the circumjacent scenery are commanded. 
^Tbe view from the Station," si^a Professor Wilson, ''is a very delightful one, 
tnit It reqiid!re^ it fltf^ day. As 'charaeter is that oi beauty, which disappeara 
almost utterly in wet or dfl^^ly Wither. If there be stronjg bright sunshine, a 
^bluebreese'^perhaps gives animation to the scene. You look down on the 
islands which are here very happily disposed. The banks of Windermere toe 
rich and various in groves, woods, coppice, and corn-fields. The large deep 
valley of Troutbeck stretches finely away up to the mountains of High Street 
and Hill Bell — ^hiU and eminence are all cultivated wherever the trees have 
been cleared away, and nimierous villas are visible in every direction, which, 
although not perhaps all built on very tasteful models, have yet an airy and 
sprightly character; and with their fidds of brighter verdure and sheltering 
groves, may be feirly allowed to add to, rather than detract from, the beauty of 
a scene, one of whose chief charms is that it is the cheerful abode of social life.** 
At a short distance from the land is Belle Isle, upon whidi standa— 
" A Grecian temple rising from the deep.^' 



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278 WINDERMEBB. 

thereadenceofH. CurwenEsq. The iiland is rather more than s mile in eifw 
cumfd^ce, containing upwards of thirty acren Neat walks, OTer which fine 
trees throw their massiye aims, intersect the island, which in hi^ floods ia 
cut in two. Strangers are allowed to land ; and as the views are extrem^j 
pleasing, they should avail themselves of the privilege. The village of Bowness 
is a pretty object on the east margin of the lake. * One mile and a half 
from the Ferry Inn, the stream called Cunsey, which runs from EsthwaiteWatery 

* TUi Island mm ftnmerly the property and midenee of the PhilipaoDB* an andent Weatmor- 
land Cunily, who wete also owners of Calgarth. During the civil war between Charles I. and 
the Parliament, there were two brothers, both of whcnn had espoused the royal cause. Hie 
elder,to whomtheishmdbdonged, wasaCokmei, and the younger a Mj^ in the royal aimy. 
The latter was a man of high and adventuioua courage ; and ttom some of his desperate exc 
l^oits had acquired amongst the Parliamentarians the iq;ipeIlaticHi of Robin the DeviL It hap- 
pened when the king's death had extinguished for a time the ardour of the cavaliers, that a cer- 
tain Colonel Briggs, an officer in Oliver's army, resided in Kendal, who having heard that M»- 
jor PhilipiOQ was secreted in his brother's house on Belle lale, went thither armed with hta 
double authority, (ftxr he was a dvil magistrate as well as a military man— 

Oreat on the bendi, great in the saddle. 
Mighty he was at both of these. 
And styled of War as well as Peace,) 

with the view of making a prisoner of so obnoxious a person. The Mi^or, however, was <m 
the alert, and gallantly withstood a siege of eight months, until his brother came to his velieC 
The attack befaig thus repulsed, the M^}or was not a man who would sit down quietly under 
the iqjury he had received. He therefore raised a small band of horse and set forth one Sunday 
morning in search of Briggs. Upon arriving at Kendal, he was informed that the Colonel was 
at prayers. Without fturther consideration he proceeded to the church, and having posted his 
men at the entrance, dashed forward himself down the principal aisle into the midst of the as- 
semblage. Whatever were his intentions—whether to shoot the Cokmel on the spot, ormerely 
to carry him off prisoner— they were defieated : his enemy was not present. The congregation 
was at first too much surprised to seise the Migor, who, in discoveringthat his object oould not 
be effected, galloped up the next aisle. As he was making his exit firom the churdi, his head 
came violently in contact with the arch of the door- way, which was much smaller than tiiat 
through which he had entered. His hehnet was struck off by the blow, his saddle girth gave 
way, and he himself was mudi stunned. The congregation, taking advantage of the oonftiaion, 
attempted to seise him ; but with the assistance of his followers, the Mj^or made his escape 
after a violent struggle, and rode back to his brodier's house. The helmet still hangs in oite of 
the aisles of Kendal church. This incident fUmished Shr Walter Soottwitba hint liof hb de- 
•Gtiption of a similar adventure in Bokeby, canto vi. 

** All eyes upon the gateway hung. 
When through the Gothic arch there sprung 
A horseman arm'd at headlong speed- 
Sable his doak, his plume, his steed- 
Fire from the flinty floor was spurn'd. 
The vauHs unwonted dang retum'd I 
One instant's glance around he threw 
From saddlebow his pistol drew. 
Grimly determin'd was his look, 
Hii duoger with his spurs he strudi— 
All scatter'd backward as he came. 
For all knew Bertram Itisingham. 
Three bounds that noble courser gave. 
The first has reach'd the central nave* 



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THE LAKE DISTRICT. 279 

k c r o w e d. At a short distance from the place where this stream joms the lake, 
is the idand called Ling Hohn. On the opposite maigin, the Storrs promontory 
is seat projecting into the lake. Two miles beyond is the village of Oraith- 
waite, in the vicinity of which is Graithwaite Hall, (J. J. Bawlinson, Esq.) From 
this place to Newby Bridge the road passes through a woodland section of the 
country, consisting chiefly of coppices. As the foot of the lake is approached, 
it narrows rapidly and becomes truly 

*• Wooded Winandermete, the H»«r-lake." 
Landing, (John Harrison, Esq.,) is passed on the left shortly before reaching 
Newby Bridge, at which there is a comfortable inn. The stream which issues 
from the lake takes the name of the Leven. From this place to the principal 
towns in the neighbourhood, the distances are : — Ulverston, eight miles. Ken- 
dal, by way of Cartmell Fell, ten miles — ^by Levens Bridge, fifteen miles. Am- 
bleside, by the road we have described, fifteen miles. Bowness, nine miles. On 
crossing the bridge, Mr MachelPs neat residence is seen on the right, and fur- 
ther on. Fell Foot, ( Starkie, Esq.,) is passed on the left ; a short distance 

beyond. Town Head, (Wm. Townley, Esq.,) is near the road on the left, about 
two miles from ^ewby Bridge. The road passes under an eminence of the 
Cartmell Fell chain, called Oummer^s How, which forms a conspicuous object 
in an views fr*om the upper end of the lake. Six miles from Newby Bridge is 
Storrt Hall, the mansion of the late John Bolton, Esq. (now Rev. T. Stanaforth), 
seated amongst fine grounds which extend to the maisin of the lake. It was 
built by Sir John L^gard, Bart, but extensive additions were made by its late 
owner. Here Mr Canning was wont to pay frrequent visits, withdrawing for a 
time fimn the cares of public life to breathe the fresh air of nature.* The road 



The aeoond clear*d the dianoel wid^ 

The third he was at WycUffe'tdde. 

• • • • • m m 

While yet the imoke the deed conoealt, 

Bertram hit ready diai^ier wheels— 

But floimder'd on the pavement Hoot, 

The steed and down the rider bore— 

And buivting in the headlong sway. 

The fidthless saddle-girths gave way. 

'Twas while he toii'd him to be freed. 

And with the rein to raise the steed. 

That firom amaaement's iron trance. 

All Wyeliflb's soldiers waked at ono&"^ 
• The following passage from Mr Lockhart's Life of Scott graphically describes one of these 
visits, to whidi the presence of Wordsworth, Southey, Scott, and Professor Wilson gave pecu> 
liar interest. 

«« A Issge company had been assembled at Mr Bolton's seat hi honour cf the ministei^t 
induded Mr Wordsworth and Mr Southey. It has not, I suppose, often happened to a plain 
Rn^ish meidiant, wholly the architect of his own fortunes, to entertain at one time a party 
embracing so many illustrious names. He was proud of his guests ; they respected him, and 
honoured and loved eadi other; and It would have been difficult to say whidi star in the oou- 
MeOation shone with the brightest or the softest light There was * high disoour.e, ' intermingled 
with as gay flashings of courtly wit as ever Canning displayed! and a plentiful allowance on all 



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260 AMBLUIDB. 

leading from Smdal to the ftrry u mCEX ORMsad, and aoon aftanrardB Feraev 
Green (George Greavea, £sq.]^ Burnside (G. A. Anfirera, £aq.X and Belle Field, 
(Mark Beaufoy, Eaq.^ are sooeessiTely passed immediately befoie BoimeaB^ tha 
termination of our perambulation of twenty-nine miles is regained. 

AMBLESIDE. 
[/nm.—- Salntation; Commercial ; White Idon.] 

Amblbsidr, a small and irregularly built market-town of 1592 inhabitants, is 
situate on steeply inclined ground, a mile from the head of Windermere, upon 
or near to the spot formerly occupied by the Roman Station— Dictia. Lying 
inmiediately under Wansfell, and surrounded by mountains on all sides, except 
towards the south-west the situation is one of great beauty, and consequently 
during summer it is much frequented by tourists, who make it their abode for 
some time. There are seyeral inns ; two of which, the Salutation and the Com- 
mercial, are excellent establishments. The chapel is a modem structure, hay- 
ing been rebuilt in 1812. In a field near the edge of the lake, are the indistmct 
remains of Roman fortifications, where coins, urns, and other relics» have been 
frequently discovered. Numerous excursions may be made from Ambleside ; and 
the interesting walks in the immediate neighbourhood are still more abundant. 

The valley of Ambleside, on the border of which the town stands, is well 
wooded, and watered by several streams ; the principal river is the Rothay, 
which flows from Grasmere and Rydal Lakes, and joins the Biathay,^ortIy be- 
fore entering Windermere. Upon Stock GiLii, a tributary to the Rothay, there 
is a fine fall, or force, in a copsewood, about 700 yards from the Market Cross, 
the road to which passes behind the Salutation Inn. The &11, or rat^ &I]b, 
for there are four, are 70 feet m height Portions of all four are visible from 
the usual stand ; but the views may be pleasingly varied by descending the 
bank to the stream, or proceeding farther up the GilL 

LouoHRioo Fell, a rooky hill which rises opposite to the town, to an eleva- 
tion of 1000 feet above Windermere, conunands extensive prospects of the vale 
and surrounding mountains, as well as of Windermere, Grasmere, and Rydal 
Lakes, Blelham, Loughrigg, and Elterwater Tarns, with the towns of Ambleside 
and Hawkshead. 

si vies of thoie airy transient pleasantries in which the fancy of poet^ howevo' wise and grar^ 
delights to run riot when they arp sure not to be misunderstood. There were beautifiii and 
accomplished women to adorn and enjoy this circle. The weather was as Elysian as theaoener> 
There were brilliant cavalcades through the woods in the mornings, and delicious boatings cm the 
lake by moonlight ; and the last day, Professor Wilson (* the Admiral of the Lake,' as Canning 
ealled him,) presided over one of the most splendid r^ttas that ever enlivened Windermere. 
Perhaps there were not fewer than fifty barges following \n the Professor's radiant procession 
wh«n it paused at the point of Stons to admit into the place of honour the vessel that carried 
kind and happy Mr Bolton and his guests. The three bards of the lakes led the cheers that 
hailed Seott and Canning ; and music, and sunshine, flags, streamers, and gay dtesses, the merry 
hum of Toices, and the rapid splashing of innumerable oars, made up a daszling mixture a 
sensations as the flotilja wound its way among the richly-foliaged islands, and aloQg bays and 
PToraontorles peopled with enthusiastiv specutors." 



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THE Lake distbict. 281 

From fhe summit of Wansfmll Pikb, (1690 feet in height,) which stands on 
the east, the mountains have a highly imposing appearance, and thence may he 
seen the whole expanse of Windennere, with its islands ; but on account of the 
altitude of the spectator, the riew is not so fine as that from another part of the 
Pike, called Troutbeck Hundreds, a little to the south. 

The Tillage of Rydal, supposed to be a contraction 6t Rothay-Dale, is placed 
in a narrow gorge, formed by the advance of Loughrigg fell and Rydal Knab 
at the lowtt extremity of Rydal Mere, one mile and a quarter from Ambleside. 
Here, in the midst of a park containing great numbers of noble forest trees,* 
stands Rydal Hall> the sellt c(f Rct. Sir R. Fleming. The celebrated fiOb are witiiin 
the park, and strangers desirous to view them, must take a conductor from one 
of the cottages near the Hall gates. The fall below the house is beheld from 
the window of an old summer house. Amongst the juvenile poeoas of Words- 
worth there is a sketch of this cascade. — 

" While thick above the rfU the bitmchei dote. 

In rocky basin its wild waves repoie. 

Inverted shrubs, and moss of gloomy green. 

Cling l^xHn the rocks with pale wood- weeds between ; 

Save that aloft the subtle sunbeams shine 

On wither'd briars, that o'er the crags lediae, 

SfAe light admitted there, a small cascade 

Illumes with sparkling foam the impervious shade; 

Beyond, along the vista of the brook. 

Where antique roots its bristling course 6'erlook, 

The eye reposes on a secret bridge, 

Half grey, half shagg'd with ivy to its ridge." 

. The chapel, from its prominent position, arrests the stranger^ notice the mo- 
ment be arrives at the village. It was erected by Lady le Fleming in 1B24, at 
her own expense. 

Rydal Mount, for many years the dwelling of the poet Wordsworth, 
stands on a projection of the hill called Knab Scar, and is approached by the 
road leading to the HalL It is, as Mrs Hemans in one of her letters describes 
it, ** a lovely cottage-like building, almost hidden by a profusion of roses and 
ivy.** The grounds, laid out in a great measure by the hands of the poet him- 
self though but of circumscribed dimensions, are so artfully, whilst seeming to 
be so artlessly planned, as to appear of considerable extent. From a grassy 
mound in front, ** conmianding a view always so rich, and sometimes so brightly 
solemn, that one can well imagine its influence traceable in many of the poet's 
writings, you catch a gleam of Windermere over the grove tops, — close at hand 

* '* The sylvan, or say rather the forest scenery of Bydal Park, was, in the meniory of living 
men, magnificent, and it still oontuns a treasure of old trees. By all means wander away into 
ihanold woods, and lose yourselves for an hour ortwoammig the cooing of cushats, and the 
ihtni shriek of startled blackbirds, and the rustle of the harmless glow-worm am<nig the last 
y^v** red beedi leaves. No very great harm should you even Call asleep under the shadow of 
aa o«k, while the magpie diatters at safe distance, and the more innocent squirrd peeps down 
upon you from a bough of the canopy, and then hodsting his tail, glides into the obscuzi^ of ttw 
loftiest umbnge.'*— PfionssoB Wilbov. 



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282 AKBLBSIDI. 

are Rydal Hall, and its ancient woods, — bright opposite the Loughiigg Fens, 
ferny, rocky, and sylvan, and to the right Rydal Mere, scarcely seen through 
embowering trees, whilst just below, tiie chapel lifts up its little tower.** 

The walk to Rydal, on the banks of the Rothay, ttnder Loug^izigg Fell, is ex- 
tremely delightful Though more circuitous than the l^ghway, it presents finer 
combinations of scenery. The tourist, intending to take this round, should pur- 
sue the road to Clapper^gate for half a mile to Rothay Bridge, and having cross- 
ed the bridge^ enter the first gate on the right The road leads alongside the 
river, passing many handsome villas, to Pelter Bridge, 2^ miles. Rydal Hall, 
with its park, and Rydal Mount, will be frequently in sight. Behind, Amble- 
side, backed by Wansfell, has a picturesque appearance. On the right are the 
heights of Fairfield and Kirkstone. By crossing the bridge, the Keswick road 
will be gained, and the tourist can then either return to Ambleside, or proceed 
to Rydal, which is 300 or 400 yards further. Those who are fond of long walks 
ought to abstain from crossing the bridge, but, keeping to the left, pursue the 
road behind the &rm house, called Coat How, which leads along the south-west 
shore of Rydal Mere. This mere being passed, the road ascends the hill side 
steeply for some time, until it reaches a splendid terrace, overlooking Grasmere 
Lake, with its single islet, and then, climbing again, joins on Red Bank the Gras- 
mere, and Langdale road.* Here the tourist has the choice of returning to 
Ambleside by Loughrigg Tarn and Clappersgate, or proceeding to Grasmere 
fillage, in doing which he will pass in succession Tail End, the Wyke, and the 
Cottage. The village is a sweet little place, at the head of the lake, 4 niilet 
from Ambleside. In the churchyard are interred the remains of the poel 
Wordsworth. An excellent hotel (The Lowther and Hollins) has recently 
been opened on an eminence overlooking the high road from Ambleside to 
Keswick. Allan Bank, the residence of Thomas Dawson, Esq., stands on a 
platform of ground behind the village. This house was, for some time, tbe 
abode of Wordsworth. The house, however, in which he lived for many yean, 

• Thif is by fiir the best station for viewing the Lakeand Vale of GTannere. Probably Hwas 
this very view that called ttom Mis Hemans her sonnet entitled 

A RBMBMBRANCB OF GRASlfBRB. 
" O vale and lake, within your mountain um. 
Smiling so tranquilly, and set so deep ! 
Oft doth your dreamy loveliness return, 
Ckdouring the tendw shadows of my sleep 
With light Elysian ;— for the hues that steep 
Your shores in melting lustre, seem to float 
On goldoi clouds from spirit-lands remote 

Isles of the blest ;— and in our memory keep ' 

Thdr place with holiest harmonies. Fair scene 
Most loved by evening and her dewy star I 
Oh ! ne^er may man, with toudi unhaUow'd, jar 
The perfect music of the charm serene ! 
Still, still unchanged, may one sweet r^on wear 
Smiles that subdue the soul to love, and tears, and pmyor! 



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THE LAKE DISTRICT. 283 

and in which he c<mipo8ed many of his most heautiftil pieces, is at Giasmere 
Town End.* The singularly shaped hill, called Helm Grag, is conspicuously 
mble from Grasmere. Its apex exhibits so irregular an outline, as to have given 
rise to numberless whimsical comparisons. Gray compares it to a gigantic 
building demolished, and the stones which composed it flung across in wild coiw 
ibsion. And Wordsworth speaks of 

" The ancient Wamxa neted on Helm Crag." 

The narrow valley of Easedale, a dependency of Grasmere^ lying in a recess 
between Helm Crag and Silver How, deserves a visit for its picturesque and se- 
cluded beauty. 

" The fpot wag made tiy nature for henelf." 
It contains s huge tarn, and a small cascade, called Sour Milk GiU. The me- 
lancholy &te of John and Sarah Green, who lived in this vale, is now pretty 
generally known through Mr De Quincey, who published an account of it in 
Taifb Magazine for September 1839. 

About a mile from Grasmere, on an eminence, over which the old road to 
Ambleside passes, and exactly opposite to the middle of the lake, is t{ie Wish- 
ing Gate. It has been so called, time out of mind, from a belief that wishes 
fonned or indulged there have a &vourable issue. Apart from any adventitious 
interest, the gate is an excellent station for viewing the lake. 

A pleasing excursion, of ten miles, into the retired side- valley of Troutbbcr, 
nay be conveniently taken from Ambleside. As the latter part of the route is 
practicable for horsemen and pedestrians only, those who take conveyances wiH 
be. compelled to return by the road they went, as soon as they arrive at the 
bead of Troutbeck, unless they proceed by way of Kirkstone to Patterdale. The 
tourist must pursue the Kendal road for two miles, and take the first road on 
the left when he has passed Low Wood Inn. From the eminences of this road, 
loany exquisite views of Windermere are obtained ; and, perhaps, the finest 
view of the lake that can be had from any station, is that from the highest part 
of it The mountains in the west present an admirable outline, and the whole 
length of the lake stretches out before the spectator, 

«' with all its fidry crowds 

Of islands, that together lie 
As quietly as spots of sky 

Amongst the evening clouds." 

* The whole valley oi Oxasmere, in £ict. teems with memorials of Wordswortii. Thoe is 
"vody a crag, a knoll, or a rill, whidi he has not embalmed in verse. To this cottage at Town 
^oA, which is now partially hidden from those on the highway, by the intervention of some 
l*ter built cottages, Wordsworth brought his bride in 18Q2. Previous to his departure to Ibtch 
^* he composed his Farewell, in whidi these lines occur,— 

" Farewell, thou little nook of mountain ground* 

Thou rocky comer in the lowest stair 

Of that magnificent Temple, which doth bound 

One side of our whole vale with grandeur raret 

Sweet garden-orchard, eminently £sir. 

The lovdiest spot that man hath ever found f 



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284 AXBLESIDS. 

* There is not,** aajB ProfeMor Wilson, ** sach another splendid prospect in sH 
England. The lake has much of the character of a river, withottt losing its own. 
The islands are seen almost all lying together in a cluster— below whid) all ia 
loveliness and beauty — above, all mijesty and grandeur. Bold or gentle pro- 
montories break all the banks into frequent bajrs, seldom without a cottage or 
cottages embowered in trees ; and, while the whole landscape is of a sylvan 
kind, parts of it are so laden with woods, that you see only here and there a 
wreath of smoke, but no houses, and could almost believe that you are gaang 
on the primeval forests.^ One mile and a half from Low Wood, one ex- 
tremity of the ' long vale-village^ of Troutbeck is reached, at a point about a 
mile fivm Troutbeck Bridge. The rude picturesqueness of its many-chimneyed 
cottages, with their unnumbered gables and slate-slab porticoes, wiU not be pas- 
sed unnoticed by the tourist, as he bends his way towards the hills. ** The cot- 
tages (says the writer from whom our last extract was ikiade) stan4 for the most 
part in clusters of twos and threes, with here and liiere what in Scotiand is called 
a dadum — many a sma* toun within the ae lang toun — but where iit all broad 
Scotland is a tnile-ldng scattered congregation of rural dwellings, all dropped 
down where the Painter and the Poet trould have wished to plant them, on 
knolls and in dells, on banks and braes, and below tree-crested rocks, and all 
bound together in picturesque confusion, by old groves of ash, oak, and syca- 
more^ and by flower gardens and fruit orchards, rich as those of the Heq>e- 
rides ?^ The road pursues the western side of the valley, at some distance from 
the lowest level, which is occupied by the stream giving its name to the village 
On the opposite side, the Howe, the residence of Captain Wilson, R. N., fiU 
be observed, and further on, the chapel is perceived on the bainks of the stream^ 
near the bridge, by which the roads are connected. That on the east aide is^ 
most direct road from Bowness to the valley, but it is objectionable on account 
of its not conducting the traveller through the village. The road on the west- 
ern flank joins the Kendal and Ambleside road at Troutbeck ^dge, keeping 
throughout on the banks of the stream, the meanderings of fdiich, oh its way 
to Windermere, round rugged scaurs and wooded banks, are continually in agfat 
Half a mile beyond the chapel, is ^e only inn in the valley, bearing the quaint 
title of " The Mortal Man,'* — a name acquired from the lines, composed, doubt- 
less, by some native poet, which a few years ago decorated the sign-board-^ 
" p Mortal Man, who livest on bread, 

WhaX is't that makes thy nose so red ?— 

Thou silly ass, that looks so pale. 

It ia with drinking Birkett's ale." 

Two miles beyond the inn, the tourist has immediately belo# h!ni;'ft'tongi^ or 
swelling from the bottom of the vale called Troutbeck Park^ wluch is ^ble 
even from ^e sur&ee of Windermere; Taking Im station here, an<i faimiyi^ to 
the north-east, the spectator has the mountains of Kentmere before, him. The 
nearest elevation is called the Yoke, the two next, having the i^ppearance of the 
bumps on a dromedaryls back, are Hill Bell and Froawkk, — and further on ia 



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THR LAKX DISTRICT. 285 

High Street HsTittg left the MortalMan thiee nukt behind, and elimb^ the 
side of Kirkstone for some distance, a road through the fields, on the left, will 
be discoyered, which pasMS in Buccemon three fium-hoiues. High Grove, Mid- 
dle OroTe, and Low Grove, in Stockdale,and enten Ambleade, tbne milei from 
(he deviation. 

A fiivourite excursion, with the temporaiy residents in Ambleside, is that 
through the two Lanodalis. If the object of the tourist be merelj to view the 
vale of Great Langdale (the finer of the two) mth Dungeon Gill Force, and to 
ascend the Pikes, he will traverse a road perfectly piacticable for carriages ; but 
if he desire to see something more of the country, by visiting Skelwith and Col- 
with Forces, Little Langdale and Blea Tanis,he must be content to go on horse- 
back, in a car, <» on foot This circuit, which we shall describe, is about eighteen 
miles in length. With the intention, then, of visiting the. two Langdalea in suc- 
cession, the tourist will leave Ambleside by the road tp, Clappersgate, winding 
on the banks of the Bratiiay, (near the soivce of which he w^l be ere long,) un- 
der the craggy heights of Loug^irigg FelL A newly-built chaftel will be observed 
m a charming situation on the south bank of the river. ** Sweeter stream-sc^ 
nery,** says Wilson, ** with richer fore, and loftier back-ground, is nowhere to 
be seen within the four seas.** A few hundred yards above Skelwith Bridge 
(three miles from Ambleside) the stream is precipitated over a ledge of rock, 
making a frill twenty feet in height The cascade is not so remarkable in itself^ 
as for the magnificent scenery around it Langdale Pikes- have a peculiarly 
itriking appearance. By this bridge the traveller is conducted into Lancashire, 
in which county the road does not continue for mc»e than a mile before it re- 
enters Westmorland at Colwi^ Bridge. A short distance above the bridge, the 
atieam, issuing from a tarn frvther up, makes a fine cascade called Colwith 
Force. It is in a dell close to the road, and is about 70 feet high. A stupen- 
dous mountain, called Wetherhmib, occupies a conspicuous position in a chain 
of lofty hills on the south-west Proceeding, Little Tiangda]f> Tarn becomes 
risible on the left — on the right is Lingmoor, a hiU which serves as a partition 
between the two Langdales. At the termination of the inclosed land, amongst 
a few trees, are two dwellings, called Fell Foot, Seven and a-half miles from 
Amblesida One of them was formerly an inn, whereat the gangs of pack-horses 
were refreshed previous to their ascent of the mountain passes of Wrynose and 
Hardknot — this being the route by which the manufactures of Kendal were 
transported to the western coast Taking the road to the right, and ascending 
tome distance between the mountains, a solitary pool of water, named Blea 
Tarn, is perceived in the bottom of an elevated depression. 
Those magnificent objects, — 

the two huge peaks 

That ftom tome other vale peer into this, 

are the two Pikes of Langdale. The more southern one is named Pike o* Stickle 
—the other, and higher, Harrison Stickle. Having passed the tarn, the road 



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286 ULTBBSVOV. 

winds down aiteep descent into the head of Great Iinngdale, that part of it cal- 
led Mickleden, through which is the road over the Stake into Borrowdale, being 
right before the eye. Mill Becks, a fium-house, at which refreshment is nsuallj 
taken, is soon reached. Here a gmde to Dungeon Gill Force^ and to the aom- 
mit of the Pikes, can be obtained. The former is a fill! of water, formed hj a 
stream which runs down a fissure in the mountain's side not far above the 
house. A curious natural arch has been made, by a huge stone having rolled 
from a higher part of the mountain, and got wedged in between the cheeks of 
rock. Over the bridge thus formed, ladies have been known, like WordsworthiB 
Idle Shepherd Boj, to possess the intrepidity to pass.* Two roads traverse the 
valley, one of which keeps under the hills on the left, the other takes the midr 
die of the vale ; — ^the former is to be preferred by those unencumbered with car- 
riages. One mile and a half from Mill Becks, is the little Chapel of Langdale* 
whence a road strikes up the hiU-side, crossing Red Bank into Rydal, or Gias- 
mere. A large sheet of water, lying amongst the meadows, which now comes 
into sight, is Elterwater Tarn, at the head of which stands Elterwater HalL The 
stream feeding the tarn is crossed by a bridge^ a short distance above the tarn- 
Near the bridge are the works of Elterwater Gunpowder Company. A little fur^ 
ther in a recess, on the flank of Loughrigg Fell, is Loughrigg Tarn, a lovely spot 
on which Wilson has composed some beautiful lines. Ambleside is only thres 
miles beyond. 

Ambleside abounds with villas. Among them may be named. Fox Ghyll 
(R. Rouj^isedge, Esq.), Fox Howe (Mrs Arnold), Rothay Bank (J. Ctossfield, 
Esq.), Oak Bank (C. Robinson, Esq.), The Cottage (H. P. Lutwidge, Eiiq.), The 
Oaks (Dr Davy), The Knoll (Miss Martineau), Covey Cottage (G. Partridge, 
Esq.), Bellevue (M. Harrison, Esq.), Green Bank (B. Harrison, Esq.), Hill Top 
(T. Carr, Esq.), Brathay Hall (G. Redmayne, Esq.), Croft Lodge (J. Holmes, 
Esq.), Wanlaai How (Mrs Brenchley), Wansfell Hohne (J. Hornby, Esq.), 
Wray Castle (J. Dawson, Esq.), Rydal Hall (Rev. Sir R. FlemingX Rydal Mount 
(the residence of the late William Wordsworth, Esq.), Glen Rothay (W. Ball 
Esq.), Allan Bank (Thomas Dawson, Esq.X The Cottage (Mrs. Orrell). 

ULVERSTON. 
[/fuu.— Sun; Braddyll's Armi.] 
Ulvkrstom, a market-town and port, containing about 6483 inhabitants, situate 
in that division of Lancashire, termed ** North of the Sands,** is supposed to de- 
rive its name from Ulph, a Saxon Lord. It is about a mile from the estuary oi 
the Leven, with which it is connected by a canal, constructed in 1795, and ca> 

* " There is a spot which you may see 
If ever you to Langdale go. 
Into a diasm, a mighty block 
Hath fallen, and made a bridge of rock : 
The gulf is deep below. 
And in a basin black and small, 
Beoeives a lofty WatarfiOL" 

Woanswc&TU. 



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THB LAKE DISTRICT. 287 

pable of floating Tenels of 200 tonf. The appearance of the town is nest, the 
greater part of the houses being of modem erection. The parish church, dedn 
cated to St Mary, received consideraible additions in 1804 ; bnt a tower and Nor- 
man doorwaj of the old structure still remain. From the sloping ground behind 
the church, a delightftd new of the baj and neighbouring country may be ob- 
tained. A new and elegant church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, was erected 
at the upper end of the town in 1832. Am(nigst other buildings of recent erec- 
tion, the Savings* Bank may be noticed. The town contains a Theatre, Assem- 
bly Room, and Subscription library, and two good Inns, — the Sun and Brad- 
dyll^ Anna Ship-building is carried on to some extent ; and the manu&cture 
of check, canvass, and hats, is a considerable branch of trade. 

The Duke of Buccleuch is Lord of the liberty of Fumess, of which the Manor 
of Ulverston forms part 

CoNiSHBAD PRIORT, the Seat of T. R. G. Braddyll, Esq., has been termed, 
from its beautiful situation, <* the Paradise of Fumesa** It is situate two miles 
Kmth of Ulverston, near the seanshore, in an extensive and well-wooded park, 
which is intersected, like most old parks, with public roads, forming a fiivourite 
promenade for the inhabitants of the town. The numsion, which has lately been 
robidlt in a style of magnificence of which there are few examples in the north 
of Engkmd, occupies the site of the ancient Priory, founded by WiUiam de Lan- 
csster, the fourth in descent firom Ivo de TalUebois, first Baron of Kendal, in 
the reign of Henry II. Upon the dissolution of the religious houses, it fell into 
the hands of Henry the VIII., whose cupidity was excited by the great extent 
of its landed possessions. The interior of the mansion possesses some good paint- 
ings of Titian, the Cairaod, Romney, Reynolds, and other celebrated painters. 
HoLKm Hall, a seat of the Earl of Burlington, is placed in a noble park on 
the opposite shore of the Leven, about three and a half miles east of Ulverston. 
The noble owner has a good collection of pictures, among which are many ex- 
cellent paintings by Ronmey. 

Six miles north-east of Ulverston is the village of Cartmell, in which is an 
ancient church, once a priory, of unusual size and beauty, dedicated to the Vir- 
gin. A short distance from the village is a medicinal spring called HolyweU. 
Six miles and a half to the south-west of Ulverston, in a close valley called 
Beckanigill, or the glen of deadly nightshade, from that plant being found there 
in great abundance, are the beautiful remains of Furnxss Abbst, now belong- 
ing to the Earl of Burlington. This abbey was founded in 1127, by Stephen, 
Earl of Montaigne and Boulogne, afterwards King of England ; ** This prince 
conferred the greater part of the district, excepting the land of Michael Flem- 
ing, on the Abbey of Fumess, by a charter dated 1126, in which, for the first 
time, the name Fumess * Fuderaesia* or the further ness, is found. By this in- 
stitution it was held till the dissolution, when it reverted to the Crown, and be> 
came part of the duchy of Lancaster. In the year 1662, it was granted by 
Charles II. to the Duke of Albemarle, and his heirs^ with all the rights, privi- 



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288 KESWICK. 

IcfM, and jviidictioiit beUwging. thereta The Lordship » now held bj the 
Duke <d Aicdeuch and Lord Beuilieu, to iHiom the property of the Duke of 
Albemarle deicended by mairiage. In the early part of Engliih hiatory, the 
Falla of FnmeM formed the bonndaiy betvreen Scotland and England, and in 
1138, a temible eruption from the north laid the whole peninaoladeeolate. The 
ruins of the castle of Pile of Fouldrejr, form a monument of that iuTasion.^ * 

The ruins amply attest the former magnificence of the structure. The length 
of the church is 287 feet, the nave is 70 feet broad, and the wallsin stmie places 
54 feet high, and 5 feet thick. The walls of the church, and those of the chap- 
ter-house, the refectoiium, and the schoolrhouse^ are still in great part remain- 
ing, and exhibit fine specimens ci Gothic architecture ; the chapter-house, 60 
feet by 45, has beeni^ sumptuous apartment ; the roo^ which was of fret-work, 
was supported by six channelled pillars. The great east window, the four seats 
near it, adorned with Gothic ornaments, and feur statues found in the ruins^ are 
particularly worthy of notice. 

By the ebbing of the tide, the sands of Morecambe Bay, lying between Lan- 
caster (hence usually termed the Lancastui Sands) and Ulverston, are twice a 
day, to the extent of several miles, left, perfectly dry, except in the channels of 
the rivers Kent and Leven, and may be crossed by vehicles of every description. 
Guides, who are remunerated by Oovemment, are stationed at the places where 
the rivers flow, to conduct travellers across in safety. The idiole distance from 
Lancaster to Ulverston is twenty-two miles. From Hest Bank, the point of en- 
tiy upon the sands on the eastern shore, to Rents Bank, is i^ distance of eleven 
miles. Three miles oi terra firma are then crossed, and three miles of sand fol- 
low, lying between the shores ci the Leven estuary, from the nearest of which 
Ulverston is distant something more than a mile. If the proper time be chooeiB, 
(which can be easily ascertained by inquiry at Lancaster and Ulverston,) then 
is no danger in crossing these sandy plains, and yet few years pass in which lives 
are not iostf 

KESWICK. 

CB9<«b.— Bojal Oak; Queen's Head; King*! Armi.] 
Keswick, a market-town in the parish of Crosthwaite, and coonty of Cum- 
berland, is situate -on the south bank of the Greta, in a large and fertile vale, 
little more than a mile from the foot of Skiddaw, and half a mile ^rom Der- 
wentwater. It contains 2618 inhabitants, and consists of one large strset The 
principal manufactures are linsey-wolsey stuffe, and edge-tools, particularly the 
former. Black-lead pencils, made of the plumbago (or wed, as it is provincially 
called,) extracted from* the mine in Borrowdale, are also a considerable branch 

• BAurxft' Hitt of Laneaaliire, VoL iv. p. 02?. 

f " I nuutnot omit te tell you that Mr Won b wort h not only admired our cxplaiK in cros- 
ung the Ulverston Sands as a deed of ' deirii^ do/butasa decided proof of taste: the lalce 
soenery,he says, is never seen to such advantage as after the passage of what he caUa its ma. 
Jestic tMuiia."— Mn Hbaiams* Letten. 



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THE LAKE DISTRIOT. 280 

<yf mimtflkctiure. Char, taken in Buttermere lake, is potted in iaige quantitiee 
during the proper season, and forwarded to the south of England. The Town 
Hall, erected in 1813, upon the site of the old Court House, stands in the centre 
of the town. The clock-bell, which was taken from a building that formerly 
stood on Lord^ Island in the lake, has the letters and figures " H. D. R. 0. 
1001,^ upon it, — ^a dedsive proof of its high antiquity. The parish chiuvh, an 
ancient structure, dedicated to St Kentigem, stands three quarters of a mile dis- 
tant A new church of elegant proportions was erected on the east of the town 
by the late John Marshall, Esq., who became lord of the manor by purchasing 
the forfeited estates of Ratcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater, from the Conmiissionera 
of Greenwich Hospital, to whom they were granted by the Crown. A manorial 
court is held annually in May. The two museums, kept by Messrs Crosthwaite 
and Hutton, deserve a visit, as they contain specimens illustrating the natural 
history of the neighbourhood, as well as many fbreign curiosities. Minerals and 
geological specimens are kept on sale. Mr Flintoff^ accurate model of the lake 
district, the labour of many years, should also be inspected. For the tourist 
this model possesses peculiar interest, e^diibiting, as it does, an exact represen- 
tation of the country through which he is t?avelling, with every object minutely 
Isid down, and the whole coloured after nature. The dimensions of the model 
are 12 feet 9 inches by 9 feet 3 inchest There are two good hotels, the Royal 
Oak and the Queen'ii Head, besides numerous inns, at which guides, ponies, 
boatmen, and boats can be obtained. Tourists desiring to make a prolonged 
stay may also be accommodated with comfbrtable lodgings at many private 
houses^ 

Orsta Hall, the residenceof thelate Dr Southey, the Poet Laureate, is seated 
on a slight eminence near the town, about 200 yards to the right of the bridge 
across the river on the road to Cockermouth. The scenery visible from the 
windows has been finely sketched by himself in these hexametrical lines : 

'* *Twas at that sober hour when the light of day is leoeding. 
And from sunounding things the hues wherewith day has adom'd them 
Fade like the hopes of youth till the beauty of youth is departed : 
Pensive, though not in thought, I stood at the window bdiolding 
Mountain, and lake, and vale ; the valley disrobed of its verdure ; 
Derwent retaining yet txom eve a glassy reflection. 
Where hb expanded breast, then still and smooth as a mirror. 
Under the woods reposed ; the hills that calm and mi\)estic 
Lifted their heads into the silent sky, from far Olaramara, 
Bleacrag, and ICaidenmawr to Grisedal and westemmoet Wythop. 
Dark and distinct they rose. The ckxids had gathered above them, 
Hi^ in the middle air huge purple piltowy masses* 
While in the west beyond was the last pale tint of the twilight, 
Green as the stream hi the glen, whose pure and dirysolite wat«s 
Fknr o'er a sdiistous bed, and serene as the age of the righteoun. 
Earth was husii'd and still t all motion and sound were suspended; 
Neither man was heard, bird, beast, nor hununing of insect. 
Only the raiee of the Oreta, heard only when all is in stillncti.** 



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290 OERWBNTWATCa 

The lake sometimes called Keswick Lake, but better known by the name of 

DERWENTWATER, 

is about half a mile firom the town. A scene of more luxuriant beauty than 
this lake affiirds can scarcely be imagined. Its shape is synmietrical without 
being formal, while its sixe is neither so large as to merge the character of the 
lake in that of the inland sea, nor so circumscribed as to expose it to the charge 
of insignificance. The admires of nature are divided in opinion as to the re- 
spectire merits of this lake and UUeswater ; some assigning the palm of supe- 
riority to the one and some to the other. Those who are &miliar with the Al- 
pine scenery of Scotland, which so tar surpasses in savage grandeur any tiung 
within the limits of the sister country, almost uniformly give the preference to 
Derwentwater, while those who have not possessed opportunities of contemplat- 
ing nature in her sterner moods are more deeply impressed with the more ma* 
jestic attributes of her rival 

Derwentwater approaches to the oval form, extending from north to south 
about three miles, and being in breadth ^bout a mile and a half, *^ expanding 
within an amphitheatre of mountains, rocky but not vast, broken into many 
fantastic shapes peaked, splintered, impending, sometimes pyramidal, opening 
by narrow vallies to the view of rocks that rise immediately beyond, and are 
again overlooked by others. The precipices seldom overshoot the water, but 
are arranged at some distance ; and the shores swell with woody eminences, or 
sink into green pastoral margins. Masses of wood also firequently appear among 
the cliiis, feathering them to their summits ; and a white cottage sometimes 
peeps from out their skirts, seated on the smooth knoU of a pasture projecUng 
to the lake, and looks so exquisitely picturesque, as to seem placed there pur- 
posely to adorn it The lake in return faithfully reflects the whole picture, and 
so even and brilliantly translucent is its sur&ce, that it rather hei^tens than 
obscures the colouring."* 

The principal islands in the lake are Vicar^s Isle, Lord^s Island, and St Her- 
bert's Isle. Vicar's Isle or Dbrwbnt Islb is that nearest the foot of the lake ; 
it contains about six acres, and belongs to Captain Henry, whose residence is 
upon it Lord's Island, of a size somewhat larger than the last, has upon it 
the hardly perceptible remains of a pleasure-house, erected by one of the Rat- 
cliffes with the stones of their deserted castle which stood on Castlerigg. This 
iaiand was once connected with the mainland, from which it was severed 
by the Ratcliffes, by a fosse, over which a drawbridge was thrown. St Her- 
bert's Isle, placed nearly in the centre of the lake, derives its name from 
a holy hermit who lived in the seventh century, and had his cell on this 
island. The remains of the hermitage are still visible. To St Cuthbert of 
Durham this " saintly eremite" bore so perfect a love as to pray that he him- 

• So truu|iarent ii the water, that pebbles may be easUy ssen fifteen or twenty feet bekm itf 
■ur&ce. 



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THE LAKE DISTRICT* 291 

self mighl expire the moment the breath of lifb quitted the body of hk friend, 
■o that their Mmla might wing their flight to Heaven in companj. 

Near the ruins, the late Sir Wilfred Lawion, (to whoee representatiTe the 
idand at present belongs,) erected a few years ago a small cottage which, being 
buHt of imhewn stone, and artificiallj mossed over, has a yenerable appearance. 
There are three or four other islets, the largest of which is Rampsholm. At ii^ 
regular intervals of a few years, the lake exhibits a singular phenomenon in the 
rising of a piece of ground, called The Floatino Island, fit>m the bottom to 
tiie surfiuse of the water. Its superficial extent varies in different years, fit>m 
an acre to a few perches. It is composed of earthy matter, six feet in thick- 
ness, covered with vegetation, and is fall of air-bubbles, which, it is supposed, by 
penetrating the whole mass, diminirii its specific gravity, and are the cause of 
ita buoyancy. This natural phenomenon is situate about 150 yards from the 
shore, near Lowdore. 

The walks in the neighbourhood of Keswick are numerous and interesting. 
Prom Crow Park and Friar Crag, two places situate on the east shore, near the 
Ibot of the lake, beautifiil views of the lake, vale, and surrounding mountains 
are obtained. From a wooded eminence called Castle Head, standing on the 
left of the Borrowdale road, about half a mile from Keswick, there is an en- 
efaanting prospect extending on the south into the ** Jsws of Borodale,^ in which 
Castle Crag appears like a prominent front tooth. Cat Bells, on the other side 
of the lake, are fine objects^ as well as other momiCiins which tower over the 
vale of Newlands. From a summit, called Castlerigg, one mile from Keswick 
on the Ambleside road, there is a most extensive view, comprising the lakes of 
I>erwentwater and Baasenthwaite, the fertile vale through which the Derwent 
winds on its passage from the one lake to the other, and the heights of Skiddaw. 
Qraj declares that, on leaving Keswick, when he turned roimd at this place to 
contemplate the scenery behind him, he was so charmed ** that he had almost 
a mind to go back again.^ A walk over Latrigg, ** Skiddaw'ii Cub,** wiU furnish 
the stranger with innumerable delightful prospects ; and, in foct, it is impossi- 
ble to star in the neighbourhood of Keswidc, without having scenery of the finest 
description before the eye. One mile and a-haJf from Keswick, on an eminence 
to the right of the old rood to Penrith, is a small Druidical circle, measuring 
100 het by 108, consisting of fbrty-eight stones, some of which are 7 feet high. 
Perhaps an excursion exhibiting more beautifiil prospects of rock, wood, and 
water, than that round Derwentwater, does not exist in the vicinity of the Lakes. 
It n not m(xe than 10 miles in length, if Orange Bridge be the limit of the ride 
in that direction ; but if the excursion be extended to Bowder Stone, two miles 
rnuat be added. Leaving Keswick by the Borrowdale Road, Castle Head, Wal- 
low Cng, and Falcon Crag, are successively passed on the left A hollow in the 
•ummit of Wallow Crag is visible from the road. There is a tradition current 
in the couutry, that, by means of this hollow, the Countess of Derwentwater ef- 



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292 BOWDSR STONX. 

fected her escape when the Earl was arrested for high treason, carrying with her 
a quantity of jewels and other valuables. It has ever since borne the name of 
the Jjadj^ Rake. Barrow House stands two miles from Keswick, on the left of 
the road. Behind the house there is a fine cascade 124 feet in height, which 
may be seen on application at the lodge. A mountain road stzikes off at this 
point to the village of Watendlath, two milesfrom the deflection. The road, after 
passing the village, near which there is a tarn, re-enters the Borrowdale road a 
little beyond Bowder Stone. In making the ascent to the village, splendid views 
of the lake andSkiddaw are obtained. One mile beyond Barrow, the road having 
passed under Thrang Crag, is the little inn of Lowdore, behind which is the ce- 
lebrated Lowdore Water&U. The grandeur of the rocks around the stream rai- 
der the scene impressive, whatever may be the state of the weather, but the cas- 
cade is dependent in a great measure for its effect on the quantity of water. 
After heavy rains, the noise of the ML may be heard as fiir down the lake as 
Friar Crag. Gowder Crag rises on the left, Shepherd'ii Crag on the right, of the 
miterfall. One mile ftirther, Grange Bridge, spanning Borrowdale Beck, is at- 
tained. Should the tourist desire to see the curious mass of rock called Bowder 
Stone, the road into Borrowdale must be continued for a mile ftu^er. This 
immense block, which has evidently rolled from the heights above, stands on a 
platform of ground, a short distance to the left of the rcMMU A branch road has 
been made to the stone, which rejoins the Borrowdale road ftirther on. It has 
been computed to weigh upwards of 1900 tons. Its summit may be gained by 
means of a ladder which has been affixed to it for the use of strangers. 
*' Upon a wmidrque of turf-dad giound, 

A mass of rock« rewmbling, at it lay 

Right at the foot of that moist precipice, 

A stranded ship, with keel upcumed, that rests 

Carotess of winds and waves. " 

WoRoawoRTR. 

Close to Bowder Stone, but on the opposite side of the river, from the bank 
of which it suddenly rises, is an elevation clothed with wood called Castle Crag, 
so termed from a Roman fortification having once occupied the summit, the 
£eunt traces of which stiU remain. Some of the relics found here are shpwn in 
one of the museums at Keswick. B«tuming to and crossing Grange Bridge, the 
village of Grange is passed, and, one mile beyond, are a few houses called Ma- 
. nesty, near which is a small medicinal spring. Passing under the smnmit styled 
Cat Bells, the road enters the pretty village of Portinscale, 4f miles from Grange 
Bridge, near which are many elegant villas. Keswick is but a mile and a quai^ 
ter beyond. 

An agreeable excursion of thirteen miles and a half may be made from Kes- 
wick into the famed Vallbt of St John. The Penrith road must be pursued 
for four miles, to the village of Threlkeld. This road, lying abnost the whole 
way on the banks of the Greta, passes under the mountain-masses of Skiddaw 
and Saddleback* Cmore poetically called Blencathara.) In a recess of the latter 



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THE LAKE DISTRICT. 293 

moontaiii, deeply emboflomed in huge clifi, there lies a piece of water called 
Scales Tarn, which exaggerating travellers have described as an abyss of waters 
upon which the sun never shines, and wherein the stars of heaven may be seen 
at noon-day. 

In the same tarn, tradition asserts that two immortal fish have their abode. 
Amongst the acknowledgments which the Minstrel, in his ** Song at the feast of 
Brougham Castle,^ states had been mJRe to the secret power of the good Lord 
Clifford, when a shepherd boy in adversity, was the following : — 
«* And both the undying fish (hat swim 

In Bowteale Tara did wait on him. 

The pair were servanti of hit eye 

In their immortality ; 

They moved about in open si^t. 

To and fro for hit delight." 

The old hall at Threlkeld has been long in a state of dilapidation, the only 
habitable part having been for years converted into a £um>hou8e. This was one 
of the places of residence of Sir Lancelot Threlkeld, a powerful knight in the 
reign of Henry VIL, and uncle to the Lord Clifford above-mentioned, who was 
wont to say that " he had three noble houses — one for pleasure, Crosby in West- 
morland, where he had a park full of deer ; one for profit and warmth, namely, 
Yanwith,nigh Penrith ; and the third, Threlkeld on the edge of the vale of Kes- 
wick, well stocked with tenants to go with him to the wars.** These ** three no- 
ble houses** are now the property of the Earl of Lonsdale, and are all occupied 
as farm-houses. 

A short distance on the Keswick side of Threlkeld, the road leading into the 
Vale of St John branches off on the right A branch of the river Greta, called 
St John*k Beck, runs through this valley, which is narrow, but extremely pic- 
turesque, being bounded on tiie right by Nathdale or Naddle Fell, and on the 
lefl by Great Dodd, a hill at the extremity of the Helvellyn chain. The chapel 
occupies a striking situation on the right, at the sunmiit of the pass between St 
John*li Vale and .Naddle. Though standing at such an elevation, the sun never 
riiines upon it during three months of the year. There are fine retrospective 
views of Saddleback, and the peculiar conformation of the sununit which gives 
its name to the mountain may be clearly perceived. The high road to Keswick 
is gained four miles and a half from Threlkeld. From the end of Naddle Fell, 
in the Vale o( Thirlspot, near to Thirlemere, some sweet glimpses of that lake 
may be obtained. The rock which has given celebrity to the valley stands near 
^e extremity on the left The resemblance to a fortification is certainly very 
striUng. It is the scene of Sir Walter Scott^ Bridal of Triermain, in which 
there is the following description of the appearance which the rock presented 
to the diarmed senses of King Arthur : — 

" With toil the King hit way punued 

By lonely Threlkeld's wait* and wood, 

!rai (m his eaune obliquely shone 

The narrow valley of 8t John, 



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204 VALl OF ST JOHN. 

Down tloping to tlM western aky. 
Where lingering sunbeami love to lie 

• • • • • • • 

Paled in by many a lofky hill. 

The nanow dale lay smooth and still. 
And, down its verdant boaom led, 
A whiding brooklet found its bed. 
But midmost of the TdCfa mound 
Arose with airy tunetamwn'd. 
Buttress, and rampire's drding bound. 

And mighty keep and tower ; 
Seem'd some primeval gioit^ hand 
The castle's massive walla had plami'd, 
A pondoous bulwark to withstand 

Ambitious Nimrod's power. 
Above the moated entrance slui^. 
The balanced drawbridge trembling hung. 

As Jealous of a foe ; 
Wicket of Oak, as iron hard. 
With iron studded, cknd>*d, and barr'd. 
And prong'd portculHa, Join'd to guard 

The ^oomy pass bdow. 
But the grey walls no banners crown'd. 
Upon the watdi-tower*s airy round 
No warder stood his horn to sound. 
No guard beside the bridge was found. 
And, where the Gothic gateway frown 'd, 

Ghmoed neither biU nor bow. 

• ••••••• 

when a pilgrim strays. 
In morning mist or evening maae. 

Along the mountain kme. 
That fiury fortress oftm mocks 
His gaseupon the castled rocks 

Of the Vallej of St John." 

Keswick is nine miles and a-half Irom Threlkeld by way of the Vale of St 
John. The ridge of Castlerigg, whence there is the splendid prospect already 
noticed, is crossed one mile from Keswick. 

A drive round the lake of Bassenthwaitb is frequently taken by tourists 
whilst making Keswick their head-quarters. This lake lies three miles to the 
north of Derwentwater, from which it is separated by low meadows, that in wet 
weather are flooded to some extent ; it is four miles long, and about one mile 
broad. The pleasant village of Portinscaleis a mile and a-quarterfrom Keswick. 
Two miles beyond, the road which must be pursued quits the old Cockermouth 
road near the village of Braithwaite, — ^between the two villages the tourist has Grise- 
dale Pike directly before him. The road then becomes elevated, forming a fine 
terrace whence the beautiful vales of Thomihwaite,&aithwaite, and Keswick, are 
beheld, with all their luxuriance of wood. Skirting the base of Lord^ Seat and 
Barf^ and after making many ascents and descents disclosing delightful views of 
the lake, backedby Skiddaw, Ouse Bridge is crossednine miles and a-half fromKes- 
wick. The bridge spans the Derwent soon alter it issues fit>mthe lake. A quarter of 



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THE LAKE DISTRICT. 295 

a mile bdyond is Annathwaite Hall, the seat of Sir H. R. F. Vane, Bart. The 
Casl'le Inn, where refireahment may be taken, is ten miles from Keswick, which 
town the tourist reaches by a road eight miles in lengtii, passing under Skiddaw. 
Bassenthwaite Church is seen on the right near the margin of the lake. 

The last excursion from Keswick which we shall detail is that by way of Bor- 
rowdale to Buttsrmbrb, Crummock, and Lowbs Water. The road has been 
abeady described as fi&r asBowder Stone, a little beyond which it joins the road 
from Watendlath. A mile below Bowder Stone is Rosthwaite, where there is 
a small inn. A short distance fiurther a road strikes off on the left through Stone- 
thwaite to Laiigdale, passing over the ridge called the Stake. One mile from 
Rosthwaite the road into Wastdale, by the pass of Sty Head, continues up Bof- 
rowdale on the left. Near the deviation is Seatoller, the residence of Abraham 
Fisher, Esq., in the neighbourhood of which is the celebrated mine of plumbago, 
or black kady as it is usually ci^ed. It has been worked at intervals for up- 
wards of two centuries, but, being now lees productive, the ore has been excavat- 
ed for several years consecutively. This is the only mine of the kind in Eng- 
land, and there are only one or two places in Scotland where plumbago has been 
discovered, but the lead obtained there is of an inferior quality. The best ore 
procured at the Borrowdale mine sells for L. 1, 10s. a pound. In the vicinity 
of the lead mine are four yew trees of extraordinary size. 

At Seatoller the ascent of Buttermere Haws is commenced. This hill is steep 
and the road rough, private carriages, therefore, should not be taken over. It is 
eleven hundred feet in height, and commands noble prospects of the receding 
valley of Borrowdale. Helvellyn may be descried over the Borrowdale Fells. 
The hill called Glaramara is on the left With a little stretch of fancy the 
streams may be heard 

•* Murmuring in Glarairara's inmost caves." 
On the right of the pass is the hill named Yewdale. 

The road descends rapidly into the head of Buttermere dale ; Honister Crag, 
presenting an almost perpendicular wall of rock, rising on the left to the height 
of fifteen hundred feet. In the iace of the rock, a considerable height above its 
base, large chambers have been cut, tier above tier, in which roofing-slates are 
excavated. The slates are shaped in the quarry, and brought down by men on 
wooden hurdles. These quarries belong to General Wyndham. Two miles be- 
low Honister Crag, and four from Seatoller, is a frum house near the head of 
Buttermere Lake, called Oatescarth, whence a mountain road crosses by the 
pass of Scarf Gap, into the head of Ennerdale, and reaches Wastdale Head by 
means of another pass called Black SaiL Hasness, the readence of General 
Benson, occupies a pretty situation on the leit near the margin of the lake. A 
series of mountain summits tower over the opposite shore of the lake. The 
Hay Stacks, so termed from their form, are the most eastern ; then follow High 
Crag, High Stile, and Red Pike. A stream issuing from a small tarn which 
lias between the two last, makes a fine cascade, bearing the name of Sour-Millc 



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296 SOUR-MtLIC OILL. iuu 

GilL The Tillage of ButtermerefltandsoodeclminggitRmdBearliMibett^ 
lake fourteen miles firom Keswick. It consists of a few scattered fiiim<^ioiise8, 
with a good inn, forming, bj reason of the sorrounding hills, the Tery fnctme of 
seclusion. ** The margin of the lake, which is OYerhung by some of the loftjest 
and steepest of the Cumbrian mountains, exhibits on either side few traces of 
human neighbourhood ; the lerel area, where the hills recede Plough to allow 
of any, is <^a wild pastoral character or almost saTage. The waters of the lake 
are deep and sullen, and the barrier mountains, by excluding the sun fer much 
of his daily course, strengthen the gloomy impressions At the foot of this lake 
lie a fevr unomamented fields, through which rolls a little brook connecting it 
with the larger lake of Crummock, and at the edge of this miniature domain, 
upon the road side, stands a cluster of cottages, so small and few that in the richer 
tracts of the island they would scarcely be complimented with the name of 
hamlet*** A good road of nine miles, after climbing a Haws 800 feet high, con- 
ducts the Tisitor through the vale of Newlands to Keswick. A small chapel has 
been erected at the expense of the Rev. Vaughan Thomas, by the road side, 
upon the site of a still smaller one. The old chapel has been thus described : 
— ** It is not only the veiy smallest chapel, by many degrees, in all England, 
but is so mere a toy in outward appearance, that were it not for its antiquity, its 
wild mountain exposure, and its consecrated connexion with the final hopes and 
fears of the adjacent pastoral hamlet, — ^but for these considerations the first 
movement of a stranger"^ feelings would be towards loud laughter ; for the char 
pel looks not so much a miniature chapel in a drop scene from the Opera 
House, as a miniature copy from such a scene, and evidently could not receive 
within its walls more than half a dozen households.** f 

A footpath leading through the fields, and across the little stream connecting 
the two lakes, conducts to Scale Forcb, one of the loftiest waterfells in the vi- 
cinity of the lakes. The road, in damp weather especially, is none of the clean- 
est, and therefore a boat is frequently taken, which lands the visitor about half 
armile from the fell A mountain path, leaving Scale Force on the left and 
climbing the fells above it, leads into Ennerdale. Floutem Tarn, which is pas- 
sed on the way, serves as a land-mark. 

Extending the excursion to Scale Hill, four miles firom Buttermere, the 
road traverses the eastern shore of Crummock Water, passing under the hills 
Whitele88,Grasmoor,and Whiteside. Melbreak is a fine object on theother shore. 
From the foot of this mountain a narrow promontory juts into the lake, the ex- 
tremity of which, when the waters are swoUen, becomes insulated. A short dis- 
tance before Scale HiU is reached, there is a fine view into the sylvan valley of 
Lorton. At Scale Hill there is a comfortable mn, which for a few days mi^t be 
made advantageously the tourist's residence. BoaU may be had upon Crum- 
mock Lake, from which the inn is about a mUe distant Scale Force might be 

« Oe Quinoey, ♦ IhuL 



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THE LAKE DISTRICT. 297 

Tuited iJt not Men preriously. One boating exconion at least ought to be taken 
for tbe pnrpoae <^ viewing the fine panorama of mountains which enclose the 
lakeland which can be nowh^fe seen to such advantage as from the bosom of the 
water. Qreen has pointed out one station for obtaining a fine yiew, not onlj of 
Crmamock Lake» but of Buttermere also. It is from a point two or three hun- 
dred yards abore the promontory imder Melbreak ; Honister Crag is seen clos- 
ing the proq>ect on the north. The lake is three miles long by about three-quar- 
ten of a mile broad ; its sounded depth is twenty-two fiithoms. There are three 
small iriands at the head, but they are too near the shore to add much to the 
other beauties of the scenery. The small lake called Lowes Water may also 
be Tidted. It is scarcely a mile long, and the scenery at its head is tame, but 
that round its foot is of a magnificent descripticm. 

From Scale Hill the tourist may proceed to the town of Cockermouth, the 
biitb-plaoe of the poet Wordsworth, which is seven miles distant — ^visit Enner- 
dale Wirter by way of Lamplugh— or return to Keswick by the vale of Lorton, 
a distance of twelve miles. This vale, watered by the Cocker, a stream which, 
iastting from Crummock Lake, joins the Derwent at Cockermouth, presents many 
channing views. Four miles from Scale Hill, the Keswick and Cockennouth 
rocid is entered, near the Yew-tree which WordsworUi has celebrated. 

*' There it a Tew-tree, pride of Lorton Vak, 
Which to this day stands single in the midst 
Of its own darkness, as it stood of yore. 
Not loth to furnish weapons for the bands 
Of Umftaville or Percy, ere they march'd 
To Scotland's heaths ; or those that cross'd the sea. 
And drew thdr sounding bows at Aginoour, 
Perhaps at earlier Cressy or Poictiers. 
Of vast drcumference and gloom profound. 
This solitary Tree !— a living thing 
Produced too slowly ever to decay ; 
Of form and aspect too magnificent 
To be destroy'd." 

The road commences soon afterwards the long and steep ascent of Whinlatter, 
from the summit of which the spectator has a noble combination of objects be. 
fore him, — comprehending Derwentwater, Bassenthwaite Water, Skiddaw, and 
Keswick Vale. The distance between Scale Hill and Keswick may be shortened 
by almost two miles, if the road under Whiteside and Onsedale Pike be taken. 
For the horseman and pedestrian the shorter route is to be preferred, as that 
part under the mountains forms a terrace, from which, vie¥rs of Lorton Vale, oi 
the neighbouring hills, and extending even to the Scotch mountains, may be ob- 
tamed. 

WHITEHAVEN. 

{Hoielt. —Gilohei Black Lion ; Golden Lion.] 
Wbitbhaveit is a market-town and sea-port, seated at the upper end of 
a mnall creek on the west coast in the county of Cumberland. It is situate 
in the pariah of St Bees, and contains 18,916 inhabitants. This town has ad- 



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298 WHITIHAVBN. 

vaaeed n^iidlj from iiw'gnfficunce to its present state of prospe rity, farm the 
year 1566 six fishermen's huts were all thai bore the name of Whitehayen. 
This sadden progress m the scale of importance is to be attributed in a great 
measure to the munificence of the Lowther fSunily, who, having large estates 
around the town, and valuable possessions in coal underneath it, have liberally 
come f^nrward on all occasions, when opportunities have occurred, to promote its 
prosperity. 

The chief manufiEbctures are coarse linens, and artictes cooneeted with the 
fitting up of vessels. Ship-building is also carried on to a eonsidenible extent. 
The port is the second in the county, there being upwards of 200 vessels belong- 
ing to it trading with theseckportsof Great Britain, and with America, the West 
Indies, and the Baltic, as well as almost an equal number engaged in the coal 
trade ; large quantities of iron and lead ore, grain, and lime are exported. The 
harbour is spacious and commodious, having seven piers extending into the sea 
in difiierent directions, and affording ample security for vessels lying within. At 
the entrance of the harbour there are two light-houses, and a third is situate on 
the promontory of St Bees Head, three miles to the south-west A machine, 
called the patent-slip, erected by Lord Lonsdale, into which vessels are drawn 
with ease and expedition iriien repairs are required, deserves a visit The bay 
and harbour are defended by batteries, formerly consisting of upwards of a hun- 
dred guns, but lately suffered to &11 into decay. These batteries received ex- 
tensive additions after the alarm caused by the descent of the notorious Paul 
Jones in 1778. This desperado, who was a native of Galloway, and had served 
his apprenticeship in Whitehaven, landed here with thirty armed men, the crew 
of an American privateer which had been equipped at Nantes for this expedi- 
tion. The success of the ent^prise was, however, frustrated by one of the com- 
pany, through whom the inhabitants were placed on the alert The only damage 
they succeeded in doing was the setting fire to three ships, only one of which 
was burnt They were obliged to make a precipitate retreat, having first spiked 
the guns of the battery, so that they escaped unhurt to the coast of Scotland, 
where they plundered the house of the Earl of Selkirk. Since 1803 a life-boat 
has been stationed here, — ^which has been the means of saving many lives. 

The streets of the town have a neat appearance, being straight as well as wide, 
and intersecting each other at right angles. A rivulet called the Poe runs un- 
derneath the town to the harbour. There are four churches of the establish- 
ment besides several dissenting places of worship. The schools are numerous, 
educating more than 1700 children, nearly 500 of whom are taught at the 
National School. The Theatre in Roper Street has a handsome appearance ; 
it was erected in 1769. The Workhouse is a large building in Scotch Street. 
The Harbour Ofiice, in which the affieurs of the harbour, docks, and customs are 
transacted, is a large structure on the West Strand. The Public Ofiice, con- 
taining a police ofiice, news room, &c., stands in Lowther Street The town uow 
enjoys the privilege of returning a Member to Parliament 



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V. 



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I. 



of 
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of 
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ULLES WATER. 



StSLtattf' Miles. 



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THB LAKI DISTRICT. 29!) 



{ The coal minM are the priacipal source of wealth at Whitehaven. They are» . 
ferbaps, tl^e^nost exti^aordini^y in the wp^ld, lying underneath the towil, ahd 
^ctendlng^-a considerably. disUnce under the bed of the sea. They are 3^0 yards i 
ii d^fythy and such vast quantities of coal have been excavated ^om them as to t 
nave given them the appearance of Sk subterranean city. At times oif pressing 
i&odsttd; 1500' tons are &equently taken to the shore for exportation each day. 
^e sea has not unfrequently burst into the mines, causing an immense dfestruc-. 

Jon of life and property ; the miners are also much annoyed with- fir&«damp 
dd choke-damp! Tli'6r6' are. many short railways to convey the coal t6 the 
c^ioire^ and steam engines pf great power are in continual operation for the pur- • 
pose of C€irrying off' the super^uous water. The mines have five principal en- 
trances, called Bearmouths,, three on the south side and two on the north, by 
all oHrhich horses can descend.!, 

Whitehaven is in direct communication with, Liverpool, Belfast, Dublin, and - 
Douglas in the Isle of Man, by the packed of the Steam' Navigation Company. * 
A packet sails several times a. week to and, from Uverpool ; and as this mode of 
Deaching Whitehaven 'ifir ipuch more economical and expeditious than tiie in- ', 
had one, many persons avaS...^tSsdmsclves of it for fhe purpose of arri\ing at 
t^e lake country. All-infonnation relative to the fares and times of sailing • 
may be ascertained upon ij^c(uiiry at the oflSce of the Company, 36 King Street, 
or by reference, to Bjcadsbaw's Railway Guide.. Railway Trains leave White- 
baven several times a-day for Workiri^u, Cockenhouth,^ and Marjrport, in con- 
nection with the HarypoH. and Carlisle Railway, and for St Bees and l^ven- 
glass, by the Funiess Junction Railway. . - ' 

• The residences is'the nei^bourhood of Whitehaven are Whitehaven Caatle 

SKatI of Lonsdale), on the souUi-east of the town;< Hensingbam Ho^se (Hv 
efferson, Esq.), one mile sotfth; Summer Grove (J. Spedrling;). twio liiftas « 
flouth ; Keekle Gtove (Mrs Perry), ihreo miles .south ; Linethwaite (O. Harris 
4on, Esq.), three miles south ; Moresby Hall (Mifis Tate), two miles'noith* built 
^r a design of liiigo Jones ; RoseQeath (Mrs Solomon> ; Rose^liill (O; W. 
Hartley, Esq.). ' ,. . ., 

* Excursicms may beMnade from Whitehaven to St*Bees» to Snnerdale Lake, ^ 
I nd to Wast Water... V ' « • ' - 

; ' : ST BEES. 

' "he village which gives its name to the pari^ of St Bees, in which Whitehaven ; 
j 1 situated, lies in a narrow valley near the sh(ift«, fbor miles to the south of 
' Vliitehaven. Its appellation is said to be derived from 'St Bega, an Irish vir- 
1 in and saint, who lived here, and founded a monafi^tery about the year 660. ' 
' l^e jchurch, which lyas erected some time after her'deatii, was dedicated to her, 
I nd ti still 4n a aft&te of excellent preservation. ' Th» tfower is the dnly part of 
^ &S^pn edifidy T*^mft?^?rgi the r^ bi^ m the ^lid. (3(^thiQjB(yi& . It I9 Ml, I 
«f red freestoney in a cruciform shape, and possflsses some fine 'carvings, paiti- 



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300 ST BEBS.-ENNEIU)ALB LAKE. 

eularly at the east end, which is lighted by three lancetHshaped windoirBb The 
nave is used as the parish church, and the cross aisle as a place of burial Un* 
til 1810 the chancel was unroofed, but in that year it was repaired, and is now 
occupied as the divinity school ** for the reception of young men intended for 
the Church, but not designed to finish their studies at Oxford or Cambridge.** — 
•* The old Conventual Church," says Wordsworth, in the pre&ce to his poem of 
• St Bees,* ** is well worthy of being visited by any strangers who might be led 
to the neighbourhood of this celebrated spot** 

The Grammar School, founded by Archbishop Grindal, stands near the 
church. 

Ennerdalb Lake is less visited than most of the other lakes, in consequence 
of its difficulty of access, and the want of houses of entertainment in the valley. 
It lies nine miles to the east of Whitehaven, from which town it is more easily 
reached than from any other. Its length is not more than two miles and a half* 
and its extreme width is about three-quarters of a mile. The stream which 
enters at its head is called the Liza, but the river issuing from the lake takes 
the name of Ehen. This stream is crossed for the first time by those approach- 
ing the lake five miles from Whitehaven, and a second time three miles further 
up, at the village of Ennerdale Bridge, at which is the chapel, and near it two 
small inns ; the foot of the lake is one mile beyond. The first mile and a half 
of Ennerdale Water is the most picturesque part, and, therefore, carriages need 
not proceed frirther along the road than this distance, as there is no outlet for 
them at the upper end of the valley. The pedestrian or horseman will do weD 
to traverse the whole length of the vale, aa the mountains round its upper end 
are thrown into magnificent groups. Long before reaching the head of Uie lake 
the scenery becomes wild and desolate. A mile and a half beyond the extre- 
mity is the &rm house of Gillerthwaite, the last habitation in the vale. Here 
the road for vehicles ends. A shepherd^ path passes along the banks of the 
Liza, and two miles and a half beyond Gillerthwaite the extremity of Ennerdale 
is reached. Great Gable (2925 feet) is a fine object at the head ; and the Pit 
kr (2893 feet) has a striking appearance on the right. Great Gkble is so called 
fit>m its resembling the gable-end of a house. On the summit there was wont 
to be a small hollow in the rock never entirely empty of water, — ** having,* 
sajrs Wordsworth, " no other feeder than the dews of heaven, the showers, the 
vapours, the hoar frost, and the spotless snow.** This rock is now destroyed 
The peculiar shape of the Pillar will not fail to strike the eye for some distance 

A sheep cote at the termination of the valley will be noticed. At this point 
a path strikes up the hill on the left, called Scarf Gap, and reaches Gatescardk 
in Buttermere, by a road three miles in length. Another path passes over 
Black Sail on the right, and winding round Kirkfell into Mosedaie^ having 
Yewbarrow on the right, reaches Wastdale Head, three miles from the Aetf 
cote. Wastdale Head will be mentioned again in the description of oar B0Kt 
excursion. 



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6UIDC 90 THE LAKES. 301 

WAST WATER 

May be visited either by the Fumess Junction Railway from Drigg or Seascale 
Station, the former of which is 14^ and the latter 12^ miles from Whitehaven, or 
by the road which passes through the town of Egremont Following the road 
two miles and a half beyond Egremont,~on the right is the village of Beckermet. 
A house near this village, the residence of Joseph Hartley, Esq., bears the name 
of Wotobank, from the hill near which it stands. The derivation of this name 
is assigned by tradition to the following incident : A Lord of Beckermet, with 
his lady and servants, were one day hunting wolves. During the chase the lady 
was discovered to be missing. After a long and painful search, her body was 
found on this hill or bank slain by a wol^ which was discovered in the very act 
of tearing it to pieces. In the first transports of his grief the husband exclaimed, 
•Woe to this bank!" 

*' Woe to thee, bank I the attendants echo'd round, 
.\nd pitying shepherds caught the grief-fraught sound t 
Thus, to this hour, through every changing age. 
Through every year's still ever-varying stage. 
The name remains, and Wotobank is seen 
From every moimtain bleak and valley green ** 

Mrs Cowlsy'b Edtokuu 

The road crosses Calder Bridge four miles from Egremont There are two 
good inns jn the village. Close at hand is Fonsonby Hall, the residence of £. 
Stanley, Esq., in a beautifril park. One mile above the village, on the north 
bank of the stream, are the picturesque remains of Calder Abbey, founded by 
Ranulph de Meschiens in 1134, for a colony of Cistertians who were detached 
from Fumess Abbey. It subsequently received many valuable grants. At the 
dissolution it shared the common fate of the Romish ecclesiastical establish- 
mentsL 

In the church-yard at Gosforth, six miles from Egremont, there is an ancient 
stone pillar, which, until lately, was surmounted by a cross. The pretty village 
of Strands is four miles beyond Gosforth. It has two decent inns, at which boats 
on the lake may be procured. The ascent of Scawfell Pikes may be conveni- 
ently made from this place, by taking a boat to the head of the lake and landing 
at the foot of the mountain. Wast Water, one mile from Strands, is three and 
a half miles in length, and about half a mile broad. The deepest part yet di»> 
covered is forty-five frithoms. It has never been known to be iced over even in 
the severest winter. The mountains round this lake rise to a great altitudeu 
The Screes hang over the south-east margin^ and form an extraordinary feature 
in the landscape. Seatallan guards the opposite shore. The road traverses the 
oorth-westem shore, and, six miles from Strands, arrives at the village of Wast- 
dale Head, which consists merely of a few scattered homesteads and a little cha- 
pel It would be a great acconmiodation to tourists if there were an inn at this 
place. Refreshment can, however, be obtained at one of the fieum-houses, for 
which, of course, some remuneration will be given. The panorama of moun> 



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ZOi PSHMTH. 

tains surromidiiig this leyel area is strikiD^ grand. Standing at the head of 
the lake, the spectator will haye Tewharrow, like the slanting roof of a house, 
on his left, fiirther up, KirkfeU, and immediatelj before him Great Gable,— a 
little on the right of which is Lingmell, a protrusion from Scawfell — the Pikes, 
(the hi^est land in England,) and Scawfell then follow.* Between Tewbarrow 
and KirkfeU there is the path over Black Sail into Ennerdale, before noticed. A 
foot road, passing round the head of the lake, and climbing the high ground be- 
tween the Screes and ScawfeU, descends bj waj of Bummoor Tarn into Esk- 
dale. Tourists on foot or horseback may proceed to Keswick, fourteen miles 
distant, by the pass of Sty Head— the highest in tiie lake district The Borrow- 
dale road is Altered near Seathwaite. Great Gable is on the left of the pass, 
and Great End on the rig^ The summit, 1300 feet high, conmiands, as may 
be imagined, a most extensiye view. The ascent is remarkably steep ; and if 
horses are taken oyer, great caution should be used. The notorious Baron Trenck 
once dashed down on horseback, leading his astonished guide behind carefully 
picking his way. The fearless horseman arriyed safe at tiie bottom, and pei^ 
formed in one day a journey of fifty-six miles, through steep and difficult roeds^ 
which nearly killed his horse. 

PENRITH. 

iEoteU.-— Crown; George.] 
Penrith is an ancient market-town, seated at the foot of an eminence near the 
Routhem verge of the county of Cumbeiland. It contains 6668 inhabitants, and 
the appearance of the town is clean and neat It lies in the nei^bourfaood of 
three rivers, the Lowther, Eamont, and Petterill, within the district called Ing^ 
wood Forest. The existence of Penrith may be traced back for many oentoriea. 
An army of 80,000 Scots laid it waste in the nineteenth year of Edward Hi, 
carrying away many of the inhabitants prisoners, and in the reign of RIdiard 
TIL the town was again sacked. The manufactures are yery triflings consisting 
principally of linen goods and some woollen fkbrics. 

The ruins of the Castle, supposed to have been erected by the Nevflki^ oyer- 
look the town from the west, and give it a noble appearance. It was for some 
time the residence of the Duke of Gloucester, afterwards Richard III., andeoa- 
tinued in the possessioii of the Crown till the Revolution, when it was granted, 
together with the honoiv of Penrith, to Walter Bentinck, Earl of POTtlimd. la 
the contest between Charles L and the Long Parliament, this castle was sdsed 
and dismantled by the adherents of tiie Commonwealth, and the lead, timbOt 
and other materials were sold. In 1783, the late Duke of Portland soki it, to- 
gether with the honour of Penrith, including Inglewood Forest, to the Dvks <d 
Devonshire. Among the ruins is a subterraneous passage, which leads to a house 
in Penrith, called Dockray Hall, about three hundred yards distant 
The Okv/irh is a plain structure ; it was partly rebuilt in 1722; and is dedi- 

* A description of the Pikef, and their ascent, is given on a subsequent page* 



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OniDB TO THE LAKES. 303 

cated to St Andxew. It was given bjr Resttrj I. to the Bishop of Carlisle, who 
is still the patron of the cure. 

On one of the walls is the following record of the ravages of a pestilence to- 
ward the end of the reign of Queen Elisabeth : — ** A. D. M.D.xcvm. ex gravi peste, 
qus regionibuB hisce incubuit, obierunt apud Penrith 2260, Kendal 2500, Rich- 
Bumd 2200, Carlisle 1196. 

Poster!, 
Ayertite \q§ et vivite." 

This memorial on brass has been substituted in the place of a more ancient in 
scription engraven on stone. It appears from an ancient register kept in the 
pari^ that this dread^l pestilence raged here from September 22, 1597, to 
January 5, 1599, a period of fifteen months ! 

In the church-yard is a singular monument of antiquity, called the Oiemt^a 
Orcme, the origin of which is involved in obscurity. It consists of two stone 
pillars, standing at the opposite ends of a grave fifteen feet asunder, and taper- 
ing from a circumference of eleven feet six inches at the base to seven feet at 
the top. Between these are four other stones ; the whole are covered with 
Runic or other unintelligible carvings. Near them is another stone called the 
6iant*s thumb. These remains are said to have once formed a monument erected 
to the memory of Owen Ccesarius, a giant. 

On the heights to the north of Penrith is a square stone building, called the 
.fi!aioofi,weUplacedfor giving alarm in the time of danger. From this elevation the 
views are at once extensive and delightfully picturesque ; Helvelljm, UUeswater, 
Skiddaw and Saddleback, with their attendant mountains ; Crossfell (2900 feet 
hig^), and the eastern chain of hills stretching from Stanemoor in Yorkshire, 
through Westmorland and Cumberland into Scotland, being within the bound- 
ary of the prospect 
The antiquities in the neighbourhood of Penrith are numerous. 
The remains of Brougham Castle, which are supposed to occupy the site of 
the Roman station JBrovoniacvm, occupy a striking situation near the junction 
of the rivers Eamont and Lowther, one mile and three-quarters from Penrith, a 
little to the right of the Appleby Road. The vallum of an encapment is still 
to be traced, and altars, coins, and other antiquities have often been found at the 
place. 

' A short distance beyond Brougham Castle stands the 0<yimie88*8 PilUxr^ erected 
in 1666, by Lady Anne Clifford. 

Two miles below Brougham Castle, on the precipitous banks of the Eamont, 
are two excavations in the rock, called GiaaU^a Coma, or Im Pao'lia. One is 
very large, and contains marks of having been inhabited. There are traces of 
a dcMnr and window : and a strong column has marks of iron grating upon it 
The approach to these singular remains is difficult They are said to have been 
the abode of a giant called Ids. 
A short distance on the Westmorland side of Kamont Bridge, in a field on 



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S04 OIA»T*S CAVSS. 

the ri^t of the road, about a nrile and a half from Pemitfa) la snodier cixrkma 
relic of antiquity, Kimg Arthmr*s Bound TaibU, * a circular area above twenty 
yards in diameter, aurrounded by a fone and mound ; with two approaches op- 
posite each other conducting to the area. As the fosse is on the inner side, it 
could not be intended for the purpose of defence, and it has reasonably been 
conjectured that the enclosure was designed for the exercise of the feats of 
chivalry, and the embankment around for the convenience of the spectators. 
Higher up the river Eament is Mayborough, an area of nearly 100 yards in diar- 
meter, surrounded by a mound, composed of pebble stones elevated several feet. 
In the centre ofthe area is a large bloek of unhewn stone eleven feet high, sup- 
posed to have been a place of Druidical Judicature. Six miles north-east of 
Penrith, on the summit of an eminence near Little Salkeld, are the finest relics 
of antiquity in this vicinity, called Long Meg and her daugJUen, They consist 
of a circle, 350 yards in circumference, formed of sixty-seven stones, some <^ 
them ten feet high. Seventeen paces from the southern side of the circle stands 
Long M^ — a square unhewn colunm of red freestone, fifteen feet in circum- 
ference, and eighteen feet high. 

In a note to his sonnet on this monument, the poet Wordsworth observes, — 
** When I first saw this monument, as I came upon it by surprise, I might over- 
rate its importance as an object ; but though it will not bear a comparison with 
Stonehenge, I must say I have not seen any other relique of those dark ages 
which can pretend to rival it in singularity and dignity of appearance.** 

At Old Penrith, five miles north-west of Penrith, are the remains of the Ro- 
man station JBremenieMracwn, A military road, twenty-one feet broad, led from 
it to the Roman walL 

The seats ofthe nobility and gentry in the neighbourhood of Penrith are 
very numerous. The more important are — Carleton Hall, (John Cowper, Esq.,; 
one mile south-east Brougham Hall (Lord Brougham), one and a-half miles 
south-east Skiigill House (L. Dent, Esq.), oiTe mile south-west Dalemain (EL 
W. Hasell, Esq.) three and arhalf miles south-west Lowther Castle, (the Earl 
of Lonsdale,) four miles south. Grey«tock Castle, (Henry Howard, Esq.,) four 
and a-halfmiles west north-west Eden Hill, (Sir George Musgrave, Bart,) four 
miles east Hutton Hall (Sir H. R. F. Vane, Bart), five miles north-west by 
north. Some of these, however, deserve more particular mention. 

Brougham Hall, an old and picturesque building, is the seat of Henry, Lord 
Broug^uun and Vaux. It will be visited with interest,as the patrimonial inheritance 

* *' He past'd red Penrith's Table Round, 
For feati of chivalry renown'd t 
Left Mayborough's mound, and itonea of power 
By Dndda xaiaed hi' magic hour. 
And traced the Earoont's winding way, 
TiU Ulfo'slake beneath him lay." 

JiridoliifTrUrmtHn* 



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6UIDB TO THE LAKES. 3 )6 

tnd occaskmal residence of unquestionably the fiitt onUtr of the age. It standi 
npon an eminence not ftr from the ruins of Brougham Castle, commanding ex- 
tenave views of the surrounding country, the mountains beyond Ulleswater clos- 
ing the prospect. From its situation and beautiful prospects, it has been termed 
* the Windsor of the North.^ Having at one time belonged to a fiunily named 
find, it was from this circumstance sometimes called Bird^a NetL The pleasure- 
grounds and shrubberies are of considerable extent and tastefully laid out In 
one part is the Hermits Cell, — a small thatched building containing frimiture 
fitted foT) and emblematic of, a recluse. Upon the table in the centre these 
lines are painted : — 

** And may at last my weary age 

Find out the peaoeAd hermitage. 

The hairy gown and mossy cell. 

Where I may sit and rightly speU, 

Of every ttar that Heaven doth diew. 

And every herb that sips the dew,— 

Till old experience do attain 

To something like prophetic strain.** 

The £Eumly 6f Brougham (or Burgham, as it was formerly spelt,) is ancient 
and respectable. The manor, which bears the same name after having been 
long alienated, was re-acquired, and still belongs to the Broughams. 

Edsn Hall, the seat of the famous Border clan of the Musgraves, is a large 
and handsome edifice on the west bank of the river Eden, which, being bordered 
with trees, forms an el^ant feature in the pleasure-grounds. In the ball there 
is preserved with scrupulous care an old and anciently painted glass goblet cal- 
led the Luck of Edenhall, which would appear, from the following traditionary 
legend, to be wedded to the fortunes of its present possessors. The butler, in 
going to procure water at a well in the neighbourhood, (rather an unusual em- 
ployment for a butler,) came suddenly upon a company of Juries, who were feast- 
ing and mftVing merry on the green sward. In their flight they left behind this 
glass, and one of them returning for it, found it in the hands of the butler. 
Seeing that its recovery was hopeless, she flew away, singing aloud — 
" If that glass should break or fall* 
Farewell the luck of Eden Hall." 

The Musgraves came to England with the Conqueror, and settled first at Mus- 
gnive in Westmorland, then at Hartley Castle in the same county, and finally at 
their present residence. 

LowTHER Castlr, the seat of the Earl of Lonsdale, is seated in a noble 
park of 600 acres, on the east side of the woody vale of Lowther. It was erected 
by the late Earl upon the site of the old hall, which had been neai ly destroyed 
by fire, as fiu" back as the year 1 726, after the designs of the architect Smirka Tlie 
white stone of which it is built, is in pleasing contrast with the vivid green of the 
Dark and woods. The efiect of the whole pile is strikingly grand, worthy the 
residence of its wealthy and poweifiil owner. The north front, in the castellated 



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306 LOWTHXR CA8TLB. 

sty]e of the thirteenth or fburteeath century, is 420 feetin length. The sou^fionf 
is in the Gothic Cathedral ityle, and has the usual number of pinnacles, pointed 
windows, Ac So &r from the divenity of the fronts being disrordant, the art 
of the designer has made them increase each other's eSotL Surmounting the 
whole is a lofty tower, from the summit of which the prospect is extremely fine 
— ^the mountains of Hdyellyn, Seat Sandal, Saddleback, and Skiddaw, their 
sides probably shadowed 

<* By tlie white mbt thst dwells upon the hillf /' 
are distmctly visible. The fitting up of the interior is in a style of grandeor 
corresponding with the external appearance. Heart of oak and birch occupy, 
m a great measure, the place of foreign woods in the fiuniture and carvings. 
The staircase which climbs the great central tower is highly unposing. IkCany 
masterpieces of the old painters hang upon the walls, and the corridors 
and rooms are adorned with busts firom the chisels of Chantrey, Westmacott, 
and other sculptors. Amongst these, the bust of Queen Victoria, taken wh&i 
■he was about three or four years of age, will be viewed with more than or- 
dinary interest There is also a fruaumile of the &mous Wellington shield, carv- 
ed in solid silver, after the designs of the kte Stothard, R. A. The difierent 
compartments exhibit in a regular series, the victories which his Grace has ob- 
tained over the foes of Britain in India and the Peninsula, but as the shield 
was executed before the battle of Waterloo, that crowning victory is unfortunate- 
^ omitted. ^ 

The capabilities of the situation which the park afforded had been publicly 
noticed by Lord Macartney, who, in describing a romantic scene in the imperial 
park at Gehol in China, observed, that ** it reminded him of Lowther in West- 
morland, which, from the extent of prospect, the grand surrounding objects, the 
noble situation, the diversities of surface, the extensive woods and command of 
water, might be rendered by a man of sense, spirit, and taste, the finest scene in 
the British dominions.** How fax his Lordship's views have been realized the 
visitor will judge. The park has been much admired for the proftision of fine 
forest trees which embellish its banks and braes. It is watered by the Lowther, 
the pellucid clearness of which frilly justifies its supposed etymological deriva- 
tion. The grey and tree-crowned crags, the transparent stream, and the graoe- 
fiil windings of its course, add greatly to the charms of its scenery. One pop- 
tion bears the name of the Elysian fields. Near the Castle there is a large 
grassy terrace shaded by fine trees, firom which the prospect is most charming. 

The Lowther fiimily is of great antiquity, the names of William de Lowther 
and Thomas de Lowther, being subscribed as witnesses to a grant of lands in the 
reign of Henry 11. Sir John Lowther, first Viscount Lonsdale, distinguished 
himself by influencing the counties of Westmorland and Cumberland in fiivour 
of King William, at the memorable era of 1688 ; in return for which s^vioe^ 
that king created him a Viscount, and conferred upon him many other hououm 
Sir James Lowther, first Earl of Lonsdale, succeeded to the three great inherit- 

•I 



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THE LAKE DISTRICT. S07 

ances of Mauds Meatmrn, Lowther, and WbitehaTen, which came to him bv 
different branches of the fiunilj. When a commoner, he was thirty years M. P. 
for Westmorland or Cmnberland, and in 1761 was returned for both counties. 
He was also Lord Lieutenant of the two counties, an alderman of Carlisle, and 
sacceeded to the two millions left by his Irinsman, Sir James Lowther of White- 
bayen, 1 755. Of his immense wealth, the distribution of which by wiU was said 
to give uniyersal satis&ction, ** a small portion in gold," L.60,000, was found in 
his houses. 

Upon the death of the first Earl, the title of Viscount descended to hit eoosn, 
Sir William Lowther of Swillmgton, Bart, who, in 1807, was created an Earl. 
At his death, in 1842, he was succeeded in the possession of the title and 
estates by his eldest son, the present Eari. 

Tourists whilst at Penrith will not &il to visit the romantic lake of 

ULLESWATER, 

and those who can bear the fiitigue of lengthened ezconions will be gratified by 
a ride to Hawes Water. 

The former lake is generally viewed by tourists when travelling between 
Ambleside and Penrith, as the road between the two places passes along its 
nOTthem shore. As, however, it is a general rule that lake scenery, in order to 
be aeesi to advantage, should be visited in a direction opposite to that in which 
the waters flow, it would be better to invert this order of approach. Two roads 
conduct from Penrith to Pooley Bridge, at the foot of the lake about six miles 
distant, both of which lead through a country abounding in picturesque scenory. 
One leaves the Keswick road two miles and a-half from Penrith, and, passing 
through Mr Hasell*s park at Dalemain, reaches Ulleswater, three-quarters of a 
mile above Pooley Bridge. The other road leads along the Shap road to Ea- 
mont Bridge, shortly before reaching which, Carleton Hall is seen on the left. 
After crossing the bridge, by which Westmorland is entered, the first road on 
the right must be taken. In the angle of tiie field on the left at this deviation, 
is King Arthur^ Round Table, and a little beyond on the right is Mayborough, 
both of which antique remains have been previously noticed. At Yanwath, two 
and »-half miles from Penrith, there are Ibe ruins of an ancient Hall, form^ly 
one of the ** noble houses" of Sir Lancelot Threlkeld. The road, passmg through 
Tirrel and Barton, ultimately arrives at Pooley Bridge, six miles from Penrith- 
The Eamont is crossed by a stone bridge upon issuing frt)m Ulleswater. There 
are two small inns, at which boats upon the lake may be procured. On the 
west of the village is a steep and conical hill, clothed with wood, called Dun- 
mallet, upon which there were formerly the vestiges of a Roman fortificatiea. 
Winding walks lead to the summit, from which a fine view of the hike is 
commanded. About half a mile from Pooley, on the eiist side of the hike, is a 
▼iUa named Eusemere, which for some time was the residence of the late Wil- 
liam Witberforce. From Pooley Bridge to Patterdale, a distance of ten mik» 



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308 ULLB8WAT£B. 

the road tniTefses the weal maigm of UUeswater. The lake itself is nine mike 
in length, and is paititi<nied by the mountains into three separate chambers, or 
fVodUi, as they are locally tenned, no two of -w^ch can be seen at once from 
any point near the margin. Its extreme width is about three-quarters of a mile. 
The first reach, comm^idng at the foot, is terminated on the left by Hallin Fell, 
which stretches forward to a promontory, from the opposite side called Skelley 
Neb, upon which stands Mr Marshall'^ house, Halsteada. The middle and long- 
est reach is closed in by Birk Fell on the left, and on the right by Stjbarrow 
Crag, ftr away above which ** the dark brow of the mighty Helyellyn*^ rises into 
thin air. The little island, called House Holm, spots the water exactly at the 
cermination of this section of the laka The highest reach is the smallest and 
narrowest, but the mingled grandeur and beauty which surround it, are beyond 
the power of the Uyeliest imagination to depict Four or five islands dimple 
the surfiice, and by their diminutive siie impress more deeply upon the beholder 
the vastness of the hills which tower above them ; Stybarrow Crag, and other 
of&hoots from Helvellyn on one side, Birk Fell and Place Fell on the other, 
springing from the lake'b margin almost at one bound, shut in this terrestrial 
paradise. 

*< Alvupt and sheer the mountains sink 
At once upon the level brink." 

Leaving Pooley Bridge by the high road, Waterfootis passed ontiie right about 
a mile ftom the bridge, and Rampsbeck Lodge, on the left, about two miles from 
the same place. A little further is the village of Watermillock. So fax the lake 
has lain amongst somewhat tame scenery, but here promise is given of its com- 
ing grandeur. Halsteads, the seat of Wm. Marshall, Esq., is seen on the left, — 
the grounds circling which are beautifidly laid out The wood at the foot of 
Hallin Fell, on the other shore, has a pleasing e£fect A mile from Halsteads, 
Qowbarrow Park is entered. This park, which contains upwards of a thousand 
acres, must attract the attention of the most careless observer, by its ** grace of 
forest charms decayed,** and innumerable sylvan groups of great beauty still re- 
main, round which herds of deer will be seen bounding. It belongs to Henry 
Howard, Bsq. of Oreystoke Castle, to whom it was devised by Charles, 1 1th Duke 
of Norfolk, his uncle. The Duke*s predecessor erected upon an eminence in the 
park a hunting-box in the castellated style, which is called Lyulph*s Tower ; it 
commands a splendid view of the lake. About five and a-half miles from Pooley 
Bridge, a stream is crossed by a small bridge, a mile above which, in a rocky 
dell, is a water&ll of considerable volume, called Airey Force. The banks of 
the stream, which are thickly sown with trees, become exceedingly precipitous 
as the cascade is approached. Two wooden bridges are thrown across the stream, 
one above, the other below, the &XL Glencoin Beck, issuing from Linking Dale 
Head, runs under the road a mile beyond Air^ bridge, and forms the line of 
demarcation between Cumberland and Westmorland. The highest reach of the 
lake is now unfolded to the view. The road soon afterwards passes under Sty- 



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THE LAKK DISTRICT. 309 

(mutow Crag, at which point it has heen much widened, — formerly it was a nar- 
row path between the steep mountain and the waterls edge. An ancestor of 
the Mounseys of Goldrill Cottage acquired the title of King of Patterdalet from 
having successfiilly repulsed a body of Scotch moss-troopers at this place, with 
the aid of a few villagers. His residence was at that time Patterdale Hall, but 
a few years ago the patrimonial estate was sold to Mr Maishall of Leeds. The 
brook from Glenriddmg is then crossed. Helvellyn may be ascended from this 
yalley, for which purpose a guide should be obtained at Patterdale. The path 
to the summit lies for a considerable distance by the side of Glenridding Beck. 
On the left is Glenridding House, Rev. Mr Askew ; Patterdale Hall is passed 
on the right, and the village of Patterdale is soon afterwards reached. The 
Churchyard, in which lie interred the remains of the unfortunate Charles Gough, 
contains a yew-tree bf remarkable size. At the Inn, where there is excellent 
sccommodation, guides may be had to any of the mountains in the vicinity, and 
boats procured for excursions upon the lake. A few days might be pleasantly 
spent at this plac'e, in mvestigating the hidden beauties of the neighbourhood. 
There are innimierable nooks and shy recesses in the dells and by the lake, 

•* Where flow'rets blow, and whispering Naiads dwell."* 
which the leisurely wanderer has only to see in order to admire. An afternoon 
mi^t be advantageously employed in visiting the islands, of which there are 
four : House Holm, standing at the mouth of the highest reach. Moss Holm, 
Middle Holm, and Cherry Holm. Place Fell Quarry, half a mile from the inn, 
is a good station for viewing the lake ; and the walk to Blowick, two farm-houses 
under Place Fell, affords many charming prospects. A ramble of five or six 
miles may be taken into the retired valley of Martindale ; nor would the hardy 
pedestrian have much difBculty in making his way over the Fells to Hawes 
Water. The summits of Helvelljm and High Street might be visited ; both of 
which will repay the visitor for the toil he must necessarily incur, by the exten- 
sive views they command. The latter stands at the head of Kentmere : — ^its 
name, a strange one for a mountain, it acquired horn the road which the Ro- 
mans constructed over it The traces of this road are yet visible. Its height is 
2700 feet 

Ambleside is ten miles from Patterdale, the road leading over the steep pass 
of Kirkstone. A small inn, bearing the sign of ** The Traveller's Rest," has 
latdy been erected on the highest part of the pass, breaking in, with its mean 
aaociations, upon the solemn feelings which the surrounding solitude is calcu- 
lated to inspire. In descending, Windermere and the valley of Ambleside are 
spread out like a map before the spectator. 

HAWES WATER, 

flnee miles long by half a mile broad, lies embosomed in lofty mountains, thi> 
teen and a half miles north of Penrith. It is the property of the Earl of Lon* 

• HifcHTLKY COLRRIDGB. 



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310 HAWE8 WATSm IM. 

dale. The road best adapted for caniagee is that by way of Shap ; but the 
aearest and most picturesque road is that by way of Tanwath, Askham, Hel- 
ton, and Bampton. The latter road quits the Penrith and Pooley Bridge road 
at Yanwath ; after leaving that village, it crosBes what was formerly Tirrel and 
Yanwath Moor, to Askham, five miles from Penrith. Helton is rather more 
than a mile beyond, and Bampton is nearly four miles further. The gram- 
mar school at this village has been long in great repute. Shap, a strag- 
gling village on the mail road between Kendal and Penrith, is five miles dis- 
tant The road passes near the ruins of Shap Abbey, lying on the banha 
of the Lowther, now bare^ but once occupied by a thick forest This abbey, 
anciently called Heppe, was founded by Thomas, the son of Gospatrick, 
for monks of the Premonstratensian order, about the year 1150. It was dedi- 
cated to St Magdalen. Upon the dissolution, the abbey and manor were granted 
to Thomas Lord Wharton, firom whose descendant, the Duke of Wharton, an 
ancestor of the Earl of Lonsdale, purchased them. The only part left standing 
is the church tower. From the vestiges of buUdings yet visible, the abbey ap- 
pears to have been extensive. In the vicinity of Shap are two of those rude 
structures to which no certam date can be assigned, and which are therefore 
usually referred to the primitive times of the Druids. Karl Lofts, the name of 
one, consists of two parallel lines of unhewn masses of granite, half a mile long 
by sixty or seventy feet broad, terminating at the south extremity in a small 
circle of similar blocks. Many of the granitic blocks have been barbarously 
carried off for building purposes, or some other ** base use."^ At a place called 
Gunnerskeld Bottom there is a circle of large stones, thought to be a sepulchral 
cairn. 

Returning to Bampton, the foot of Hawes Water is reached, a mile and a 
half beyond that village. The wild wood of Naddle Forest beautifully feathers 
the steeps of the east shore. Rather more than a mile firom the foot of the lake^ 
Fordendale brook is crossed near a few houses, called Measond Becks. The 
brook makes some pretty ^Is on the mountain side. A broad promontory en- 
ters the lake at this place, and approaches within 200 or 300 yards of the other 
margin. The mountains surrounding the head of this lake present a magnificent 
contour. They consist of High Street and Kidsty Pike, with their nameless de- 
pendencies. The little chapel of Mardale stands close to the road about a mile 
above the lake, and over against it is a neat white house, called Chapel Hill, the 
residence of a yeoman named Holme. The ancestor of this fimiily came origi* 
nally from Stockholm, and landed in England in the train of the Conqaeror. 
He was rewarded with an estate in Northamptonshire, where the fiunily were 
seated until the reign of King John, at which period, its head, flying from bis 
enemies, concealed himself in a cavity (to this day called Hughes cave) in one 
of the hill sides. The estate on which his descendant resides was purchased by 
the fugitive. Having woimd round a rocky screen, a few houses, oaUed coUeO' 



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THE LAKE DISTBICT. 311 

tivelj MftH«^lft Graen, (amoBgrt which there is a small inn^ are seen thinly 
sown OTer the floor of the narrow yalley. Harter Fell closes in this level area 
(m the floatb — ^lofty mountains rise on the east and west, and contribute to make 
this as perfect a solitude as oan wdl be conceived. The pedestrian will find a 
road over the pass of Gatescarth, which reaches Kendal by the vale of Long- 
sleddale, fifteen miks from Maidale Green. From Mardale the rambler might 
ascend High Street, or cross the Martindale Fells to Patterdale, at the head of 
UUeswater. 



MOUNTAINS. 



Thb mountains best known and most usually ascended by tourists aie — Scaw- 
fell, Helvellyn, Skiddaw, Coniston Old Man« and Langdale Pikes, Guides can 
be procured at any of the neighbouring inns, who, for a moderate compensation, 
will conduct strangers to the summit by the least circuitous path ; and being 
generally intelligent persons, will point out and name those objects most worthy 
of notice, which are visible on the ascent or from the highest point Fine clear 
days should be selected for an expedition of this kind, as well for the advantage 
of having an extensive prospect, as for safety. Mists and wreaths of vapour, 
capping the summits of mountains, or creeping along their sides, are beautiful 
objects when viewed from the lowly valley ; but when the wanderer becomes 
surrounded with them on the hills, they occasion anything but agreeable sensa* 
tions, and have not unfrequently led to serious accidents. A pocket compass 
will be found useful in discovering the tourist^s position with reference to the 
surrounding scenery, and a telescope in bringing within view the more distant 
parts of it, A flask containing brandy, which may be diluted at the springs 
on the way, will be found no unnecessary burden. With these preliminary ob- 
servations, we shall proceed to describe the moimtains we have named above. 

SCAWFELL. 

Thb aggregation of mountains called collectively Scawfell, which stand at the 
head of Wastdale, form four several summits bearing separate names. The 
most southerly of the four is Scawfell, (3100) feet ; the next is Scawfell Pikes, 
(3160 feet) ; Lingmell, of considerably infrador elevation, is more to the west, 
forming a sort of buttress for the support of the loftier heights ; and Great End 
is the advanced guard on the north, having its aspect towards Borrowdale. The 
whole mass is composed of a species of hard dark slate. The Pikes, bemg the 



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312 HSLTXLLnr. 

highest smnmit in England, is most commonly th« object of the stmgv^ toh 
bition ; some conftision has, however, been caused by tiie similaiity of names, 
and the lower elevation of Scawfell been attained, where that of Soawfell Pikes 
was desired. Since the trigonometrical survey, a pile of stones, surmounted 
by a staff, has been placed on the hitter mountain summit ; such mistakes, 
therefore, need not, except through carelessness, occur in fUture. 

The ascent of the two higher mountains may be commenced from several 
valleys — from Langdale, Borrowdale, or Wastdale. Of these, the station from 
which the ascent may most readily be made is Strands, at the foot of Wast 
Water. A boat being, taken up the lake, will land the pedestrian at the foot 
of Lingmell, which projects towards the water. The top of Lingmell being almost 
gained, a turn must be made to the right, and that direction persevered in for 
three-quarters of a mile. Deflections to the right and left in succession will 
place the hardy climber upon Scawfell Pikes. From Borrowdale the best course 
is to pursue the Wastdale road, until Sty Head Tarn is reached Leaving this 
tarn on the left, and bending your way towards sprinkling Tarn, which must 
also be kept on the left, a turn to the right must shortly be made con- 
ducting to a pass called East Haws, having on the left, Hanging Knott, and 
on the right Wastdale Broad Crag. The summit of Scawfell Pikes is in 
view from this place, but much exertion will be required before either will be 
reached. Great End will have to be ascended, and contmuing along the sum- 
mit-ridge, some rocky eminences will be passed on the left. A considerable de- 
scent must then be made, and two small hollows crossed, from the second of 
which the trigonometrical station on the Pikes will be reached. The two elev»- 
tions of Scawfell and Scawfell Pikes, though not more than three-quarters of a 
mile distant from each other in a direct line, are separated by a fearful chasm, 
called Mickle-dore, which compels a circuit to be made of two miles in passing 
from one to the other. The passage by Mickle-dore, though dangerous, is not 
impassable, as some of the adventurous dalesmen can testify. All vegetation 
but that of lichens has forsaken the summits of Scawfell Pikes and its rival; 
" Cushions or tufts of moss parched and brown," says Wordsworth with his 
usual poetical feeling, " appear between the huge blocks and stones that lie on 
neaps on all sides to a great distance, like skeletons or bones of the earth not 
needed at the creation, and there left to be covered with never-dying lichens, 
which the clouds and dews nourish and adorn with colours of exquisite beauty. 
Flowers, the most brilliant feathers, and even gems, scarcely surpass in colour- 
ing some of those masses of stone." 

The view from the Pikes is, of course, of a moist extensive description, em- 
bracing such a ** tumultuous waste of huge hill tops " that the mind and eye 
alike become confused in the endeavour to distinguish the various objects^ The 
moimtains having lost the shapes they possessed when viewedfrombeaneath,aieoDly 
to be recognized by those acquainted with the locality of each ; however, with 
the aid of his compass, map, and our directions, the enquiring gazer will be 



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THE LAKE DISTBICI. 3I3 

able to angn its name to most of them. Turning to the south, Morecambe Bay 
and the Lancashire coast to a great extent are seen, and on clear days the 
prospect comprehends a portion of the Welsh Highlands. Scawfell intercepts 
the view of Wast Water and part of the Screes. To the left Eskdale and 
Miterdale are seen contributing their waters to the ocean. Fumess and the 
Isle of Walney are visible in the same direction, as weU as Devoke Water, 
placed on an elevated moor, beyond which Black Combe is a prominent object 
Still more to the east Wrynose, Wetherlam, Coniston Old Man, with the rest 
of the mountdns &t the head of Eskdale, Seathwaite and Little Langdale are 
conspicuous. Bowfell, obscuring Langdale, appears in the east, and beyond, 
part of the middle of Windermere. Far away, beyond, are the Yorkshire hills 
with Ingleborough, the monarch of them all, plamly visible. To the left of Bow- 
fell, Langdale Pikes are descried, and in the east the eye rests upon Hill Bell, 
High Street, Wansfell, Fairfield, Seat Sandal, and Helvellyn in succession. In 
the north Skiddaw and Saddleback cannot be mistaken, beyond which, the blue 
mountains of Scotland bound the prospect. Immediately beneath the specta- 
tor he will perceive Sty Head Tarn dwindled to a little spot. Great End con- 
ceals Borrowdale, and a little to the left rises the mighty mass of Great Gable. 
Castle Crag, Grange Crag, and Gate Crag, shut out the greater part of Derwent- 
water. In the north-west are a series of hills, the principal of which are. Cau- 
sey Pike, Grizedale Pike, Maiden-mawr, Hindscarth and Robinson. Then come 
the Buttermere and Crummock mountains, with Grasmoor conspicuously visi- 
ole. Nearer are the Pillar, Hay Cock, High Style, and Red Pike. Westward 
the eye sinks into the depths of Wastdale, round which are piled Kirkfell, Yew- 
barrow, Seatallan, and Buckbarrow. The Irish sea bounds the whole western 
horizon, and over the extremity of the vale of Wast Water the Isle of Man can 
be sometimes perceived. 

HELVELLYN. 

This mountai^i is more widely known by name than any other, partly from 
its easiness of access, and its proximity to a turnpike road, over which a coach 
passes daily within a mile and arhalf of the summit, and partly in connection 
with a melancholy accident which some years ago befel a stranger upon it, 
whose fate, the elegiac verses of Wordsworth and Scott have contributed to make 
universally lamented. It stands, the highest of a long chain of hills, at the 
angle formed by the vales of Grasmere, Legberthwaite, and Patterdale, about 
half way between Keswick and Ambleside. From its central position and its 
great altitude, it commands an extensive map-like view of the whole Lake dis- 
trict, no fewer than six lakes being visible from its summit, whilst the circum- 
jacent mountains present themselves in fine arrangement. Its height is 3055 
feet above the level of the sea, being something more than a hundred feet lower 
than Scawfell Pikes, and higher than Skiddaw by thirty-three feet Its geo 
logical structure is slate in one part«nd in another a flinty porphyry. 



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314 HELVELLYN. 

The ascent of Helvellyii can be effected from seyeral quarters. Grasmere, 
Legberthwaite, Wythbum, and Patterdale, seTerally afford advantageous points 
for the commencement of the escalade, the two latter, however, lying in diame- 
trically opposite directions, are the places where it is usually begun. It^ may be 
well, perhaps, to mention, that ponies can be used for a great portion of the way 
if the lowland be quitted at Grasmere, a &cility of which none of the other 
paths will admit The ascent from Wythbum« though the shortest, is the 
steepest A guide can be procured at the little inn which stands near the 
chapel, but as the path is easily discovered without his assistance, many persons 
will feel inclihed to dispense with this restraint upon their motions and conver- 
sation. The path, which begms to ascend almost at the inn-door, will be pomted 
out by the people of the inn. A spring, called Brownrigg^s Well, issuing from 
the ground within 300 yards of the sununit, sends out a stream, which, after 
rushing violently down the mountain^ side, crosses the highway 200 or 300 yards 
fr(Hn the Horse"^ Head at Wythbum. Taking this stream as a guide, the stranger 
need have no fear of losing his way, for Helvellyn Man is a little to the left, at 
the distance we have mentioned, above its source. In the ascent, a small sheet 
of water, called Harrop Tarn, will be seeir under Tam Crag, a lofty precipice on 
the opposite side of the receding valley. The scars, seams, and ravines, 

** the history of totgcMen gtormt. 

On the blank folds faiscribed of dzear HelveUyn/** 

which indent the mountain on all sides, will forcibly impress upon every beholder 
the possible vastness of the effects of those elements whose ordinaiy results are 
so trivial. 

From Patterdale, the glens of Grisedale and Glenridding may be either of 
them used as approaches to Helvellyn. The latter glen is to be preferred, as 
the stream flowing through it, which has its rise in the Red Tam, may be taken 
as a guide up the mountain. This tam lies 600 feet inunediately below the high- 
est elevation, fenced in on the south-east by a ridge of rock called Striding Edge, 
and on the north-west by a similar barrier, called Swirrel Edge. Catchedecum, 
the termination of the hitter, must be ascended, and the ridge crossed, in order 
to attain the object of the climber's ambition. Although tiie path along thii 
ridge may be somewhat startling, there is no real danger to be apprehended. 
Sometimes, from mistake or fool-hardiness, Striding Edge is taken ; but this is 
at once appalling and perilous, for at one part the path is not more than two 
yards broad, with a tremendous precipice on either side. It was at this spot that 
Charles Gough met with the accident which caused his death.t The Edge be- 

• Habtlrv COLBIUDeS. 

t This unfortunate " young lover of nature" attempted to cross Helvellyn fkom Patterdale 
one day in the spring of 1806, after a fall of snow had partially ooncealed the path, and rendned 
it dangerous. It could never be ascertained whether he was killed by his fall, or had perish, 
ed trom hunger. Thiee months elapsed before the body was found, attended by a faithful dog, 
which he had with him at the time of the accident 

*' This dog had been through three months* space 
A dweller in that savage placet 



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Statute Miles. 



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TBS LAXB msTmer. 315 

■^- — -- --.-*. . . * - . , -I 

ing pai^M^ little nertion is required.to plao^ the wedry pedettrian lif the Ae 
of Helvellyn Man^-^s tlie pile, of stones on the summit is calledi— thip^ce to^tyse 
on the wonderfiil display of mountainB and l^kes which every where surzo^nd 
him. "jius Man, and that on a lower elevation, to the north, form the separat- 
ing l^n^iiarks between Cumberland and Westmorland. And now, a» to ^e 
view,^imd ,ti)i9 muKi|udinous objects within its range. Noi:thwards>.Keppel Cc(ve 
Tarn is p«pe^»od, having on the right Catchedecam. Beyond the ertremity of 
)he tqrp Saddlel^f^ r^fjIlB^itB huge foirm^Vk fittle to the left of which is Skiddaw. 
Betwe^ the two, and in the north-west, a portion of th^ SolSvay Firth is descried, 
find the e^^tieaadiiStsnce is bounds by the Scottish mountains. Turning east- 
irards, the EetfTam belq\y its " huge pamelpss rock,*' li«»>bet#een ^wirrel Edge 
00 the- 1^ and Striding Edge on the right Beyond is the crooked form of Ul- 
leswaier, on the left maigin of which aie Gowbarrow Park and Sty barrow Crag, 
whilst the i;ight is bounded by the dwindled precipices of Place Fell, Beck Fell, 
and Swarth FelL l^igh Street and High Bell are seen in the east .over Striding 
Edge. Kirkstoiie, F«irfield, and Dolly Waggon Pike, are more to the 80u%.| A 
portion of Windermere is seen over the kst-nemed hill, whilst in a clear atJpo- 
sphere, ^^caster Castle can be descried beyond Windermere. Estlrwaite w^ter 
is directly squih, and beyond is the's^a in the Bay of Mofcec^unbe. lln the south- 
west, tb^^01d Man stands guarding the right shore of Coniston Lake. On jthe 
light i%ibe>4w|emblage of hills teamed Conie(ton Fells, whilst Black Combe, Jbe- 
hold thVQ^gh Wrynose Gafu lifts its dreary summit in the distance. Boi^ell 
4ad Langdale Pikea are more Id the west, haying .9n ,the left Scawf<^}l fijitw and 
Scawfell, and on the right Qteai Gable. The ** gorgeous pavilions'* of the ^t- 
temi/ere mountains are pitched in the west, amongst which the Pillar and Gfas- 
. aoor are prominent Cat BeUs are visible, though Perwentwater, upo^ the if est 
mngin of which th^ stand, is hidden. Our old acquaintance, Honister Ctag, 
mfty be seen in a hollow, a little to:the left of Cat Bella. From the lower D|aii 
fimiB of Thirlemere and Bassenthwidte LaJke are commanded, both of which aie 
concealed by a breast of the motmti^ t^qja. those on the highest Man. 

•:v> SKIDDAW. 

.%;. ...j^ this mountain stands at the head of an extensive valley, apart from the 



Yes— proof was plain, that since the day 
,V On Which the traveller thus Jiwf died, 

The dog.had watched about the spot 
Or by his master's side : 
.- How nouiish'd ^h(erj9>thiDUgh sudi long t;iine, 

' He knows, who gave that love sublime. 

I And gave that stfength of feeling great' 

I , = '.'<!Ab«vd'all human ^stitnatfe." 



on this acHdent commencing, " I climbed the dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn," are too wdi 
known to be quoted at length. •. , , , 



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316 



8KIDDAW. 



adjacent eminences, its huge bulk and great height are more strikingly a p p a reut 
than those of the two former, although of inferior altitude to either of them. It is 
extremely easy of access, somuch so, that ladies may ride on horseback from Kes- 
wick to the summit, a distance of six miles. According to the Government- sur- 
veyors, its height is 3022 feet above the sea ; upon one part of it granite is to be 
found, but the great mass of this mountain, as well as of Saddleback, is compos- 
ed of a dark schistose stone. It is seldom ascended from any other place but 
Keswick, at which town every thing necessaiy for the expedition will be ftir- 
nished. The Penrith road must be pursued fbr half armile, to a bridge which 
spans the Greta just beyond the turnpike gate. Crossing the bridge the road 
passes Ghreta Bank, and skirts Latrigg, at an elevation sufficient to command de- 
lightful views of Keswick vale. ** This road," says Green, ** is unequalled for 
scenic beauty in the environs of Keswick." Traversing a plantation of wood, it 
ent^s another road, upon which the visitor, turning to the right, must proceed 
fbr a few yards only, as, just beyond a gate across the way, the road to be taken 
tvns to the left at right angles, by the side of a fence, to a hollow at the foot 
of the steepest hill on the ascent, having on the right a deep ravine, down which 
a transparent stream is seen falling. The path then holds along fbr about »• 
mile by the side of a wall, which it crosses, and proceeds in a direct line for- 
ward, whilst the wall diverges to the right A large and barren plain, called 
Skiddaw Forest, in the middle of which there is a spring of beautifully clear water, 
u then traversed for a mile, leaving a double-pointed elevation, called Skid> 
daw Low Man, the highest summit on the left ; Skiddaw Man will then be as- 
cended. 

Many persons prefer the views which they obtain during the ascent to that 
from the summit, and reasonably so, if heawty of scenery be sought for. A view 
will always be indistinct in proportion as it is extensive. Nothing can exceed 
the charming appearance of the valley and town of Keswick, of Derwentwater and 
its surrounding eminences, when beheld from the mountain's side ; the lake es- 
pecially, with its ba3rs and islands is nowhere seen to such advantage. In con* 
sequence of Skiddaw being exposed to the blasts of the west wind from the Irish 
Channel, the visitor willnot be inclined, from the intense cold, to stay long on the 
summit ; we shall therefore proceed to run over hastily the names of the prin- 
cipal objects which are visible from that elevated position. In the north, beyond 
the lowlands of Cumberland, in which Carlisle and its cathedral are perceived, 
the Solway Frith is seen, on the Airther side of which the Scottish mountains are 
displayed in fine arrangement CriffeU is seen over Skiddaw Far Man, and theMo^ 
fai and Cheviot hills stretch away to the right Dumfries is visible at the mouth 
of the frith. In the north-west, over High Pike and Long' Brow, the vale and 
town of Penrith are beheld, with Cross Fell (2901 feet) beyond. Directly east 
is tiie rival summit of Saddleback, separated by the tract called Skiddaw Forest 
from the moimtain on which the spectator is standing. Helvellyn is in the 
south-east ; beyond, Ingleboroug^ in Yorkshire is dimly descried. Between H«l- 



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THE LAKE DISTBICT. 317 

▼ellyn and Saddleback, Place Fell, at the head of Ulleswater, and High Street are 
risible. When the atmosphere ia clear, Lancaster Castle may be seen in the south- 
east Derwentwater is not comprehended in the view from the highest Man, be- 
ing concealed bj some of the other eminences of Skiddaw, but from the third 
man a perfect birdVeye prospect of that lake is obtained. In the south ** there 
is a succession of five several ranges of moimtain seen out-topping each other, 
from a stripe of the lovely valley to the highest of the Pikes. Grisedale in one 
grand line stretches from the inclosures at Braithwaite to its Pike, succeeded 
in the second range by Barrow Stile End, and Utterside. Rising from the fields 
of Newlands, the third range commences with Rolling End, ascending from 
which are Causey Pike, Scar Crag, Top Sail, 111 Crags, and Grasmoor, — ^the lat- 
ter lessening the Pike of Grisedale by appearing over its top. The fourth line 
in this wild combination is composed of Cat Bells, Maiden-moor, Dalehead, Hinds* 
garth, Robinson, High Crag, High Stile, and Red Pike. The fifth and last is 
that sublime chain of summits, extending on the south from Coniston to Enner- 
dale on the north ; amongst these the High Pike or Man, standing towering over 
the rest, has on the 1^ Great End, Hanging Knott, Bow Fell, and the Fells of 
Coniston ; on the light, Lingmell Crags, Great Gable, Kirk Fell, Black Sail, the 
Pillar, the Steeple, and the Hay Cock, with Yewbarrow and part of the Screes 
tiirough the pass at Black SaiL On the right of Grisedale Pike and Hobcarten 
Crag is Low Fell, succeeded by Whinfield Fell, over which, in a clear atmo- 
sphere, may be observed more than the northern half of the Isle of Man ; and 
n a mistless sunny evening, even Ireland may be seen. The north-west end or 
foot of Bassenthwaite Water is here seen, the head being obscured by Long- 
side."* Workington can be seen at the mouth of the Derwent in the west, and 
more to the north the coast towns of Maryport and AUonby. The town and cas- 
tle of Cockermouth are perceived, over the extremity of Bassenthwaite Lake, 
seated on the Cocker. Such is an outline of this wonderful panorama, which 
may be fitly closed with Wordsworth's fine sonnet : — 
" Felion and Ossa flourish side by side. 

Together in immortal books enroll'd ; 

His ancieot dower Olympus hath not sold* 

And that aspiring hill, which did divide 

Into tvio ample horns his forehead wide, 

Shines with poetic radiance as of old ; 

While not an English mountain we bdiold 

By the celestial Muses glorified. 

Yet round our sea-girt shore they rise in crowds ; 

What was the great Parnassus' self to thee. 

Mount Skiddaw ? In his natural sovereignty. 

Our British hill it nobler fiir, heshrouds 

His double front among Atlantic clouds. 

And pouis forth streams more sweet than Castaly.^ 



• Grbsn'b Guide. 



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«^|g CONI8T0N OLD MAN~LANODALfi PIKES. 

CONISTON OLD MAN. 
Thd mountain stands at the north-west angle of Coniston Lake, from the e 
shore of which it presents a magnificent appearance. It is 2577 feet in hei^t^ 
forming the highest peak of the range called Coniston Fells. It is composed 
of a fine roofing slate, for the excavation of which there are several large quar- 
ries. The slates are carried down the lake hy means of boats, and, at its tennh 
nation, are carted to Ulverston. There are also some valuable copper-mines upoo 
this mountain, belonging to Bev. Sir R. Fleming of Rydal, who is Lord of the 
Manor. There are three tarns upon the Old Man, called Levers Water, Low 
Water, and Gates Water. The first lies between that mountain and Wcther- 
him, a stupendous hill on the north ; and the last is placed at the foot of Dow 
Crag. Low Water, notwithstanding its name, is the highest 

The most eligible mode of ascending the Old Man is to leave the village of 
Coniston by the Walna Scar road, and, pursuing the way along the common for 
a few hundred yards, to take a path which will be seen to climb the mountain 
side on tfie right This path leads directly up to the Man, finely built on the 
edge of a precipice overhanging Low Water. There is a fine open view to the 
south, emhracing the estuaries of the Kent, Leven, and Duddon, a long line of 
coast, and, in serene weather, the Isle of Man. Snowdon may be distinguished 
on a very clear day. It appears a little to the left of Black Combe, over Mil- 
ium Park. In the home views, the eye will be attracted by Coniston Lake^tho 
idiole length of which is immediately below the spectator. A part of Winder- 
more can be seen more to the east On other sides, the Old Man is surrounded 
byhi(^ mountains, which wear an aspect of imposing grandeur from this eleva- 
tioTL Scawfell and Bowfell are particularly fine, and the apex of Skiddaw can 
be discerned in the distance. 

LANGDALE PIKES. 

The two peculiarly shaped hills, which stand at the head of the valley of Great 
Langdale, though known by the general name of Langdale Pikes, have sei>aiate 
names. The most southerly is termed Pike o* Stickle, and is lower by 100 feet 
than Harrison Stickle, which is 2400 feet in height They are of a purphyritie 
structure, and, on account of their steepness, are somewhat difiSicult to ascend. 
They are conspicuous objects from the upper end of Windermere, and fitmi the 
road leading from Kendal to Ambleside. They are usually ascended during 
the Langdale excursion, (as to which see page 277,) but pedestiians would have 
no difficulty in making the ascent fr(mi the Stake, or from Grasmere throu^ 
Eaadale. The easiest mode, however, is that fit>m Langdale. A guide can be 
procured at Milbecks, where tourists commonly take some refire^ment. Tlie 
path pursues a peat road leading to Stickle Tarn, well known to the angler fat 
its fine trout, which lies under a lofty ridge of rock called Pavey Ark. This tarn 
must be left on the right, and a streamlet which runs down the hill-aide taken 
aa a guide. The path becomes at this part exceedingly steep, but a little pa* 



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I 



THE lAKE DISTRICT. 319 

tient exertion will soon place the tounst on the sunmdt of Harrison Stickle* 
Though of considerably inferior elevation to the other monntains we have de> 
scribed, the yiews from this spot are extremely fine. Looking eastward, Helvel- 
lyn, Seat Sandal, and Fairfield bound the prospect ; and, in the northrwest and 
north, Skiddaw and Saddleback are seen in the distance. Stickle Tarn is im- 
mediately below the eye, guarded by the frowning heig^hts of Pavey Ark. In 
the south-east are the hills around the valley of Ambleside, beyond those at 
the head of Troutbeck and Kentmere. In turning to the south, the eye is at- 
tracted by the valley of Great Langdale, containing Elterwater and Loughrigg 
Tarn, and terminated by Windermere, with Curwen^ Isle and the other islands 
diversifying its smooth surface. Loughrigg Fell conceals a portion of the head 
of the lake as well as the town of Amblesida L%derbarrow Scar, near Kendal, 
is seen over Bowness. Esthwaite Water is seen in the south-south-east, and 
dose at hand, towards the right, is the bluff summit of Wetherhim End. A 
small part of the sea is embraced in the view, in this direction. ThroTigh an 
opening, having on the left Pike o* Bliscoe, and on the right Crinkle Crags, 
Oatescale is presented in the north. The Old Man and the Great Carrs shut in 
t^e prospect in the south-west 



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ITINERARY. 



CIX. ULVERSTON— CONISTON LAKE— AWBLKSIDE, 24 MUei. 



bif RieHT rnoM ui.tbiist. 



I, J. P. 



Bridge Field, Joaepk Pennji 

Esq. 

The extenelTe Iroa forge of 
Meeen. Hurrlaon, " " 
•Co. . 



I 

I Two pcomontoriee extend 
'Into the Uke new Its foot, 
•which harea meet pietareeque 
leflbct. One is terminated by 
tateep rodke, and both beoome 
llnaoiated when the Uke ie 
■wollen. 

Brantwood, Mn. Copley, on 
the left. 

Conieton Bank, Wm. Brad- 
ritaw, Esq., on the left. 

Tent Lodge, 
fbrmerly the reeidenoe of Miae 
Eliubeth Smith, a lady of ex- 
traordinary aoqulrementa. 

Waterhead House, Ja 
JMarshaU, Ek> 
< Thislnniaplearinglyiitaata 
'on the margin of the lake: 
.boats, post-hones, and guides, 
lean be supplied. A ttw days 
'might be spent agreeably here, 
las Uie excursions in the vicinity 
tare numerous. The Old Man 
lie in the immediate neighbour- 
hood; its ascent, tboi ' * 
loftoll, would highly 
iTourist. A walk in 
'row valleys of Yei 
:Tilberthwaite,wiUK 
■grand scenes. Newf 
retired rale of Seath^^ww, »» 
be reached by the Walna Scar 
;road, which passes through 
iChureh Conlston, and under 
the Old Man. This road, which 
lis very mountainous and rough) 
is six miles in length. 

Blelham Tarn. 



I Pull Wyke, a bay of Winder- 
mere, hese makes aa advance. 
;WansfoU Holm, J. Hornby, 
jEsq., Dove Nest* and Low 
I Wood Inn, are pleasing obieoti 
|on the opposite shore. Wans- 
AU Pike {1800 feet) rises above. 

I BfathayHall. 

I As the road winds round the 
«xtf«mity of Lougktigg Fell, 



1^! ULVERSTON. 

On the ghore of the LerenL 

j iEgtuary to 

181' Penny Bridge. | 

lAlong the left bank of the' 
I Crake to I 

16 -^% cr. Lowick Bridge. 

15 'Along the right bank of the 
Crake to 



u 



r LoHghrIn Fe 
issurroondingtl 



rralley of Ambleside are strik- 
<ftHiir enfolded. 



Nibthwaite. 
near the foot of 



CONISTON LAKE. 

Along the eaat shore of 
which the road passes to 



8* 



151 



Waterhead Inn. * 

To Coniston Vill. 1 mUe. 

To Hawkshead, 3 miles. 

To Bowness, 8 miles. 

On quitting Waterhead 
Inn, the road winds round 
the grounds of Waterhead 
House, and is on the ascentj 
for some distance. The lake 
presents a striking retro- 
spect from the summit of 
the ascent. 



Berwick Oround. 



Road to the Ferry. 

•^^ cr. Brathay Bridge. 

enter Westmorland. 

Clappersgate VilL 

•i^cr.Rothay Bridge. 

AMBLESIDE. 



17i 



m 



20i 



ON LBVT VBOM DLTBRgr. { 



The Crake Israel from CoiUs4 
ton Lake, and enters the Lsronl 
near Penny Bridge. ; 

Here are the remidna of a fine 
old hall, part of which is eecn- 
pied by a fiurmer. 

! 

Water Pkrk, Benson Hani-' 
son, Esq. Fine view of the' 
mountains round the head of, 
the lake. 

From aa eminenee near tha 
highest promontory, a beautl-. 
f^view of the lake may be ob- 
tained. Ontheoppodteshors, 
are the dark Fells of Torver. 
Further up, Coniston Hall, sur- 
rounded with trees, is deserted. 
This haU has changed owners 
but twice since the Coaqnsst,) 
most of which time it has be-' 
longed to the Fleminn. Be-* 
yond are the towering rdls of 
Coniston. Just below. Is tte. 
rocky islet, PeeL 

This Uke, called also Thar-! 
ston Water, Is six miles long,' 
and nearly three-quarters of a 
mile broad, iu depth Is stated 
tobeiesfiBet. Itsmarginlsveiy 
regular, having few Indenta-' 
tions of any magnitude. Two 
small Islands are sitoate near 
astern shore. Its prin- 
feeders are the streams 
firom Yewdale and TUberth- 
waite, and those running firom 
the tarns on the Man Moan- 
tain. It abounds with truot 
and char; the latter flsh is 
thought to be found In greater 
Defection here than elsewhere. 
The scenery at the foot is tame, 
but that at the upper extremity 



is of the grandest d,..., . 
The (Hd Man, (tS77 feet,) and 
WetherUtm, (S«W feet) are ex- 
tremely mi^estie. Thegraatast 
portion of the lake bakmgs toj 
Itar. Sir R. Fleming of Rydal 
Hall, who h^ some valuable 
eopper minee upon the Old 

FlneTleworthe Rydal and 
AmblesUs Movatalaa. 
Longhrigg FeU Is betmtlw 



Croft I^idgs* I 
Baq. 



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ex. RBNDAL-BOWKSSft-HAWKSHBAD-^ONISTON, 18 Milet. 321 



Otaat 



I Conlcfeon TlIlaM, or tliaXim at WfttorhMd, a moantetai road, five and a half mlka is length.) 



thnmgh TUberthwaita, between Oxen Fell Cron on the right, and Wetherlam on the left, and 

* ' -tngdaU road at Felllbot. The pedestrian might proceed by way of Blea Tarn into 

Another road, Are milee in length, pasting througn Yewdale, and climbing the moor I 



the Little Langdale road at Felllbot. The pedestrian might proceed by way of Blea Tarn into 
(dale. Another road, Are milee in length, passing through Yewdale, and climbing the moor 

of Oxen IWl, enters the road leading from Ambleside to Little Langdale, half a mile above 

Skdwith Bridge. 

A pleasing evenrakm round the lake might be made by Tourists staying at the Waterhead Tnn. Coniston 
village, one mile j Coniston Hall, formerly a seat of the Flemings of Kydal, but now a fann-house, two 
** ; on the left, some elerated fells are then interposed between the road and lake. Torver Tillage, 
Id a half milee. A little beyond Torrer Church, turn to the left, the road crosses the rlTUlet 
^ from Oateewater, which Ues at the foot of Dow-Crag on the Old Man, and approaches the laka 
OasBHoaseSfflTe and a half miles. A short distance from the ft)ot,BowdnurBridgiB over the Crake, 
'^■■d a half miles. Nlbthwalu village, nine miles, by the east margin to Waterhead Inn, 17 mllso. 



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322 



CXI. KENDAL TO AMBLB8IDB, 14 Mki. 



■kb* Ml by the 
loaa OTW UM Hoan of " 
tionHiU. 

8t ThoauM* ChvrdL 

K«ep to the rigM. 

Obeliik. Toino Hall, Mr 



Th« Talley ofKcDtiiMM dlvcfw 
flM to the right. Itisflreorrix 
milM long, and pent fai h7 the 
Ihtige iDoontaim of Hill Bdl, 
1(9436 feet.) High Sbmet, (S700 
Mset.) and Barter FUL The 
Ireiniiu of a Bomaa road, the 
ihigheat in Englaad, arr ttUl to 
Ibe traced apon the two Anmer. 
|At Kentmere HaO, a ruinecl 
;peel-tower, now oocupied aa i 
Arm house, Bernard Oilpln, 
f* the Apoetle oT the North/ 
hrat bom lftl7. 

The pedestrian, after as> 
iaending High Street, which 



iTejproe- 
., might deeeend to Haw* 
ater, or faitoMartindale, pro* 
PMterdaie. 



eeedlag tbenoe to 



aU partt of the lake dirtriet watt 
the aifftral of the traina. 

StaveleyTilL 

Watered by the Keot, 

upon which there are leve- 

ral bobbin, and woollen 

mills. 



71 



Orreet Head, John Braith- 
waite, Eeq. A. mile beyond la 
Elleray, belonging to Pwfc Mor 
Wilwm. but oeoipied Vy J. 
Crewdfon, Stq., Banker in Ken- 
dal The Tiew fWnn the front of 



St Catherinea, Bwi of ] 
ford. 



Road alomr the banks of the 
ream to Tmatheok rill, one 
«nd a half miles distant. 
j At the turn of the load, a little 
jbeyond the eleventh milestone, 
:the mountains round Amble- 
iside Tale open out in a beanti- 
ftil manner. 

i An exceDent estahHshment 
Ion the margin of the lake 
There is a fine expanse of water 
(Tisible flrom the windows. The 
itoorist will find employment 
|for many days in rambling 
tabont the a4Jaoent oountry, or 



n 



Iboating npon tlM lake, 
-'anifclf H 



Holm, /. Hornby, 



KENDAL. 

Proeaad bj the Kendal ■__ 
Wlndsroera Bailway to Birth- 
waite. whleh is t idles from 
Kendal. S ftoB Bowaess. aMl f 



n 



logiChapeL 



Bannerlgg Head. 
OrrertUead. 
Road on tiieleft to Bow- 
en, two mOM^ 
Blrthwaile. 
Railway Terminv 
Windermere HoteL 
Cook*t HOMB. 

Road on the loft to Bow- 
eas. On the right a road 
leads through Troutbeck, 
over Kirkstone, and de- 
scends to Ulleswater. 

^^ cr.Troatbeck Bridge. 



On the margin of Whider- 
mere, 

Low Wood Inn. 

To BowneM, 4 miles. 

To Hawkshead by the 

Ferry, 9 miles. 

To Newby Bridge.lS miles. 

ToUbar ; head of the Lako. 

AMBLESIDE. 



and White Lion. 



Viae Ttowa on the right <4 
tile valley of Kendal. Sbapand 
Howgm Fells fai the dtetaace. 
Boadon the left to Bowness, 
Sadies from KendaL ^ 



indnat(7,fr 
« menul 



the taftmrn of BMiavd BUe- 
man, a Leghmn merchant. Ba 
wa8anatrr»or the township; 
~ bring a ^ever lad, he waa 
Bent by the inhabitants to Lon- 
' HeroeebydiHgMieeand 
tttiesitnatloaof 
be his 

rot 

some yean he resided at Leg- 
horn, whenee he Ibrwarded the 
slabs of marble with which the 
ch^peUs floored. His story is 
"""""'"■* to in Wordsworth's 
si ;** bat his tragioar 
end is not told. The cutain 
of the vessel ia which he was 



him, and selaed tiie ship and 

OMfO. 

nrst view of 



benoe to the tadw, qOendid 
views of the moonUina in the 
west are eommaaded. Lang- 
dale Pikee, from thrir peeollar 
Bhi^w, are easily known. Bow- 
Ml, a broad tt^ped moontatai, 
is on the sonth. Between the 
two,Oreat End and Great Gabia 
are seen. On the south of Bow- 
Mi, ScawMI Pike may be a 
in dear weather. Farthersoi 
are Crinkle Qrags, Wiynos^ 
Watherlam and Coniston Old 
Bfan. To the south eastoCLana. 
dale Pikes, in the fbngrnund, la 
Loo^irigg Fell; fhrtherba^, 
are tairiSld and Soandala. 



gboiltbythe 



Ptokjb 
eminent l^ahop wi 

This portion of the ronw is 



I 



Lottghrigg Fril is seen on the 
opposite store. At its foot, 
Brathay Hall, O. Redmayne, 
Esq. 

Dove Nest, a house Inhabit 

I, during one summer, by 

rs Hemaas, is a short di^ 

taaoe tethn on tba right. 



Watenlde, Mr Hewton. 



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CXII. AMBLB8IDJB-RYDAL-ORA8MBJE»-THIBLBMBBR- 323 

KESWICK, leMilei. 



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324 



AMBLESIOB TO KESWICK.— CemHiiMAf. 



OM RNBT raOM AMBLStlD. 



iCnt. 



FiiMi«tro9eetlT«TlCfwtifk«m 
the nunmit, Sklddaw is Tiaibto. 

I The tnuUtkn Is, that Dan- 
mall, KiQg<rfCiimberlaiid, wm 
'defeated here bj Edmund the 
iSaxon Ung, in 0«B. A oalrn, 
•tiU in part ranalninf, was 
ndMd as a memorial of the Tic- 



tory. The 
the ejes of his adrenary's two 
■DOB, and gave tiie territory to 
Malcolm, uag of Scotland, to 
'ipieserre the peace (rf the north- 
ern part of the kingdom. 



The road la too near the foot 
of HelTelljn toallowany notion 
to be formed of that moontain's 



Armboth House, W. Jibkmm, 
Esq., on the west shove. 



Half way down the lake on 
Ithe right, an some houses oall- 
led Fisher's Place, near which 
hkre some pretty cascades formed 
%y a stream flowing off Hel- 

Pedestrians frequently erosa 
Armboth Fell to th« Tillage of 
Watendlath,nooeeding thence 
to Keswick. Splmdld views of 
Derwentwater axe obtained in 
diedeaoent. Near the foot of 
Thirlemere, (me extremity ct 
tb0 Tale of St. John is paiieil 
The TiewB along it, with Sad- 



_. Tsryllni 
The celebrated ** Castle Rock 
rtands at the entrance on the 
right. ** From a field on the 
eastern side of the road, and a 
Uttle short of the tenth mUe> 
stone, the Tlew of the Tale of St. 
John presentsamoatsingularly 
interMting asMmblags of the 
wildandflie 



eloTely. 



I NaddleFeU. 

Hence may be seen the three 



dK, and Helrellyn. 

' From this place, there la the 
Tiew of the Tale of the Derwent 
and ita two lakea, which Gray 
iregfetted ao much to leaTe. 
fiuildawiaii 



10|| TbU Bar. 

The road rises nadnaUy 
until it attains the height 
of 7S0 feet, at the pass of 

DUNMAIL RAISE. 



Enter Cumherland. 

Steel Fell on the left 
Seat Sandal on the right. 



8i Horse's Head, Wythebum, 

The Tillage,' called locallj 
"thecity.^'ishalfamile 
distant on the left. 



FalrFldd. 

Seats 



They now haTC reaeh'd that 

pile of stones, 
He^>'d over braTC King Dun. 

mail's bones. 
He who once held 

command. 
Last king of ro6ky Cumberland; 
His bones, and those of all his 



THIBLEMERE LAKE, 

called also WythebnmWar 
ter and Leathes Water, 
washing the base of Hel- 
Telljn. 



Road on the right through 
St. John's Vale. 



•^S cr. Smeathwaite 
Bridge over St John's 
Beck, which issues from 
Thirlemere. 



Causey Foot 

Summit of Castlerigg. 

KESWICK. 



Slain here in a 

hour."— i 

Ifoniftvofw. I 

Thirlemere u m Tiew. I 

The ascent of HehreUyn fhnn 

lis inn is shorter, but steeper, 

than from any othw place.- 

Opposite the inn, is the ehapeli 

which Wordsworth describesi 

Wythebnm's modest honas 
of prayer, 
Aa lowly M the 



elowUeatdweU. 



Eagle Ciag la i 
Tcrtheu 



lU 



OTcr the upper end of the lakci 
a aheet of water, enTinmed by 
fivwning precipioea, two and a 
half miles long, 800 foot aboro' 
the leTd of the sea* and about! 
100 fleet in deptii. There is al 
small island near the shoie atitsl 
foot. Itissonarrowastoaltowt 
a wooden bridee to be thrown| 
aeroaa its middle. To obtain, 
some picturesque Tiews, the 
lake should be crossed by this* 
bridge, and the road on the! 
west Ukon taken, which J^ns 
the turnpike road* a Uttle be- 

Snd the twelfth mile-stone 
iTcn Crag is a fine objj 
thefbot. This lake is thepro- 
perty of T. S. LcaUies, Emi., 
whose residence, Dalehead 
House, is in the nelghboar. 
hood. 



ShouUhwaite Mi 
by a rocky hUl I 



A form-house on tlM lafti 
laded by wood» Is 
Canaey Foot. 

141 When the pedcBtriaareaehei 
a piece of open ground in the 
deasent, hefaadTiaed to 
ofi» of the flelda on the left, ts 
'obtain a Tiew of the whole «• 



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CXIII.AMBLBS1DB— LANODALE—BSKDALB— EOREMONT— 

WHITEHAVEN, 38 Mila. 



325 



•»• Th* whole of this nmte is MMom travelled eontinnoaalyi but m most of it wUl be trnvened is 
ietaohed portions, it hss been thought better to place the total dJstance under one desetiptlon, from which 
the Tourist may select the sections he requires. In eonsequMice of there being no inn at which post* 
horses an kept between AmUeside and Cslder Bridge, oarriages cannot pursue this routs. 



Croft Lodge, James Holmes 



Ryss 



Ven. 



;2! 

^i AMBLESIDE. 

.^^ cr. Rothay Bridge. 
37 Clappengate vill. 



1-2 



Ambleside, a road turns into 
Great Ismgdale. j 

There is a waterfiill a short' . 
distance above the bridge 80 
feet in height. The views of 
T^uigdale Pikes are extremely 
'"ne. 

From the tenaoe attidned 
soon after passing Skelwith Br. 
there is a superb view of Elter* 
water, and of Great and Little 
langdale, separated by Ung^ 
~ioor. 

Boad into Great Lrtbgdale 
skirting thehead of Elterwater 
Tarn. 

Lingmoor. 

A road bends to the ttehtj 
■nd, alter passing Blea Ivn^ 
enters the head of Great Lang- 
dale. Along this road the Pikes 
Iwsar their boldest foatures. 



On thebankBof the Brathay , 
Brathay Chapel. 

.^^ cr. Skelwith Bridge. 

Enter Lancashire. 
HaTinff croeaed the bridge, 
the road on the right lead- 
ing up a iteep hill must be 



33| 



At the spot where the Coun- 
ties of Cumberland, Westmer. 
land, and Lancashire unite, 
the Three Shire Stones arc 



The aseentof Hardknot is be- 
the highest part of the 
on the right 



fSis 



29* 



27i 



IVosn this summit there is a ... 
magnificent view of SoawfiBU, ^ 
Pikeeand ScawfeU. On the left 
the Irish Sea is seen ; and, in 
ck«r weather, the Isle of Man. 
iHalf way down the hill, and 
.about 190 yards fW>m the road, 
lare Uie fluntly visible remains 
iof a Boman fbrtiflcation called 
iHardknot Gsstle, onoe a place 
Mrimportanoe. 

I — that lea* eaapoo lard- 
I knot'i height, 

'WhoM Ouardiani bent the knee to 
I Jove and Uikt. 

1 The mountains enciieling 24* 
Phkdale, ara the Seathwaita 
IFsUs on the Isft, and prqie^ 
Wens fr«n SeawfeD on tha 
|ilfht. 

I 



J^ cr. Colwith Bridge. 
Re-enter Westmorland. 

FeUFoot 



The road winds steeply to 
the summit of 
WRYNOSB, 

(Prononnoed locally Aaymur.)' 
Enter Lancashire. 

Descend to 

Cockley Beck Bridge, 

over the Duddon. 

Enter Cumberland. 

Summit of 
HARD KNOT. 



grounds, is no where to be seen 



Descend into 
ESKDALE. 

-^ cr. Esk Bridge. 



o» LirrnuMC amblssiob. 



Ti 
la 
rl 

berthwaite to ConIston,5 miles.* 
The toilsome ascent <rf Wry. 

noee is conmienoed at thin 

place. The retrospectlTe Tiews^ 

are fine. WansfUl Pike is seen) 

in the distance. 

The Cam. and Ooniston Fells. 
Traces of a Boman road over: 

both Hardknot and Wrynosei 

are yet remaining. 



I(U The Duddon bends at this 
place ! and, peering throtigh 
the beantiftil vale of Seath. 
waite, enters Morscambe Bay, 
near Broughton. The distance 
between Cockley Beck and 

12| Broughton by tb« road is It 
nniles. The pedestrian is stro — 
Dy advised to tiaverss this i 
Dey, unsurpassed in {detnresque 
Lnd retired beauty by any other 
Hn the lake district. It may 
R>e approached fWnn Coniston 
Iby the Walna Scar road. There 
ds an inn at NewfleM, 4 or ftl 
nniles down the valley. Thel 
Duddon is the subjectofa seriesj 
K>f sonnets by Wordsworth . 

This beautifhl vale is wateredl 
|by the Esk, which, after a> 

1 91 oowrse of about 18 mliee, enteral 

'"^ the sea near Bavenglass. Thel 
valley is narrow at the si 
where it is entered, but 
widens rapidly towards f 
weet. Itoontainstwoorthi 
hamlets and a bm scattered] 
houses. GreatninnbsvBofi ' 
are pastured in it. 



Thel 

trthreel 
attered 
rfsheed 



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326 AMBLESIOB TO WHITBHAVBN.-C^mMmied. 



1 * BgramoDt It a neat mmtot town, containing about 1500 inhabituits. Hated at the diitanoe of two 
jmilee and a hiUf from the ooait, upon the banks of the Ehen, the stream .which flows from Knneidale 



It Is stated to haTe been a bnoogh at the period when Parliamentaiy vepreeentatlvee wen 
lemnneiated Ibr their serrloeei and that, toaToid the expanse ofaroembor. the buigesses petitioned to 
hare the burgh dUfrsnohised, whleh was accordingly done. The Farlsh Cnttreh is an ancient "~ 



Idedleated to 81 Man. It was granted by WUUam de Mesehleni to the CeU of St Bees Upon an 
lemlnMee to the west of the town stand the ruins ofBgremoot OMtle, ftmnerly a place of mat stiength 
and Importanos. It was built by the above named WuUam de MeeQhiens soon after the Nonnan Ooo- 
kttset. In the lapse of time It passed Into the poesessian of the Lucy flunlly. There to a tmdlticn, 
rsspecting the fbrtress whilst belonging to the Lucies, which Wor d swor t h has vevslfled In some ctansaif 
entitled, ** The Horn of Bnvmont Otstie.** General Wyndham Is the pressnt ownet of both the Ifaneti 
wnd Oastle of Egremont. Large quantities ot Iron ore are excavated In the ndgfabouriuMd, which ai« 
^vmd to WhltAaven un«nelted, and thence shipped to South Wales. St Beee, at which these to aj 
Wne C on ventu a l Ohweh, Is two and a half miles distant. AgoodtoadfOfsavenmlkslnlength^eaadnctii 
ttotbelbotorinnefdatoliake. The distancee fhm Ibmmont to the neighbouring towns are, — Bav«H 
^(ia«» 11 mlleei BMughton* aomlles) mventon, 80 m&es ; Codnnnoathj Ig miles ; MuTport, 29 XQlIca. 



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CXIV. WHITEHAVEN-COCKKRMOUTH— BASSBNTHWjIITB 327 

LAKiL— KESWICK, 2? Miles. 



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328 



CXV. KESWICK— BORROWDALE—BUTTEBMEBE-SCALEHILL- 
COCKERMOUTH, 25i Mile*. 



iON RIOBT VSOM KBSWICK. 



H 



2.H 
Ticar's or Denvent Isle. 25 

Lorda Isle. Friar Crag pro- 
)eoU Into the lake a litUe be- 
yond. Gat Bells ore fine objects 
'on the opiKMite shore, Grize> 
dale, and Cauaejr Pifees are to 
the left of them. ^ 

Behind Barrow House is aJ 23| 
cascade of 184 feet taXk. 



I The many topped SUddaw, 
(lifting its gigantic bulk beyond 
the foot of the lake, Is a grand 
object, t'roatbwaite Church 
{will be observed lying at its 



Grange Bridge, and the vil- 
lage of Grange. The road 
returns to Keswick by the w 
niargin of Derwent Water. Bor- 
rowdale, a valley 6 miles long, 
iind containing 9000 acres. Is 
tiow entered. It is watered, in 
its whole length, by the river 
Grange, whicli, after it Issues 
rh>ra Serwent Water, tSkkes 
the name of Derwent. At 
Castle Crag the road and the 
bed of the river occupy all the 
level portion, but beyond the 
vale widens considerably. A- 
bove Rosthwaite the valley di- 
vides into two branches ; the 
eastern branch is called Stone- 
tbwaite. Borrowdale formerly 
belonged to Fumess Abbey. 

Here is a small inn. This is 
the widest part of the valley. 

The mountain Glaramara is 
seen in flront Scawfltll FikeSj 
Soawflell and Great Gavel are 
seen over Seathwaite. 



The ascent of Battermere 
Haws, which rises to the height 
of 1100 feet above the sea. Is 
now commenced. The retro- 
spective views are flne. A por> 
uon of Helvellyn is seen over 
the Borrowdale and Armboth 
Fells. 



Tew Qnag. The upper p 
of this vale is »cnw>dingly n 
and unoultivatsd. 



22| 



19* 



m 



16| 



KESWICK. 
Road to the lake. 



Barrow House. 
J. P. Senhouse. Esq. 



Castle Crag on the right 
**Froiu the summit of 
this rock the vie%vs are so 
singularly ereat and pleas- 
ing, that they ought never 
to be omitted" 

W£8T. 



Rosthwaite vilL 



3^ cr. Beatollar Bridge. 

Seatollar. 

Abraham Fisher, Esq. 

Descend into 

Buttermere dale. 



Honister Crag. 



Oastle Head, aa eninenee 
from which there la abeautifU 
view of the lake. 

Wallow Orag. 

Falcon Crag. 



Road to the hanUet called 
Watoidlath, placed near a' 
tarn in a desoUte and narrow 
vale. 

ThrangOrag. 

The celebrated &]i lies be- 
hind the inn, on the streami 
running fhnn Watmdlath 
Tarn. Ita height is ISO feet.! 
Gowder Crag on the left, Shep-' 
herd's Crag tm the right of the] 



Grange Crag. 

There is a good view from) 
this eminence. Shmtly beforej 
reaching this poist, a road d*. 
viates to, and passes, X«owder 
Stone, re-entering the nam| 
road aUttle beyond. Thismaas' 
of rock has been likened to 

A ttruided tbtp with keai ap-l 

turn 'd that rc*U 
CanlcM of winds or w«*«. 

It is 08 fbet long, 86 feet high, 
and 88 feet in circumlfatenee. 
It has been estimated to weigh 
1971 tons, and to contain 88,000 
eubio fbet. The view henoe ia 
lezquisitely beaatifUI. 



Half a mUe beyond, naai 
Borrowdale Clumel, a road di< 
verges to the valley and viDan 
ofStonethwaite. EajdeCkagia 
a fine rode near tha ktter. 
mountain path proceeda 
the Stake, a lof^ paas, into 
longdale. 

Near this bridge the road 
into Wastdale, by Sty H " 
■trikeaoA 

The wen known Hatk 
mine, and the Immwise Ba» 
rowdaleTews, ax* naar S s al ai 
lar. The former is the ootar 
mine of the kind fai En^and. 
The largest of tb* yew* la tl 
feetin^rth. 



Honister Onag, 1700 feet hl^ 
Here are smna valaable slats 

quarries *>«'«'^g*»^ to O sae wi 

Wyndham. 



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KESWICK TO COCKERMOUTH.— ConM«M«rf. 329 



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330 COCKBBMOUTH. 

CocKSRMOUTR 18 an ancient borough and neat market-town of 7275 inhabitanti^ 
seated at the junction of the Cocker with the Derwent, from which circumstance 
it deriTes its name. It sent two lepresentatiTes to Parliament as early as the 
twenty-third year of Edward I., and, by the Reform Act, it has still the priri- 
lege of returning two members. The honour and castle of Cockermouth belong 
to General Wyndham. The ruins of this ancient fortress, formerly a place of 
great strength, are seated on a bold eminence which rises fit>m the east bank of 
the Cocker. ^ was built soon after the Norman Conquest by Waldieve^ first 
lord of Allerdale, of whose successors it was for many centuries the baronial seat. 
In 1648, it was garrisoned for King Charles, but b«dng afterwards taken by the 
Parliamentarians, was dismantled by them, and has ever since Iain in ruics» 
except a small part at present occupied by lieut-Oeneral Wyndham. The 
Gateway Tower, embellidied with the arms of the Umfravilles, Multons, Luciea, 
Percies, and Nevilles, is a striking object On the north side of the town is a 
tumulus, called Toots Hill ; one mile to the west are the remains of a rampart 
and ditch of an encampment, 750 feet in circuit, called Fitt^ Wood. On the 
summit of a hill at Pap Castle, a village one mile and a-half south-west of 
Cockermouth, are the traces of a Roman castrum. A great number of antique 
remains have been discovered at this place, and in the neighbourhood. The 
castle was subsequently the residence of the above-mentioned Waldieve, by 
whom it was demolished, and the materials used in the construction of Cocker- 
mouth Castle. Tickell, the poet, Addisonls friend, was bom at Bridekirk, two 
miles distant* 

The seats in the neighbourhood are — Dovenby Hall (Mrs Dykes), three milei 
north-west ; Tallentire Hall (William Brofwne, Esq.), three and a half milei 
north ; Isel Hall (Sir Wilfrid Lawaon Bt), three and a half miles north-east; 
Woodhall (J. S. Fisher, Esq.), two and a half miles north. 

The best inns are, the Globe, and the Sim. The distances to the principal 
towns in the neighbourhood are — ^Maryport, seven miles, Workington, eight 
miles, Keswick, by Whinlatter, twelve miles, by Bassenthwaite Water, thirteen 
and a-half miles, Whitehaven, fourteen miles, Wigton, sixteen miles, Carlisle, 
twenty-seven mileSi 

Cockermouth is now connected by railway with Workington. ITiis line, which 
is Bf miles in length, was opened for traffic in 1847. 

• Ck>ekerraouthisthebirth-iilaoeofth0poecWaidsworth«wbowasboni on the Ttti April, 



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CXVI. KESWICK— BORROWDALE— WAST WATER- 

KliKEMtiM.:^! Miles. 



331 



Olf RIGHT rROM KI8WICK. 



The wad mine la in a reeeM 
flidled OiUercoom, in tlie tide of 
Ithe mountain on the rl«^t. 
~ he stream I' 

thiaplaoea 

I of rock oKlk 

Hau^g Stone isTieible. Net 
,the mine are the flonoiu je 
treet. Adnmeing, Taylor's OiU 
Ibrms a fine cascade after rain. 



B^ Head Tun, a deeolate 
dieet of -water, b^ond which 
Ofeat End rises abruptlir. Far- 
ther on is ScawftU Akes.- 
Sprinkling Tsm, whidi sends 
• stream Into Sty Head Tarn, 
ds half a mile to the east. These 
itams eerre as guides in the 
janent of the Flkes from "^ - 



I 



a^ 



22| 



21* 



A mountain road of six miles 
leonduets ttam Wastdale Head, 
tbetween Lingmelt and the 
Screes, into Eskdale. The 
hpedestrian and horseman may 
irmch Ennerdale by the pass of 
iBlaek Sail, or, by traversing 
Unother pass called Soaif Gi^), 
Imay enter Battermere dale at 
>6atescarth. This path is six 
Imiles in length. 
I (hrerbeck makes a plei , 
'cascade some distance abore 
'theljridge. 

• The finest riew of the valley 
is obserred from the north- 
Iwesi eztremi^ <rf the Screes. 



Stmds is a pretty UtUe tU- 
tage with two inns. The tourist 
making it his head quarters (br 
a fhw «uys, will iind many plea- 
Mnt excursions in the vici. 
nity. The riew of Wast 
"Water conomanded firom Lat> 
t«rtMtrrow, a rockjr hlU In the 
neighbourhood, is extremely 
floe. A curious ravine called 
H«wl CHU, in the south-east 
ejrtwmityofthe Screes, is w«r^ 
a rlalt ; and those who are fond 
ornunditala mmUee,m«rpass 
■Jobs the summit of the SarsM 
itadSesoend to Wastdale Bead. 
Tba views fkwn this elerated 



KESWICK. 

For 71 miles the road Is the 
sameasthe former No. 
^ cr. Seatollar Bridge. 

Road to the left. 
^ cr. Seathwaite Bridge. 

Keppel Oragand Hind Crag 
on the left. 

Seathwaite vilL 
9 cr. Btockley Bridge. 

The road winds precipi- 
UHttly up Aaron iSnd. 



Sty Head. 



Wastdale Head. 



15| Head of Wast Water. 
14i ^^ cr. Overt)eck Bridge. 



Turn to see the pano- 
rama of mountains at tlie 
head of the valley. Yew- 
barrow, Kirkfell, Great 
Gable, Llngmell. ScawfeU 
Pikes, and Scawfell. 

Strands TilL 



7* "TravdlCTS who may not 
' have been accustomed to pay 
attention to things so unobtru- 
sive," says Wordsworth, nieak- 
ing of the rude bridges of this 
district, " will exeose me if X 
point out the proportloo be- 
tween the span and elevation 
of the tadk. the lightness of the 
parapet, and the graoefbi man- 
ner in which its curve follows 
tUthfUly that of the azeh." 



H 



^^ or. Bleng Bridge. 
GosforthTilL 

■^ cr. Calder Bridge. 
EGREMONT. 



OM LEFT raOM KB8WICK. 



Bayl Brown. 
Taylor's OiU Band. 
Saddlebadi is seen o 
rowdale. 



A magnifloent pass elevated 
1850 fbet above the valley. The 
road descends very steeply tx 
tween Great Gable on the nghl 
and Great End and ScawfUl o 
the left, to Wastdale Head, a 
level and secluded vaUey, of a 
ftew hundred aores^at the head 
of Wast Water, shut in by 
lofty mountains that rise like 
walla fWxn it. Herelsaohi^iel^ 
butnoian. Oarvets are fbund 
embedded in the slate of Gable 



II. 

Thishike is 3| miles inkngtht 
and about hair a mile broad ; 
its extreme depth Is S70 ftet. 
The grand mountains and bare 
rocks around this lake, invest 
it with a peculiar air of deeo- 
lation. The Screes, whose sides 
"shiver in all the subdued 
colours of the rainbow," extend 
along the whole length of the 
>pp<^te shore^whilst the road 
MMMS under Tewbarrow and 
ftuckbarrow Pike. 

Crook End, 0. Bawson.Esq. 

From a field fh>ntlng Crook, 
there U one of the best views, 
not only of the head, butof the 
wh<de body, of the lake. From 
no other point of view are the 
colonn of the Screes more 
beantiAil, more majestic the 
outUne, more magnUfieot the 
Browning elifb. 

'^ WlUON. 

The i«ad from Gosfbrth to 
Bgremont has ben dsKsribed 
inVo.y. 



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332 CXVn. KESWICK— THIIELK ELD— PENRITH, 18 Milei. 



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CXVm. PENBITH— ULLBS WATBR-PATTERDALE— KIRK8T0NK— 333 
AMBLESIDE, 94i Miles. 



r, the Toortet maj a 



H^.--*A-w***V^ *^^?^' turning to the rlrtt a Uttle beyond, to Tanwath Till, (two miles,) learii 

^^S^"^^ ■??»iTabIe on the left. Here !■ Taowath flaU, an aacieot caata " " 

■pee^Mnofthe old Weetmoriand HaU. Sockbrldge TiU. i« a mile ftirther. The 



, iaa 

B on the right a mile brjond. ToiAty 



clearing 

bvildiniL a good 

I place '- - 



ilwnni ng the attmtion of the artirt. Bartonehorch la 
wdge ia leaohed fire miles and three quarters from Penrith. 

It haa beenreoonunotded, that, in order to see the lower part of Ullee Water to advantage, the Wert- 
morland mygln should be Uaversed for three or ftnir miles i a boat might be in nadiness to convey tlte 
•tnuiger aeioas the lake to the road usually taken. . 



ON RIGHT raOM PUTRITH. 



il 
II 



Watorfoot, Col. Safanoad. 

To reach Pooley Bridge _ 
Quarter of a mile distant at 
the fi>ot of the lake, a turn 
must be made to the left. 
- this 



Plaoe, where post-horses and 
boats can be obtained. There 
Is a good Tiew of the lake from 
J)uninaUet, a hiU near ' 
iTillage. 

Boad to New Chnreh, _. 
called, in distlnotion thm Old 
Church, whioh stood on the 
margin of the lake. The fbr- 
mer was conseemted by Bishop 
Oglethorpe in 1658, while on 
his wny to crown <)ueen Elisa* 
beth; an offloe he had sooni 
to regret having undertaken,! 
when all the other prelates 
had rcAued, fbr he as well as' 
the other Roman CathoUel 
.Bishops wwe shortly aftei^ 
•wards deprived* 



m 



17 



This! 



Henry H 
contains 



Howard, 



It is well stocked with deer. 
At Sandwyke, on the oppodte 

In, aeor~" — " 

How < 



^^U 



Lyulph's Tower, a hunting 
■sat, the proper^ of Mr How. 
ird. There is a splendid view 
of the lake fWim tiSe front. 



IMh Aire PMee, that torrrat 
heerM, 



fit ■ ■ ■I s 1m • MiMin vela I 



1^ 



PENRITH. 

Punue the Keewiek road 

for two miles. 

Dalenain Fftrk. 

.^^ cr. the Dtcrtb 

ULLES WATER. 



RamfMibeck Lodge 
on the left. 



Watwmlllock. 



Enter Gowbanow Buk. 



Te Ma mhm eelebM tm tk* gala 
**--( Mirit of • mMniftil tr'' 
■MUad In Um loand. 



13* 



^^cr.AlrqrBildgt. 

Road to Eeiwick throng 
Matterdale lOi milea. 



Dalemain,E.W. HaseU. Esq. 

Dunmalletfiqwn wUdi stood 
a Roman fitrti 



M This lake is of a 
* shape, nine miles long, a mila 
wide, and about 90O fret in 
extreme depth. It is divided 
by promontories into three 
sections, called reaches, ct 
equal sin, the smallest being 
the highest, and the laigesti 
the middle rea ch . Four small; 



H 



ON LCPT ntOM PSNRITB. 



8kii«gUl, Mrs FteUn. 



I Manns aaoni vtm nppermosc,! 
71 the scenery around which iaj 
■ of the grandest description. I 
Halsteads, WilUsm HarshaU, 

a. on a promontory, ealledl 
ley Neb. 
Halfinrell,__. 
opposite shore, and „ 
the first reach. Swarth Fdl 

iwHallinFeUj 
two, Puaedale Beck enteis the 
lake in the bay termed How 
Town Wyka. 



In Gowbarrow Park, says 
Wordsworth, the lover of Han 
ture might linger for honrs.! 
Here is a powerfU bro«dt,< 
which dashes among rocks' 
through a den> ^en hung on! 
every side with a rich andj 
happy intermixture of natii 
wood ; here are beds of ' 
rian* frtn, aged hawtl 
and h<dhes decked with honey 
socles } andlhUowdeergf' 
ing and bounding over 
lawns and throu^ the "* 



▲ mile above the bridge tl 
stream is predidtated down • 
•01 of eighty feet. Two u ' 
bridges are thrown aero 
bKKMk, one above the other J 
belowthefiUL Thebaakss 
beautiftilly wooded, 
aoenery around of i 



I magni 
srapldli 




frwn tiM o pp oiil 



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334 



PINRITU TO AVLBLESlDEt^Continued 



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CXIX. PENBITH- SHAP-KBNOAL, 96 Miles. 



335 



OM XWBT WmUM PSNmiTH. 



TheVkanics. 

Atth* oomer of the Held, at 
iiAe flnt laae on th* rMit, b«- 
,7ond Bamont BridM, la Kingj 
Arthur^ Round Table. A short< 



«1 



>e| 



rlcht, to Mayboroogh, another qab 
nAeofthedarkaM. Tberoad. ^S| 

Ida through Tirtel and| | 

a to Poolej Bridge. 

ClHton Hall, a fkrni'hotiie, 
IB ueient tnirettod maaaion. 

, Hera are the gatea leading to 
|the Barl of Lonadale'a magnl- 
» and to 



a 



lleent Parte of 000 aeres> 

theCaitla. 

I RadcthorpeHall.aleoafknn- 

Ibouee. The birth-place of John 

a it yiaooont Txnwdale. The 

iLowther fiunlly hare Immenie 

ipnMaMlena in the neighbour- 



er an al^ey, founded in llfiO, 
ara a mile to the weat on the 
baakaofthe Loirther. Only a 
tower of the Church ia stand- 
ing, but it ^>peara to hare been 
at <»e time an extraai^e struo- 
ton. AroadtntneoffatShap 
to Hawea Water, lix mUea. 



Waatdale Head, a granitic 
tountaln, firom which blocks, 
Jof immeaae aize, haTe been car« 
*ried, by aome extraordinary 
jmeana, into Lancaaliire and 
Staflbrddiire, in one direction^ 
bnd to the coast of Yorkshire in 
ianother, npwarda of 100 miles 
ftom the parent rodi. In order 
{to enter Yorkshire, they must 
Aare been drifted orer 8tian< 
■, 1400 Ceet in elevation. 



iteTe b 



Low.BridfeHonae, Richard 
/FothaigUUBaq. 



Three mllea north of Kendal 
;finom Otter Bank, a beanttftil 
Tlaw ot that town, with the 
CnaUe HiU on the left, ia ob. 



PENRITH. 
•^S cr. Eamont Bridge. 

Enter Wegtmorland. 
•1^ cr. Lowther Bridge. 

Clifton vm. 



Hackthorpe VilL 
TbrimbyVilL 

ShftpVilL 

Inns, 
Oreyhonnd, Kingfs Anus. 

Shap Toll Bar. 



Orer the elevated moorish 
tract called Shap Fella. 



Steep descent nnder Bre- 
therdale Bank to 



High Borrow Bridge, 
OTor the Lnne. 

Forest HaU. 



4S^ cr. Mint Bridge. 

KENDAL. 

Inns, 

Kinflf i Arms, CommerdaL 



25 



OK LBFT niOM PBNRfTH. 



Carieton Hall, John Ctowpas^' 
l>Q^ I 

The Eamont and Lowther! 
re tributariea of the Eden, be- 
fore entering which they form 
ajunetlon. 

BroMham Hall, the Windaor 

r the North. In the TiofaUtj 

is Brougham Castle, a fine mint 

the property of the Earl of 

Thanet, a deseendant from 

The stout Lord ClilTords that 

did fight in France." 

Upon Clifton Moor, a skir- 
mish took place inl748, between 
the retreaunatroopeof the Pre. 
tender and the army under the 
Duke of Cumberland, in which 
fifteen were kiUed on both sldea. 
Mention is made of thia Ind- 
dent in WaTcrley. 



Ontheeoath.eaat<rfShap, by 
the road side, are two lines mi 
utihewn granite, called Carl) 
Lofts. AmiIetothenorth.eastl 
of the same village, there is an 
ancient circle of large stones,! 
both these remains are suppo- 
sed to be of Druidic origin. 



Shap Spa, a medidaal spring 
which annually draws a crowd 
of visitors, is a mile to the 
in the midst of the moor. The 
water is of nearly similar qua- 
Uty to that at Leamington. 
lere is an excellent hotel in 
the vicinity of the spring. 



This is the last stage to Ken. 
dal. 

Whinfbll Beacon, 1500 ibet. 

Hollow through which the 
Sprint firomLon^leddale flows. 
This narrow and pietureeque 
vale commences near Oamett 
Bridge, and runs six mlks 
northwards, between steep and 
rodnr declivities. Apathatita 
head croimis Gatescarth Pass, 
having Barter Fell on the left, 
and Branstrea on the right, in. 
to Mardale, at the head oi 
Hawea Water. 

Knott, 1008 ftet. 



St. George's Chniek. 



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336- 



BTMOPTICAL VIEW OF THE MOONTAINS OF THE 
LAKE DISTRICT. 



ScawfeUPIkt 
ScawfeU 
Hdvellyn 
Skiddaw 
Fairfield . 
Grtat Gavel . 
BovrfeU . 



Rydal 

PiUar 

Saddleback . 

Graamoor 

Red Pike 

High Street 

GrisedalePike 

Conicton Old Man 

HiU Bell 

Harrison Stickle \ t^„.j.i« 

Pike o» Stickle / **»•<»« 

Carrock FeU 

High Pike, Caldbeck FeUa 

Cansey Pike 

Black Combe 

Lord's Seat 

Honister Crag 

Wansfell . 

Whinfell Beacon, near Kendal 

CatBeU 



Latrigg 
DentHil 



Hdfht 



Pikes 



Dent Hill 

Benson Knot, near Kendal 
LonghriggFell . 
Penrith Beacen 
MfeU FeU 
Kendal Fell .... 
Scilly Bank, near Whitehaven 
Passss : 

Sty Head 

Haw^ between Buttermere dale 
and Neirlands . 

Kirkstone 

Haws, between Buttermere and 
Borrowdale 

DnnmaU Raise 



S166 
8100 
8055 
8022 
3950 
S925 
3914 
8910 
:(893 
8787 
3756 
3750 
3700 
8680 
8577 
8500 
3400 
8800 
8110 
3101 
2030 
1919 
1728 
1700 
1590 
1600 
1448 
1160 
1110 
1098 
1108 
1030 
1000 
648 
500 

1250 

1160 
1200 

1100 
720 



Cnmbeiiand 

Cnmberland 

Cnmb. Be. Westm. 

Cnmberland 

Westmorland 

Cumberland 

Westmorland 

Westmorland 

Cumberland 

Cnmberland 

Cnmberland 

Cnmberland 

Westmorland 

Cumberland 

Lancashire 

Westmoiiand 

{Westmorland 

Cumberland 

Cumberland 

Cumberland 

Cumbwland 

Cumberiiod 

Cnmberland 

Westmorland 

Westmorland 

Cumberland 

Cumberland 

Cumberland 

Westmorland 

Westmorland 

Cumberiand 

Cumberland 

Westmorland 

Cnmberland 

Cumb^land 

Cumberland 
Westmoriand 

Cumberland 
Cnmb. & Westm. 



Highest English Mountain, Scawfell Pike, Cumberland 81 66 feet 
Highest Welsh Mountain, Snowdon, Oaemarronshire 8571 
Highest Irish Mountain, GnrraoeTual, Kerry 8404 

Highest Scottish Mountain, Ben Nevis, Inverness-shire. 
Highest European Mountain, Mont Blanc . 15,781 

Highest Mountain in the World. Dhawalaglrl, AsU 



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SYNOPTICAL VIEW OP LAKES. 



337 



J 




Bstrame 


Extreme 


Extreme 


Helglittik 


Van*. 


County. 


iMigthin 
milM. 


brewlth 
inmilee. 


,^^ 


feet above 
tlMiea.1 




West ^ Lane. 


10 


1 


240 


116 


Ulle« Water . 


Cumb-^West. 


9 


1 


210 


380 


CJoniston Water . 


Lancaahizv 


6 


1 


160 


105 


Banenthwaite Water 


Cumberland 


4 


1 


68 


210 


Derwent Water . 


Cumberland 


3 


1| 


72 


222 


Crummock Water 


Cumberland 


3 




133 


240 


Wart Water . . 


Cumberland 


3 




270 


160 


Hawee Water . 


Westmorland 


3 






443 


Thirlemere . 


Cumberland 


2f 




108 


473 


Ennerdale Water . 


Cumberland 


^ 




80 




Esthwaite Water . 


Lancaihire 


2 




80 


198 


Buttermere 


Cumberland 


H 






247 


Giaamera . 


Westmorland 


H 




180 


180 


LoweeWatwr . . 


Cumberland 


1 








Brother's Water . 


Westmorland 


1 








Rydalmere . • 


Westmorland 


* 






156 



SYNOPTICAL VIEW OF WATERFALLS. 



ITame. 


HeJgUin 


Bituation. 


Oounty. 


Scale Force 


156 


South-w. side of Crummock 
Lake, . . . Cumberland. 


Barrow Cascade 


124 


East side of Derwent Water, jcumberland. 


Lowdore Cascade 


100 


East side of Derwent Water, jCumberl^nd. 


Colwith Force 


90 


Little Langdale. 




Airey Force 


80 


West side of Ulles Water. 


Cumberland. 


Dungeon Oill Force 


80 


South-east side of Langdale 








Pikes, . 


Westmorland. 


Stock Oill Force 


70 


Ambleside, 


Westmorland. 


Birker Force . 


60 


South side of Eskdale, 


Cumberland. 


Stanley GiU Force 


60 


South Bide of Eskdale, 


Cumberland. 


Sour Milk Force 


60 






Upper Fall, Rydal 


50 


Rydal Park, 


Westmorland. 


Bkelwith Force 


20 










Elter Water, . jWwtcorhuid. 1 



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338 CXXt MANCHESTER TO BURT, HA8LINGDEN, AND BLACKBURN, 
BY RAILWAY (EAST LANCASHIRE), S7^ fifiles. 



on UGHT noM MAirc. 



River Irwell, and be- 
Tond, Broughton Hall, & 
Sedgely Park; and far- 
ther off, Heaton PaA * 
HaU, Earl of Wilton. 

Irwell House. 
Preetwich. 

Outwood Lodge; 1} 
m. beyond, Polefield. 
Stand HalUli mile. 



Raddiffe. 

Unsworth Ix>dge. 

To Rochdale, 6\ miles. 

Near Bury, Chamber 
Hall. Here the great 
Sir Robt Peel was bom, 
and a monument to his 
memory has been erect- 
ed near Burv. 

NuttaU Hall. 

2 miles beycmd Rams- 
bottom Station is a 
branch line to Rawten- 
stall and Bacap, which 
follows the valley of the 
Irwell. 

Carter Place. 



AccringtonHoa8e,Col. 
J. Peel. 

Railway to Bmidey, 
and thence, by Colne 
and Skipton, to Leeds. 

Dunken Haigh, I 
Petre, Esq. 
Oayton Hall. 
Rlsnton. 



2U 
20J 

m 



From Hanchester, by 

Manchester and 

Bolton Railway, to 

Clifton Junction <p. 258). 

^Q cr. Manchester, 

Bolton, and Buy Canal, 

and riv. IrwelL 

Ringley Road St 
^^ cr. riv. IrwelL 
Radclifie Bridge 8t 

J$^ cr. riv. Irwell. 

BURT ST. 
Follow coarse of river Ir- 
well, which the line fre- 
quently crosses. 

Summerseat St 

Ramsbottom St 

Leave valley of Irwell 
1 m. before reaching 

Helmshore St 

HASLINQDEN (p. S39). 

Baxenden St 

ACCRINGTON St. 
The inhabitJints of Acuring;- 
ton are chiefly engaged m 
cotton-spinning and calico- 
printing. Pop. 1861, 7481. 

Church St 

■^9 cr. Leeds and Liver- 
pool CanaL 

BLACKBURN (see p. 889) 



§"2 



m 

18i 
20i 
22 



23} 
27i 



oiT Lsn rmoM harc. 



Trafford Park, Sir H. 
De Trafford, Bait. 



Pendtebnry. 

Clifton : And berond, Won- 
ley Hall, Eari of EUeamem 
Railway to Bolton. 



Ringley, 1 mile. 

To Bolton, 6 miles. 
Ainswortii, 8 miles. 



To Bolton, 6^ miles. 

Elton. 

Tottmgton. 



Holcome. 



To Blackburn, by road. 
Smiles. 



Oswaldtwistle. 



Burt is a considerable manufacturing town, situated on an eminence between 
the rivers Irwell and Roch. Although its present importance is of modem 
origin, it is a place of considerable antiquity, and was a Saxon town, as its name 
implies. The woollen manufacture, which is of ancient date, having been 
carried on here by the emigrant Flemings, is still prosecuted, though not on so 
extensive a scale, of late years, as the cotton manufacture, lliere are also in 
and near the town several extensive establishments for bleaching, calico-print- 
ing, iron founding, and machine making. The canal fh>m Bury to Manchester 



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HA8LINGDEN-BLACKBUKN. 339 

and Bolton, as well as railway commnnication, conduces materii^y to its trading 
prosperity. Bory possesses a small model barrack, a free school, public subscrip- 
tion library, a news-room, a botanical institution, a medical library, a dispen- 
ftary, and a mechanic's institution, several churches and chapels, besides meeting- 
hooses, and charitable institutions. One M.P. Pop. 1851, 31,262. 

On the heath near Bury, Lord Strange, afterwards Earl of Derby, mustered 
20,000 men in £avour of the Royal cause in 1642. 

Hasldvodbn is a flourishing manufacturing town. The chapel contains a 
font of the time of Henry VII., as well as several monuments. The Haslingden 
canal communicates with Bury, Manchester, Liverpool, and Leeds. Pop. 1851, 
6164. 

On an eminence near the town is a tower erected by Messrs William and 
Charles Grant (" the Cheeryble Brothers" of Dickens), and one of whom (1852) 
still survives, who were the first manufSficturers of the district, as a kind of public 
thanksgiving for the puUic prosperity they have reaped. From a lofty height, 
on the opposite side of the valley of the Irwell, where stands the Bury monument 
to Sir R. Peel, a fine and most extensive view of Lancashire may be obtained. 

Blackburn, eight miles distant from Haslingden by the turnpike road, is 
ikmoos for its manufSfiUitnre of calicoes. It has many churches and chapels, an 
academy for the education of dissenting ministers, several meeting houses and 
a grammar school. James Hargreaves, inventor of the spinning jenny, was a 
native of this place TwoM.P. Pop. 1851, 46,686. 

About ten miles firom Blackburn is the Jesuits* College of Stonyhurst.* The 
road leads through Ribblesdale, one of the finest and most extensive vales in 
England. To the left is Ribcheeter, a celebrated Roman station, and to the 
nofth-east, the Castle of Clitheroe, on a bold and abrupt eminence. Stonyhurst 
stands on a fine situation, and has a noble and commanding aspect. It was 
built in the reign of Elizabeth, by Sir Richard Sherburne, whose daughter carried 
the estate by marriage into the fiimily of the Welds of Lulworth Castle, Dorset- 
shire, by whom it was disposed of to the founders of the college. This institution 
was established in 1794, and is conducted in a very efficient manner. About 180 
boys, prindpally sons of the Roman Catholic nobility and gentry, receive their 
education hi it Charles Waterton and the Right Hon. Richard Lalor Shell were 
educated here. Besides the class rooms and other accommodations necessary for 
the purpose of tuition, it contains a museum, in which, among other interesting 
objects, are the private seals of James II. and of Fenelon, and the cap, beads, seal, 
and reliquary of Sir Thomas More ; a number of transatlantic curiosities presented 
by C. Waterton, Esq. of Walton Hall ; a good collection of minerals and shells, 
bronze casts of the Caesars, and plaster casts of the apostles, and a quaint old 
jewel chest which belonged to Queen Christina of Sweden. The library contains 
some highly illtuninated MSS. In the philosophical apparatus-room there is a 

* The distance is only about seven miles by the footpath in a direct line, but the carriage 
road ia very drcaitous. 



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340 WHALLEY-CLITHEBOE. 

fine painting, by Annibal Canted, of the descent from the Cross. The recreatioii 
hall, a magnificent gallery, 90 feet by 20, is embellished with a great number ox 
paintings, and hong with tapestry. The refectory was the baronial hall of the 
Sherbnmes. The gardens are laid oat in the old style, and contain some lofty 
well-trimmed walls of yew. Here is to be seen the identical Boman altar which 
Camden saw at Ribcheeter in 1603, one of the finest remains of classical anti- 
quity in the country. A handsome church has lately been erected at Stonyhurst, 
at an expense of above L.10,000. At Mitton church, in the vicinity, there are 
some fine monuments of the Sherbnmes. Stonyhurst is equidistant from Clithe- 
roe, Whalley, and Ribchester. 

A road leads from Blackburn to Clitheroe, 10} miles, passing by Whallet, 
which is seven miles from Blackburn in a N. N. £. direction, and 4^ miles fix>m 
Accrington. Whalley is a parish, township, and village in the hundred of Black- 
bum and the honour of Clitheroe. It is the largest parish in the county, and one 
of the largest in the kingdom, containing 47 townships, and has an area of 180 
square miles. The church is a venerable pile, containing some curiously carved 
stalls, &C. It was originally founded a. d. 628, and rebuilt 1100. Whalley 
Abbey, founded for monks of the Cistercian order, was an establishment (^re- 
markable magnificence. The last abbot was executed in the reign of Henry 
YIIL, for his share in the insurrection, designated ** the Pilgrimage of Grace." 
The remains of the abbey are still sufficient to show the splendour of its architec- 
ture. The abbot house has been renovated and tumed into a modem residence. 
Near Whalley are Read Hall, and Clerk Hill ; and four miles beyond, at Great 
Mitton, Bashall; near which, on the river Ribble, is Waddow Hall, a fine man- 
sion, romantically situated near the banks of the river. 

Clitherob is situated on an eminence on the east bank of the Ribble. Here 
are the ruins of an ancient castle, erected by the Lacys, who came over with the 
Conqueror. The male line of this family became extinct in 1193, and the honour 
of Clitheroe passed afterwards into the possession of the famous John of Gaunt, 
and when his son became Henry lY. it was vested in the crown, remaining so 
till the time of Charles II. It is now the property of the Buiideuch fiunily. 
During the commonwealth, Clitheroe castie was dismantled by order of the Par- 
liament, and is now greatly dilapidated. Its stones contributed to build a modem 
mansion, which stands within its precincts. Clitheroe has an excellent gram- 
mar school, and several churches and chapels. In the vidnity of the town are 
extensive cotton printing works. Two miles distant is Pendle hill, 1803 feet 
above the level of the sea. One M.P. Pop. 1861, 11,479. 

One mile before Clitheroe is Standen Hall, J. Aspinall, Esq. ; and beyond, near 
Chatbum, Downham Hall, (W. Assheton, Esq.) and Greenbank. At Clitheroe 
is Clitheroe Castie, and d| miles distant, in a north-west direction, is Brows- 
holme (K Parker, Esq.), a curious building, erected in the time of Henry YII. 
containing, among other interesting antiquities, the original silver seal of the 
commonwealth. 



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CXXn. MANCHESTER TO ROCHDALE AND LEEDS, BY RAILWAY, 
69i MUes. 



341 




line to Aihton and 
Hnddersfield (see p.844.) 
Rochdale Canal. 
Branch to Oldham, 2 
Chadderton Park. 



Rochdale is situated in 
a beantifal valley on the 
river Roch. It has ex- 
tensive woollen manufac- 
tories, and cotton spinn- 
ing and weaving are also 
carried on to a Targe ex- 
tent. One M.P. Pop. 
1861,29,196. 

The manor of Rochdale 
was long in the posses- 
sion of the Bvron family, 
and was sold oy the poet, 
Lord Byron, to James 
Dearden, Esq., whose son 
now holds these princely 
domains. 



Belfield. 
aegg HaU. 

Langfield Moor. 
Walsden Moor. 



River CalderandRoch- 
dale Canal. 



(te fhe hi^h moorlands 
through which this partof 
the line passes arenume- 




From Victoria Station, 
Manchester, to Miles 
58] Flatting Junction St 



53f Middleton Jonction St 

The town of Middleton has 
within the last half century 
risen from a small village to 
a place of considerable ex- 
tent, owing to the cotton 
manufacture, which is here 
carried on in all its branches. 
The printing and bleaching 
works are on a large scale. 
Pop. 1861, 6740. 

.^a cr. Rochdale 
canal twice. 



61 

49J 
46 

40i 



Blue Pits Junction St 



ROCHDALE ST. 

■^^ cr. river Beal. 

Littleborough St 

Through tunnel, lj[ mile 
long. 

Todmorden Junction St 

Enter Yorkshire, and 

proceed along valley of 

river Calder, through 

three short tunnels, to 

Eastwood St 



.^^ cr. river Calder 
and Rochdale Canal. 

Hebden Bridge St 



I 



5i 



Harpurhey. 

Blackley. 

Alkrington Hall, and 
beyond, Heaton Park, 
(Earl of Wilton.) 

Middleton, 1 mile. 



Hopwood HaU, R. 
HopwoodjEsq. 



8i 
10 

m 

20| 
28 



Branch to Heywood, 
li^ miles; near it Hey- 
wood Hall. 

Castleton Hall; 1 mile 
beyond, Roch Bank. 

Castle More. 
Wardleworth. 
Smallbridge. 



Branch line to Bum- 
ley. 



Stansfield Hall. 



Hepstonstall. 
River Calder and Canal. 



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342 



MANCHESTER TO ROCHDALE AND hEEDS—Contimued. 



ON SIGHT FBOM MANC. 


35 


Mytholmroyd St 


fig 


ON LBFT 7B0M MAMC. 


rous renuins of anti- 
quity, moeUy of Britlah 


24i 


Wadsworth. 




88i 


Laddenden Foot St 


26 




Sowcrby. Tillotson 
wasanatiTe of thisplaoe. 

Norland. 


81i 
291 


Through tunnel. 

Sowerby Bridge Junction 

Station. 

NORTH DEAN 

Junction St 


27i 
29i 


Branch to HiUifiu, 2} 
mties (see p. 848) ; near 
Halifax, Graren Lodge. 


Elland. 
Stainland. 
Rastriok. 

Upper and Lower 
Woodhouse. 


28i 
25i 


-^ cr. river Calder, 
and through short tun- 
nel to 
Elland St 

J^ cr. river Calder. 
BRI6H0USE St. 


81 
34 


Brighouse. 


Bradley. 
Huddersfield(seep.345). 


23J 


^^ cr. Calder again. 

COOPER BRIDGE 
Junction St 


36 


diftxm. 

Kirklees Hall, Sir G. 
Armytage, Bart. 


Heatan Lodge. 


20| 


J^ cr. Calder. 
Mirfield Junction St 


381 


Blake Hall. 

Branch to Bradford, 
11^ miles. 

Line to Leeds, by 
Dewsbury, Batley, &c. 
(see p. 346), 9i mUes. 

Earls Heaton. 


Thomhill. 


19 


i|^ cr. Calder. 
Dewsbury St 

Cross Calder Navigation, 
through short tunnel. 


m 


Horbury Bridge. 




.^^ cr. river Calder. 




Ossett. 


Bretton Hall, W. B. 
Beaumont, Esq., 2 mUes. 

Sandal Castle, an an- 
cient ruin. 


16 
12J 


Horbury St 

Through tunnel J mile 

long. 

WAKEFIELD 

Junction St— (see p. 366.) 


43i 
47 


Horbury Lodge. 

Lupset Hall, D. Gas- 
kell, Esq. 

Thomes House, J. M. 
Gaskell,Esq. 


Kirkthorpe Hall. 


9| 


j^ cr. river Calder. 

Normanton St on the 

Midland Railway. 

Thence to 


49i 


Newland Park, Sir C. 
Dodsworth, Bart. 






LEEDS, as in p. 3M. 


69i 





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OLDHAM— HALIFAX-B&ADFOBD. 343 

Oldham is sitnated on an eminence on the western bank of the Medlock and 
near the source of another stream called the Irk. It is only about seven miles 
distant from Manchester, and this circumstance^ together with the advantages of 
ndlways and water carriage, and especially its mineral resources, have constituted 
this one of the most extensive seats of the staple manufkcture of the county. 
The goods chiefly made here are fustian, velveteens, calicoes, and cotton and 
woollen cords. The silk manufacture is making progress. The original staple 
trade is the manu&ctnre of hats, which still prevails to a T&ry large extent. 
Bfr. Thomas Henshaw, an opulent hatter and a native, founded a blind asylum 
at Manchester, and a blue coat school at Oldham. Hugh Oldham, Bishop of 
Exeter, who founded and endowed the free school of Manchester, derived his name, 
if not his origin, from this town. Oldham has numerous churches, chapels, and 
schools. It W4S first constituted a borough by the Reform Act, and now returns 
two members. No town in this vicinity has grown in size and numbers more 
rapidly than Oldham. In 1760, it is said to have consisted of only sixty dwel- 
lings. The population in 1851 amounted to 72,857. 

Halifax is a well built and opulent town, deriving its importance fr^m the 
mannfactnre of doth, which was commenced here about the middle of the six- 
teenth century. It has numerous cotton mills and fiictories, and is the principal 
mart for stufi^ such as shalloons, serges, &c, for the sale of which an immense 
buQding, called the Piece Hall, has been erected, having 315 rooms for the 
lodgment of goods, which are open for sales once a week. The vicinity of Hali- 
fax abounds with coal, and it is connected by railways with all parts of the 
kingdom. The Oalder navigation also affords a ready conununication with Hull, 
and the Rochdale Canal with Manchester, Chester, Liverpool, and Lancaster. 
Hali&x has numerous churches and chapels. The old church is a venerable 
Gothic structure. There are also several meeting houses and charitable institu- 
tions, free schools, &c. Halifeuc once had criminal jurisdiction, even in capital 
cases. Any person found guilty of theft was beheaded by means of a machine 
resembling the guillotine, called the ** Maid of Halifax.** Two M. P. Pop. 
1851, 33,582. 

Bradford, seven miles distant from Halifax, is a well-built and populous 
town, beautifully situated at the union of three extensive valleys, and forms 
nearly a central point with Halifax, Eeighley, Leeds, Wakefield, Dewsbury, and 
Huddersfield. The inhabitants are chiefly employed in the manufacture of 
woollen cloths and cotton. There is abundance of coal and iron ore in the vici- 
nity. The trade of the town is greatly promoted by railway traffic as well as by 
a canal which leads firom the centre of the town to the Leeds and Liverpool 
canaL Bradford possesses numerous churches, chapels, meeting houses, and 
•chools, a doth hall, &c The environs of the town are extremdy pleasant, and 
the surrounding country abounds with picturesque scenery. During the great 
civil war the inhabitants of Bradford were distinguished for their adherence to 



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344 



BBABIOED. 



the pariiaiiMnttry cause, and twice lepnlsed a laige body of royalists from the 
garrison of Leeds. Two M.P. Pop. 1861, 103,778. 

At Underdiffe, near Bradford, is the Airedale College for the education of 
Dissenting ministers. About five miles from the town is the Morayian settle- 
ment of Fnlneck, distinguished by the neatness and industry of its inhabitants. 

CXXm. MANCHESTER TO HUDDERSFIELD AND LEEDS (BY MIRPIELD 
AND DEWSBURT), BY RAILWAY, 4Si Miles. 



0« BIOHT noM MAirc. 


n 


From Victoria Station, 




ON LXR rmov manc. 


Af hton, or Aihton-nn- 


Ashton is the New 


der-Lyn^ it a conuder- 




Manchester. 




Jerusalem of the foUow^ 


ablc town, titiuted on 
the rirer Tame. It has 




:^@ cr. Rochdale Canal 




eraof Joanna Southcote, 
who have a handsome 


largely increaaod of late 




and river Medlock, by a 




chapel here, but their 


yean, owiug to the cot- 




viaduct of 10 arches. 




numbers hare of late 






Over Ashton Moss 




decreased. Ashton has 


is here carried on in all 




^^ ▼ va **J^*.*V\/*X AlA\/90» 




a small model barrack. 


its branches. There are 
also extensire collieries 


36 


AshtonSt 


6i 


To(Hd]Mm,Simile8. 


in the immediate neigh- 










bourhood. One M.P. 










Pop. 1861, 29,791. 


34i 


STALEY BRIDGE. 


8 




Staley Bridee is situ. 
ated partly in Laocashire 




Follow the course of the 








river Tame, and the 






and partlT in Cheshire, 
Iting on Doth banks of 
the rirer Tame, which 




Huddersfield Canal. 














dirides the counties. 










The cotton manufacture 










is largely carried on here. 
Pop. 1851, 20.760. 

Bocton Castle, an an- 
cient ruin, probably of 


82 


Mossley St 
Enter Yorkshire. 


lOi 




early British origin. 












291 


Greenfield St 

^^ cr. river Tame and 
Huddersfield CanaL 


m 




Saddleworth,}mile,i8 


28i 


8ADDLEW0RTH St 


18t 
16 




situated in a wUd and 
mountainous country, 
near the borders of 


27i^ 


Diggle St 
Through tunnel, 2| m. 


Dobcross. 


Cheshire, Lancashire, 




^^ cr. Huddersfield 






and Yorkshire. The in- 




CanaL 






habitants are employed 
in the manufacture of 


23f 


Marsden St 


181 




woollen cloths, kersey- 










meres, and shawls. 




Along valley of river 






Huddersfleld Canal 




Colne. 






and river Colne. 


21i 


Slaithwaite St 


21i 




Linthwatte. 


19f 


GolcarSt 


22i 






18J 


Longwood St 


24 





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KANCHESTEE TO HXTDBERSFIELD AND LEEDS— Continued. 



345 





b4 




B-i 




ON UGHT FBOM XANC. 


161 


HUDDERSFIELD 


"261 


ON LEFT FKOM MAWC. 










(see p. 868.) 








14 


Bradley St 
Join Manchester and 
Leeds (now Yorkshire 
and Lancashire) Rail- 


2^ 




HeatoQ Lodge. 




way. 




Cooper Bridge. 




13 


Heaton Lodge St 

Along Manchester and 

Leeds line to 


29J 










Blake Hall. 




12 


MIRFIELDSt. 


30J 


Branch to Bradford, by 


One mile before Dews- 








aeckheaton. Ill miles. 


bury, leave Manchester 
and Leeds line. 




4^ cr. river Calder. 








9 


DEWSBURY St. 

Dewsbury is a market town 
of great antiquity. Blankets 
and carpeting are manufac- 
tured here to a considerable 


33i 




Hanging Heaton. 












extent. Pop. 1851, 5033. 






WestAidsley. 


8 


Batley St 


34J 


Batley Cair. 




Howley Park. 




Bnmtchffe Thome. 




6 


Morley St 


37J 




Middleton Lodge, Im. 


8 


Chnrwell St 


39i 




Beeston. 












n 


Wortley St 

^8 cr. river Aire. 

LEEDS. 

(see p. 356.) 


41 
42J 


Parnley Park, 1} mile. 



CXXIV. PRESTON TO BLACKBXJRN, BURNLEY, COLNE, SKIPTON, 
AND LEEDS, BY RAILWAY, 66J MUes. 



on KIGHT VKOM PBSST, 



Leare railway to 
Ormsldrk and Liverpool. 

Leave North Union 
line, to Wigan, &c. 

Beyond Bamber Bridge, 
Caerdou Hall, B. Town- 
ley Parker, Esq. 

Hoehton Tower, Sir H. 
B. Hoghton, Bart, (sec 
p. 269.) 






62^ 
69} 



From Preston, by 
North Union Railway, 

to 
Lostock Hall Junction. 

Bamber Bridge St 



Hoghton St 
) cr. river Darwen. 



II 



ON LETT FBOM PBS8T. 



Wa]ton.le-Dale,l|i 
Brindle Lodge. 



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346 PRESTON TO BLAQKBUBN, BUBNLET, COLNE , kc—Omtmued. 



on BIOHT FSOM FEKST. 


II 


Pleasington St. 


81 


ON LEFT PROM PRKST. 




57i 


Woodfold Park. 


Fennifloowks, Sir W. 




.g^ cr. riv. Darwen 






a. FeUden, Bart. 




again. 








56i 


Cherry Tree St 
J^cr. riv. Darwen. 


n 


Witton Hooae. J. 
FfeUden, Esq 


Railway to Bolton. 


6^ 


Blackbnm (see p. 339.) 
^^ cr. Leeds and Liver- 


lU 


Donken Halgh. H. 
Petre,£8q. 


Railway toHaalingden 
and Manchester (see p. 


Si 


Church St 
Accrington St 


\? 


Clayton HaU. 


388). 




(8eep.838). 






Hapton. 




Hnncoat St 




Altham ; beyond, Read 
Han. 
Padiham, and beyond. 


Near Burnley is Tow- 
neley Hall, the seat of 
Chaa. Towneley, Eaq^ a 




Rose Grove St 
j^ cr. Leeds and Liver- 




Huntroyd Hall, L. N. 
Starkie, Esq. 

Palace House. 

Hood House. 


venerable mansion form- 
ing three sides of a quad- 
rangle, the fourth side of 




pool Caual. 




GawthorpeHall,8irJ. 
P. K. Shuttleworth, Bart. 


which was removed 
about a hundred years 








Burnley stands on a 
tongue of land formed 


ago. Here is a fine col- 
lection of family por- 


43i 


BURNLEY. 


22i 


by the confluence of the 
Bum with the Calder. 










The inhalrftants are 










chiefly engaged in the 


brated antiquary, C. 








cotton manufieusture. The 


Towndey. Esq., who 








church is an ancioit 


formed that exquisite 








bmlding, and o<muuns 


collection of antique 








several monuments. 


marbles and statues now 
in the British Museum. 
The mansion is sur- 
rounded by noble woods, 




-^ cr. West Calder 




Towneley Chiqiel, &c. 
There is a grammar 
school founded about the 
time of Edward VI 


principally of ancient 




river, and Leeds and 




Pop. 1851, 20,828. 


oak, finely dispersed and 
scattered over the park 




Livwpool Canal. 














extent. NearTowneley 










is Ormerod House. 










Reedley HoUows. 




Marsden St 






Little Marsden. 




Nelson St 






Marsden Hall. 










In the distance, Bouls- 
worth Hill, 1689 ft. 


37i 


Colne St 


281 


Colne la a snaU towm wUh 
nameroiu coMoa and wooOm 

church, aerwta mntiK- 
hoowi, two KnnwMr tehoek. 




36i 


Foulridge St. 
Enter Yorkshire. 


30} 


nnd a cloth hall. TIm U«d* 
oanal paMes wtthia a mOr 
of it. Pop.18n.MM> 
7i m. distant Is Bolt^ BdU 




32i 


Earby St 


83) 




81i 


Thornton St 

• 


84} 


dale. 



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PBESTON TO BLACKBURN, BURNLEY, COLNE, kc.^CoHtinued. 347 



0» WGHT WtOM PUKOT. 


« 






ON LKFT YBOM FSSST. 




West Marton Hall, T. 










H. Cholmondeley, Esq., 




30i 


Elslack St. 
J^ cr. river Aire. 


36 


1 J mile. 

Broughton Hall, Sir 
C. R. Tempest, Bart. 


Pop. 01 Skipton 1851, 
4962. 


26i 


SKIPTON. 


40 


Skipton Castte, SirR. 




The line hence foUows ahnost 




Tufton Bart. 






throughout the course of the 
river Aire, which (as well as 


















the Leeds and Liverpool 










Canal, and the tumpikeroad) 














Bradley. 


Gliubiini. 


23i 


Cononley St 


42i 


FamhiU. 


Eastbarn. 


21i 


Kildwick St 


4H 




Steeton Hall. 


20i 


Steeton St 


46 


Silsden. 


KdzMcy is situated 
nfar the Aire, over which 
thereis a handsome stone 


17i 


KEIGHLEY St 
(See also p. 363.) 


49 


West Morton J beyond, 
Rnmbald's Moor. 


bridge. The inhabitants 










cany on a considerable 










trade in cotton, linen, 
nnd worsted eoods. The 
church contains two an- 
















Baddlesden Hall. 


dent gravestones, one of 










which bears the date of 










1028. Pop. 1851, 13,060. 










Harden Grange, W.B. 










Ferrand, Esq. 




.^^ cr. river Aire. 






Stives. 


14i 


BINGLEY St. 


52 




Heaton Hall. 




Bingley is beautifully situ- 
ated on an eminence near the 






Cottingley HalL 




Aire. The surroimdmg 
country is pleasing and wefl 
wooded. The worsted manu- 
fHCtory is carried on to a con- 
siderable extent. Pop. 1861, 


















5019. 










J^ cr. river Aire. 






Branch to Bradford, 
JjmUes. 
Wrose 


11 


Shipley St 


66i 


Baildon. 
Esholt. 








Esholt HaU. W. R. C. 


Idle. 




-^ cr. river Aire. 




Stansfield,£sq. 


Park Hill. 


7f 


Apperley St 
^^ cr. river Aire. 


68i 






H 


Calverley St 


60} 


Horsfoarth HaU. 




*i 


Newlay St 


61* 




^nmley. 




• 







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348 PRESTON TO BLACKBUBW, BURNLEY, COLNE, Ae.'-Continued, 



OW MOMT raoM pmxsT. 




KirkstaUSt. 

Armley St 

LEEDS. 
(St-e p. 356.) 


63 

64i 
66i 


OK LIFT rmOM PUST. 


Armley Park. 


KirkstaU Abbey (see 
p. 856.) 



CXXV. MANCHESTER TO YORK (THROUGH HUDDERSFIELD AND 
NORMANTON), BY RAILWAY. 68 MUes. 



ON KIGHT raOM KANC. 


37J 


From Manchester, by 

Huddersfielc^ to 

Mirfield St. (as in pp. 

344,345.) 


30} 


ON LSFT nOlC ICANC. 










Thence, by Wakefield, to 








24i 


Thence to 
YORK (as in pp. 437, 438.) 


43} 
68 





CXXVI. MANCHESTER TO SHEFFIELD, GAINSBOROUGH, HULL, AND 
GRIMSBY, BY RAILWAY, llOJ MOcs. 



ON UOHT TSOM XANC. 


o 


From London road 

Station, Manchester, 

to 

Ardwick St 

Through short tunnel 

Gorton SL 




ON LEFT raOM MANC. 


Line of Manchester 
and Birmingham rail- 
way, to Crewe. 


2} 


Openshaw. 


Gorton House. 


106i 


^g cr. Manchester and 
Stockport Canal. 

Fairfield St 


3i 


Manchester and Ash- 
ton Canal. 


Denton, 1^ mUe, and 
near it, Haughton HaU. 


106i 


Guide Bridge Junction 


5 


Branch to Ashton, 2 
raUe. and Staley Bridge, 
limile. 


Dnkinfidd HaU. 




^^ cr. river Tame and 
Peak Forest Canal. 




Dukinfield, a populous 



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MANCH£ST£E TO SHEFFIELD, GAINSBOROUGH, kc—Ckmtinued: 



349 



ON BIGHT raOM XAlfC. 



Hyde, i mile, a consi- 
_ jrable place, devoted al- 
most entirely to the cot- 
ton manufacture. Pop. 
1861, 10,061. 

Hyde Hall, E. H. 
Clarke, Esq. 

Gloesop, Duke of Nor- 
folk, 1^ mile. 

Branch railway to 
GloBsop, 1 mile. 



Moualov Castle, an an 
cient site. 

This tunnel is near the 
point of junction of the 
countiesof Chester, York, 
and Derby, one end be- 
ing in Cheshire, and the 
other in Yorkshire: it 
passes under a bleak hUlv 
moor, covered with dark 
heath and bog. It was six 
years in progress of for- 
mation, and 3485 barrels 
(tf g:unpowder were con- 
sumed in blasting the 
rocks through which it 
passes. 

Penistone is a smnll 
market town on the 
banks of the Don ; it is 
situated in a wild and 
dreary district, and the 
moors to the westward 
have a bleak and barren 
aspect. Pop. of parish, 
2907. 

Bolsteratone. 



Hillsbonragh HalL 



97i 



m 



87f 



77i 



76J 
73f 



71i 



Enter Cheshire. 
Newton St 

Mottram St. 

J^ cr. river Etherow 
and enter Derbyshire. 

Dinting Junction St. 

Hadfield St 

ThroTzgh Lon^endale, 

the valley in which the river 

Etherow runs. 

J|^ cr. river Etherow, 

and re-enter Cheshire. 

Woodhead St 

Through tunnel, 

5192 yards (nearly 3 miles) 

long. 

Dunford Bridge St 

Along valley of river 

Don, Yorkshire, 

which the line follows the 

whole way to Sheffield. 

Hazlebead Bridge St 

Penistone Junction and 

Thurlston St 

.^Q cr. river Don. 

Wortley St. 



Deep Car St 
Oughty Bridge St 



Wadsley Bridge St 



SHEFFIELD (see p. 876.) 

1^ cr. river Don and 

Sheffield and Tinsley 

Canal 

DamalSt 



m 



22§ 



83^ 
86} 



41i 



ON UETT ntOlC MANC. 



suburb of Ashton, the 
people of which are en- 
icaged in various brandies 
of the cotton manufac- 
ture. (See Ashton, p. 844.) 
Mottram in Loneden- 
dale, 1 mile ; f mile be- 
yond, Thomcliffe Hall. 

Melandra Castle, the 
site of a Roman camp. 



The elevated vallev 
through which the line 
here runs is enclosed on 
either hand by the moun- 
tains of the Pennine 
range. 

Woodhead, li mile. 

2^ miles distant is 
Holme Moss, over which 
the Huddersfield turn- 
pike road passes, at an 
elevation of 1869 feet. 



Silkstone, 2} m. and 
beyond Cannon Hall, G. 
Spencer Stanhope, Esq. 

Thurgoland. 

Wortley HaU, Lord 
Whamcliife :— 2^ miles 
beyond, Wentworth Cas- 
tie, F. W. T. V. Went- 
worth, Esq. 

Wharncliflfe Wood. 

Whamcliflfe Park, Lord 
WharncUffe. 

Ecclesfield, 8 miles, 
and beyond, the Grange 
(Earl of Effingham.) 

6i miles, wentworth 
House and Park, Earl 
FitzwiUiam. 

Wards End. 

Railway to Rotherham 
Smiles. 

Attercliffe. 



m 



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350 mvcHBmrn to stnanxuD, GADissoBCfuoB, kc< 



ommimmr nam MAmc 


li 




M 


aa jjcrt jwam MJMc 






i^ cr. rirer Bother and 

line of Midknd Baflwsiy, 

near the 




Treeton. 

Aston and Aston HaU. 


Wooihoose. 


63i 


Woodbonae Jimction 
Station on do. 


47 


Todtnck. 


i^*~ 


58J 


Kiveton Park St 


62 


KiTetonPark. 
Sooth Anston. 


H«rthill,l}iiiile. 
Thorpe Salrin. 








WaUing Wells, Sir T. 
W. White, Bart. 


Shireoakf Park. 


56J 


ShireoaksSt 


65 




Chesterfield Canal. 








Gateford HalL 


Workiop Manor and 


63J 


WORKSOP St 


67 




Park,DnkeofNewca8tle, 


(see p. S68.) 






Httd beyond, Welbeck 
Abbey, Doke of Port- 
land. 




M^ cr. river Ryton and 
Mflcrlesfield CanaL 




Osberton HalL 6. S. 
Fo\jambe, Esq. 
Ranby Hall, Doke of 


Clamber, Dnke of 
NewcaaUe, and beyond, 




.^^ cr. river Idle. 




Newcastie, 
Babworth Hall, H. B. 


riioresby. Earl Manren. 
OrdulL 


46i 


EAST RETFORD 8t 


66 


V^ketSk. 








Great Northern Rail- 


TheEhm. 








way to Doncaster and 
Yofk. 
Chesterfield Canal. 


Grove Hall, G.E.Har- 
ooort Vernon, Eaq. 1} m. 
West Barton. 


39J 


Stnrton St. 

^^ cr. rirer Trent, and 
enter Lincolnahire. 


70f 


Clareboroogh. 

N.andS.Wheatley. 

Bole. 


Somcrby Park, Sir 
Thos. Beckett, Bart., 2 
miles. 


361 


OMNSBOROUOH 
(p. 419.) 


74J 




Thouock HalL H. 
Bacon Hickman, Esq. 


31 


Blyton St 


79i 


Langhton, 9 mileB. 










Pilham. 

Kirton in Lindsey is a 


28 


Northorpe St 


82J 


Scotton, 2 miles. 


smnll town 17 miles 


25i 


KIRTON LINDSEY St. 


84i 




north of Lincoln, beanti- 










rally situated on the 










summit of a hill. It has 




Cross line of ancient 






a fine church, of early 
English architecture. 




Ermine Street 






P(.p. ofpar.,2092. 










of St. Aliians, l\ m. 


22 


Scawby and Hibaldstow 
St 

i!^ cr. river Ancholme. 


88i 


Scawby,UBule. 

Scawby Hall, ^ J. 
Nelthorpe, Bart 

Manby Hall, (Eari ot 
Tarborough) 4 m. 


Caistor. 10 mUes. 


19J 


BRICMJSt.(8eep.419.) 


91 


Barton on Hiimber(b} 
road) 11 mUea. 

Elsham Han, T. 6 
Corbett, Eaq. 




15i 


Bametby Junction. 


94f 


MeltoaBoM. 



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MAKCHESTEE TO SHEFFIELD, GAINSBOROUGH, %x.^C<mtimmed, 351 



ON BIQHT ntOK MAM C. 


C9 


Brocklesby St 


ij 

99J 


OH L«rr noM mamc. 


Market Raisen joins (see 
chap. clix). 
Brocklesby Park, Earl 


11 


Oozton. 

Wootton Hall, L. Up- 
pleby, Esq., 2i miles. 


of Yarboroaeh. 
YarborougliCJanip. 

Kedby. 


9i 

8 


Ulceby Junction St 
Habrough St 


lUOi 
102^ 


Ulceby. 

Branch to New Hol- 
land, on the Humber, 
opposite HoU, 6| miles. 


Biby, G. Tomline, Esq. 
Laeeby Hall, 2^ miles. 


4t 
2 


Stallingboroagh St 

Great Coates St 
GREAT GRIMSBY 


106 

108^ 
llOi 


Estuary of the Hnmber. 


Line from Loath and 
Boston joins. 




(p. 480.) 







CXXVIL LONDON TO LEEDS, BY LEICESTER, DERBY, AND CHESTERFIELD 
(MIDLAND RAILWAY), 206J Miles. 



OH WQHT FEOM LOHD. 


II 


From London, by North 
Western Railway, to 


'^ 


OH LEFT FaOM LOHD. 








Cotton House. 


1221 


Rugby (pp. 199, 203.) 

Leaving Rugby, pass 
through Giloomer tunnel, 
800 feet long. 


83 


Leave main line ot 
North Western Railway. 

Holbrook Grange. * 

Newbold, Sir T. G 
Skipwith, Bart., and be- 
yond (CombeAbbey (Earl 
Craven.) 

Newnham-Paddox,£arl 
of Denbigh. 

Claybrooke Hall. 

Frowlesworth. 


Ashby Parva. 
Dnnton Bassett. 


\m 


ULLE8TH0RPE St. 

{Leicestenkire.) 

(From London, 91 miles; 

from Nottingham, 39| m.) 


90| 


Countcstborpe. 


107J 
106f 


Brougbton-Astley St 
Countesthorpe St 

Wigston St 
Knighton Tunnel, 
100 yards m length. 


94 

97i 

99* 


Cosby. 


ToUppinKham,21ni.; 
to Melton Mowbray, 14 

OL 


102i 


LEICESTER (p. 354.) 


102} 


Braunston Hall, C. 
Winstanley, Esq. 

ToHirkley,12m.; to 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 17 m. 


Barkby Hall, W. Po- 
chiB,Esq. 


97f 


SYSTON St. 


107i 


Belgrare. 

Birstall House, and 
beyond, Bradgate Park. | 



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352 LONDON TO LEEDS, BY LEICESTER, DEKBT, &e.— Con/tnutfJ. 



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IiOinX)N TO LEEDS, BT LEICESTER, DEBBY, ix.^Cantinued. 



353 



6 miles to the east is 
Bolsorer Castle (the pro- 
perty of the Duke of 
Portland), an unfinished 
mansion, erected in the 
early part of the 17th 
century on the site of an 
ancient castle built soon 
after the Conquest by the 
PererilfEunily. The pre- 
sent mansion, which 
stands on the brow of 
an eminence, was begun 
by Six C. Cavendish. 

The Hill. 

Tapton Grore, 6. Mey- 
nell,£sq. 
Tapton House. 



Stayeley village. 
Barlboroueh Hall, 
Bev. C. H. S. Bodes. 



the 



Wales— Todwick, As- 
ton. 



To Boncaster, 12 m. 

Clifton House. 

Eastwood House. 

Aldwarke HaU, G. S. 
Fcdiambe, Esq. 

ThryberghHall,J.Ful- 
terton, Esq. 

To Doncaster, 9 miles. 
Fly-boats take the pas- 
sengers upon the nver 
Don to Doncaster for one 
shilling. 



87i 
33 



28 



24 



ractures are cotton ana wor- 
sted stocking; and in the 
vicinity are iron works and 
potteries. The old church, 
was erected during the 13th 
century. The spire has a sin- 
gular appearance,and is much 
bent towards the west. There 
is a canal which communi- 
cates with the Trent and the 
Humber. Chesterfield pos- 
sesses several charities, rop. 
1851, 7101. 

During the civil wars the 
Parliamentary forces were de- 
feated at Chesterfield by the 
Earl of Newcastle. 



Staveley St. 

EckingtonSt 

J^^ cr. the river Bother, 

and enter Yorkshire. 



Woodhouse MiU St 

MASBOROUGH or 
BOTHEEHAM St. 
From this station a railroad 
turns off to Sheffield. 



Swinton St. 

Cat-hill Tonnel, 

140 yards long. 

Wath St 

Darfield St 



160 



1671 
172i 



177i 

179J 
181^ 



To Buxton, 24 miles; 
Chapcl-en-le-Firthj24m.; 
Bakewell, 13 m.; Chats- 
worth, 10 m.; Sheffield, 
12 miles. 

2} m. distant, at Whit- 
ington, is the B«volution 
House, where the Be- 
volution of 1688 was 
planned. 



Staveley iron-works. 
Beinshaw, Sir G. Sit- 
well, Bart. 



To Sheffield, 6 m. 

ToPenistone,14m. 

In the distance, the 
Grange (Earl of Effing- 
ham), and beyond Went- 
worth House (Earl Fits- 
William). 



At a distance, Went- 
worth Castle, F. W. T. 
y. Wentworth, Esq. 



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354 



LONDON TO LEEDS, BT LEKXSTEE, DEB8Y, kA^OoiUmmd. 



OH SIQHT IBOM LOVD. 


II 


BABNSLEY 


i| 


OH UR nOM LOND. 




191 


186J 








making wire, nails, luuraware, 


















ace- and extensive manufac- 
tories of linen, cloth, and 


















bottles. Pop. 1861, 18,487. 






Cidworth. 








Monk Bretton. 


Shafton. 












16J 


Boyston and Notton St 


1881 


Notton. 


Walton Han (ChHrles 
Waterton, Esq., the dis- 
tingnished natoralist), 




Crosa Bamsl^ Canal. 




Woollcy Hall G. Wcnt- 
worth, Esq., Smites. 








ChcvetHaIl,SirT.£. 


contaminff a musemn 

open to puuicinspection, 

CroftonHall^fm. 








PQkington, Bart 








Sandal Magna. 


13 


OAKENSHAW ST. 


192i 


Wakefield, 1| mile (p. 


Wannftdd. 




Junction of Manchester 
and Leeds line. 




856). 

Newland Park, Sir C. 
Dodsworth, Bart. 




H 


NO&MANTON ST. 


196J 


AltoftsHaU. 


Line to York, 84| m. 










(•ee p. 48r.) 
Dnnford House. 




.^ or. river Calder. 








6i 


Methley St. 


198} 


Methley Park, Eari of 


Swillingt6n Hall, Sir 








Mcxborouffh. 
Ooltou House. 


J. H. Lowther, Bart^ 8 








m. distant, Kippax Park. 
T. D. Bland, Esq., and 
beyond, Ledstone Park. 


5 


Woodlesford St 


200i 












LeventhorpeHalL 




River Aire nins parallel 




Rothwen. 


Newsam Green. 




to railway, on right 






quia of Hertford. 












LEEDS. 


205i 






^ee p. 856.) 





LEiCBStBB, on the banks of the Soar, is a place of very great antiquity, having 
been a dty during the Saxon heptardiy. It appears, by Domesday Book, that, 
4t the Konnan conquest, it was a populous city. In tiie reign of Henry V., a 
Parliament was held here. Richard III., after his defeat and death, was buried 
here in a Franciscan oonvent, which then stood near St Martin's Church. Cardi- 
nal Wolsey died here in the Abbey of St Mary de Pratis. The town was former- 
ly fortified, and the remains of the wall may be in many parts distinctly traced. 
The castle was a most extensive building. Its hall is still entire, and the courts 
of justice are held in it at the assizes. Leicester contains numerous churches 
and dissenting chapels. In St Mary's Church is the monument of the 
Rev. T. Robinson, author of * Scripture Characters," who was Vicar for many 
years. There are few towns in which are to be seen so many charitable institu- 



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< 

X 
W 

O 



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DEBBT-BELPm-BOIHESHAM. Z65 

tions. The chief maniifiictare of X4eicester is that of hosieiy goods. The kce 
trade is also carried on to a very considerable extent, lieicester retains two M.P. 
Pop. 1851, 60,584. Five miles distant is Bradgate Ffu-k, the birth-place of 
Lady Jane Grey ; and four miles beyond it is Bardcm Hill, the highest part of 
the county. 

Derby is situated on the banks of the Deryrmt, which is navigable hence to the 
Trent The town is very ancient, and took its name from the river on which it 
is sitnated. On the east bank of the river, opposite to Perby, was the £oman 
station Derventio. Derby contains numerous churches, several dissenting meet- 
ing-houses and chapels, a Mechanics' Institute, and a Philosophical Society 
founded by Dr Darwin, who here composed the greater portion of his works. 
Here are extensive manu&ctories of silk, cotton, and fine worsted stockings. 
The silk-mill is the first and largest of its kind erected in England. Here also 
are large porcelain works and manufactories, where all kinds of ornaments are 
made of the marbles, spars, petrifactions, &c., found In the neighbourhood. All- 
Saints* Church contains numerous monuments of the Cavendish fiunily. Rich- 
ardson the novelist was a native of this town. A castle once existed at Derby ; 
but the last remains of the building are said to have disappeared during the reign 
of Elizabeth. Several religious establishments were founded here at a very early 
period ; but no vestiges of them now renuun. Prince Charles Stuart advanced 
as fiEur as Derby on his march into England, and the house in which he lodged is 
still pointed out Through the noble munificence of Joseph Strutt, Esq., the 
working classes of Derby possess peculiar opportunities of enjoyment and grati- 
fication. This public-spirited individual appropriated nearly eleven acres of 
land, contuning an extensive collection of trees and shrubs, for the recreation of 
the inhabitants and their families. This piece of land, called the Arboretum, was 
laid out^ at the donor's expense, by the late J. C. Loudon, Esq., with great taste 
and judgment The value of the Arboretum, including the ground and build- 
ings, is estimated at £10,000. The Derby Grammar School is supposed to be one 
of the most ancient foundations of the sort in the kingdom. Flamsteed the 
astronomer (a native), received his early education in this schooL Derby returns 
two Members to Parliament Pop. 1851, 40,609. 

Belpeb, on the Derwent, is noted for its cotton mills belonging to Messrs 
Strutt Their construction is worthy of notice. About 1200 or 1300 perscms 
are constantly employed in them. About a mile and a half distant are two 
other cotton mills, a bleaching-mill, and an iron-forge, all belonging to the same 
proprietors, who have provided for the comfort and instruction of their workmen 
in a very praiseworthy manner. Pop. 1851, 10,082. 

BoTHSBHAM Is pleasantly situated near the confinence of the Bother and the 
Don. It carries on a considerable trade in coals and lime. On the opposite bank 
of the river,, in the village of Masborough, are the extensive iron^works esta- 
blished by Messrs Walker in 1746. The iron-bridge of Sunderland, and that 
of Sonthwark, in the metropolis, were cast in these foundries. Botherham has 



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356 WAKEFIELD-LE£DS. 

m college for the instraction of independent ministers, a spadons chnrch, erected 
in the reign of Edward lY ., several chapels and meeting-houses, firee grammar and 
charity schools^ &c Pop. 1851, 6826. About four miles distant is Wentworth 
House, the magnificent seat of Earl Fitzwilliam, adorned with numerous anti- 
qmtiea and paintings by the best masters. Near the entrance to the mansion, 
is the mausoleum erected hy the 4th Earl Fitzwilliam in honour of his unde, the 
Marquis of Roddngham. 

Two miles from the Wakefidd station near the river Calder is the town of 
Wakxfield, considered one of the handsomest towns in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. The most remarkable of its churdies is AU-Saints, a spadous Gothic 
structure with the loftiest spire in the county. There is a very beautifiil and 
richly adorned Gothic chapd (but not used as such), whidi was built by Edward lY. 
in memory of his fistther and followers who fell in a battle near this town. Wake- 
field has long been noted for its manufiicture of woollen doths and stafb. It has 
also a considerable trade in com and coals. Ardibishop Potter and Dr. Bad- 
cliffe were natives of this town. Pop., 1861, 22,057. One M.P. 

Leeds, the largest and most flourishing town of Yorkshire, on the Aire, is the 
metropolis of the woollen manu&cture, and the fifth town in England in point 
of population and commercial activity. It is an ancient town, and was probably 
a Roman station, but has been the scene of few historical events. Its situation 
is highly advantageous for manufiicturing and commercial purposes. The chief 
artides of manufacture here are superfine doths, kerseymeres, swansdowns, shal- 
loons, carpets, blankets, &c ; plate-glass, earthenware, and the spinning of flax 
to a great extent Its merchants also buy extensively the woollen and stuff 
goods made in the neighbouring towns and villages, and get them finished and 
dyed ; so that Leeds is a general mart for all these fabrics. The Leeds doth-halls 
form an interesting spectade on the market days. Machine-making is a flourish- 
ing business in Leeds. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal connects Leeds with the 
Western sea, and by means of the river Aire it has a communication with the 
Humber. By means of railways, this town now enjoys every advantage which 
can be given, by the most rapid communicatdon with all parts of Great Britain. 
Leeds has numerous churches, as well as dissenting chapds, a free grammar 
school, a national school, conmiercial buildings, and a com exchange, a philoso- 
phical and literary sodety, a mechanics' institute, a theatre, and various charitable 
institutions. Leeds was the native place of Dr. Hartley, author of " Observations 
on Man;" Wilson, the painter; and Smeaton, the cdebrated engineer. Dr. 
Priestley, the distinguished philosopher, officiated for several years as the minister 
of the Unitarian chapd here. Leeds gives the title of Duke to the family of Os- 
borne. TwoM.P. Pop. 1851, 172,270. 

About three miles fh)m Leeds are the ruins of Eirkstall Abbey, picturesqudy 
situated in a vale watered by the Aire. This abbey was founded in 1162 by 
Henry de Lacy fbr monks of the Cistercian order. 



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CZXVnL BIRMINGHAM AND DEBfiT JUNCTIOK BAILWAY (MIDLAND 367 
BAILWAT, West Branch), 88^ Miles in length, commences at the Hampton 
Station of tiie London and North Western Bailway. 



ON BIGHT ntOM HAMP- 
TON STATION. 



II 



Pacldngton Hall, Earl 
of Aylesf ord. 

Mazstoke Caatle (T. 
Dilke, Esq.) and themins 
of Maxstoke Priory, both 
of which were erected in 
the rei^ of Edward IIL 
A considerable part of 
the castle remains in its 
arieinal state. 

Blyth EtJlfW. a Dngdal*. 
Eaq., fknmerly the property 
md TCddoBos of Sir Wm. 



Shnstoke. 

At a distance is Ather- 
■ton^ which carries on 
a ctmsiderable trade in 

Its. 

Tamworth Castle (the 
property of the Marquis 
of Townshend), is an an- 
cient baronial mansion, 
erected by Robert Mar- 
nuon, a celebrated Nor- 

an chief. 

Amington Hall, C.H. 
W. A. Court, Esq. 



Catton Hall, Sir R. E. 
WHmot, Bart. 

Walton HalL 

At a distance Drake- 
tow, Sir Thos. Gresley, 
Bart. 

To Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 
8f miles.^^ 

Line ttctai Leicester 
joins. 

At a distance Bradby 
Park (Earl of Chester- 
field), 4 m. from which is 
CaBce Abbey, Sir J. H. 
Crewe, Bart., and two 
m. farther, Melbonme 
Castle, late Viscount 
Melbo«urne. 

On* mile dlitoit is the tII- 
lem of Bcpton. one of the 
uSSk aadent ptoeee in the 
■ u — >}, — d wi ppoeedtohave 



At ft disteno^ Foremaik, 
«rm.BmdeSa»t. ^ ^ 
- iMlOB Bell, Mr R.B. 



|WlhBot.Bert..,«id 



dOi 



CoIeshfllSt 
ColeshillontheCole. The 
church, a fine specimen of 
Gothic architecture, contains 
a sculptured font, and nu- 
merous monuments of the 
Digby family. It affords the 
title of Viscount to the Earls 
Digby. 

VHiitacre Junction St. 



KINGSBURY ST. 
Wilnecote& FazeleySt 

TAMWORTH, 
on the Tame, is situated 
partly in Staffordshire and 
partly in Warwick ; has ma- 
nufactories of wocdlen cloth 
and calicoes, as well as tan- 
neries and ale breweries. 
TwoM.P. Pop. 1861, 8666. 

Haselour St 

Oakley and Alrewas St 

Barton and VTalton St 



20i 
17i 
16 



11 BURTON-UPON-TRENT. 
an ancient town noted for its 
ale. Near the town hall is a 
curious ancient house. The 
bridge over the Trent appears 
to OBLve been first erected 
about the time of the Norman 
conquest. Here are the ruins 
of an extensiye abbey founded 
about 1002. Burton is now 
environed by a network of 
railways. Pop. 1861, 78S4. 

6} V^illington St 

I DERBY (see p. 866). 




8i 



20} 
23 i 



27i 



Coleshill Park, Earl 
Digby. and Coleshill 
House. 



Branch to Castle 
Bromwich and Birming- 

Hams Hall, C. B. Ad- 
derley, Esq. 
Middleton TTnll, 

Fazeley. 

Branch to Lichfield ; 
1^ m. Drayton Manor, Sir 
R. Peel, Bart. 

Camberford Hall. 



ElfordHalL 

Orneave Hall, Earl 
of Lichfield. 

Wichnor Park, J. Le- 
vett, Esq. 

IPHchnor Manor wea held 

Sir P. de SomKrrille under 
Eeii of Laneaster, by the 

iona tenure of beir- 

bound to present a fliteh .. 
bacon to every married 
couple, who. after being 
married a year and a day, 
should make oath that th«y 
had never quarrelled. 

To Lichfield, 12i m. 



STe' 



a2 



Dovediff House, and 
beyond, Rolleston Hall, 
Sir 0. Mosley, Bart. 



Egginton Hall, Sir H. 
Every, Bart. 

On Egeinton Heath, 
the Royalists and Parlia- 
mentary armies fought 
in 1644 

The Pastures. 



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358 CXXDL LEEDS TO 8ELBT AND HULL, BT RAILWAY, 61 Mflcfl. 




Temple Newsam (Mar- 
quis of Hertford). 

Swillington, Sir J. H. 
Lowther, fiart 

Kippax Park, T. D. 
Bland, Esq. 

Leditone Park, Bev. 
C. Wheler. 



SConk Fryatone, B. M. 
Milnes, Bsq., and be- 
yond Byram Hall, Sir J. 
W. Bamsden, Bart. 



Oateforth Honae, and 
Hambleton Haugh, 1^ 
mile. 

Brayton. 



Hemidgbroogh. 
Brackenholme, 1 mile. 
Kewsholme. 

Howden, 1^ mile. 

Belby. 



44} 



42 



85 
81 



28 



m 



Cross York and I^orth 
. Midland line. 
Hambleton St 

Thorpe WiUoughby St 
SEtBY ST. 
Selby is a flourishing town 
near tiie banks of the Oiis& 
by means of which, and of 
canals, it carries on a consi- 
derable trade. In this town 
there are the remains of an 
abbey, foonded by William 
I., whose son Henry I. was 
bom here. There is a curi- 
ously constructed timber 
bridge over the Ouss. The 
old church is remarkable. 
Pop. 1861, 6109. 

■^S cr. river Onse. 
Cliff St 

1^ cr. river Derwent 



HOWDEN ST. 
Howden is a small town 
of considerable antiquity, 
with an elegant church, and 
the remains of a palace which 
belonged to the Bishop of 
Durtxam. Pop. 1851, S286. 

Eastrington St 81} 



Lenerton. 



In fhe distance, Ebo> 
rick Park, Lord Wen- 
k)ck. 

Branch to Market 
Weighton, 16 mOes. 



28 



Barlhy. 
Osgodby. 



S.I>uffleld. 
WoodhalL 
Bowthoipe HalL 

WreeseQ. 
Brind. 



GavlL 
FoftingtciL 



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LEEDS TO SELBY AND HULL--Ob«l<iit(«tf. 





II 




ii 


ox LKFT fBOK LSKDB. 




Gilberdike. 




17 


StaddlfithoipeSt 


3i 




Broufleet 




Ji^ cr. Market 
foUow north bank of 




Scalby. 


Biongb pwUbly oo. 




theHnmber. 






copies the ute of a Bo- 








Wetton aad Weltoa 


manttatum. 


lOJ 


BronghSt 


401 


House, T. Raikes, Esq. 


The Hombor, here li 
imlewide. 








East Dale House. 
MsltoaHiU. 




7i 


FismJiyBL 


m 


Hesslewood House, J. 
B. Pease, Esq., Trauby 
LodgeandTriuiby House. 

Hassle Mount; 2 m. 
distant. South Ella, J. B. 
Broadley, Esq. 


Ferry to Barton, on 
opposite bank of Horn- 
ber. 


4f 


Hessle St 


m 










Bailvay to BddlJAS- 
ton and Scarborough. 










See p. 462. 






HULL. 


61 





Huix^ or Eingston-npon-Hull, situated at the mouth of the riyer Hull, 
where it enters the Homber, is one of the principal sea-ports in the imitod king- 
dom. Its distance from London is 174 miles by way of Lincoln, or by Ghreat 
Northern Railway, and 286 miles by way of Tork. It was andently called Wyke 
or Wyke-iqMm-Hal], but its name was changed to Kingston-upon-Hull by Edward 
L, who prevailed on the Abbot of Mleanz, who was lord of the manor, to sell him 
the lordship of Myton, with the town of Wyke. He afterwards made it a royal 
borough. The town was regularly fortified in the reign of Edward II. During 
the civil war it was held for the parliament^ and was twice besieged by the 
Royalists hut without success. The old part of the town, with the exception of 
the fine market-plaoe, in which there is Scheemaker's equestrian statue of William 
IIL, is in buflt, with narrow streets, but that portion near the Docks consists of 
handsome streets and houses. Hull is admirably situated for trade, being at the 
mouth of the great rivers Humber, Hull, Ouse^ and Trent. It has three consider- 
able^ besides graving docks, and the old harbour is to be converted into a fourth, 
Hull has, within these few years, become a principal steam-packet station, and 
has various steamers, which sail at regular intervals for Hamburgh, Rotterdam, 
London, Leith, Aberdeen, Berwick, Newcastle, and Yarmouth. In 1850, 258 
vessels of 50 tons and upwards, and 195 of smaller dimensions belonged to Hull. 
It employs a fbw vessels in the whale-fishery, and carries on an extensive traffic in 
coals, oH, com, and timber. It has also a considerable foreign trade to the Baltic, 
the southeni parts of Europe^ the West Indies, and America. Th« value of the 



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dOO LONDON TO KSNSAL THB0U6H BEDFORD, fcc 

fejqMNrts tnm Hnll in 1800 wu £10,800^610. The boflding and equipment of 
ships is an important branch of industry. The cnstom-hoose does amouited in 
1860 to X883»519:14:2, so that HnU ranks next after London, Liverpool, and 
Bristol Of places of worship, including those of every sect, there are iq)wards 
of thirty in HulL The most important is the church of the Holy Trinity, which 
is said to be one of the largest edifices ofthe kind in the kingdom. The principal 
educational establishments of Hull are, Hull College, Kingston College, and a free 
grammar school founded by Bishop Alcock in 1486. Li the latter, Andrew Mar- 
veil (who was long the representative of this town in parliament^ Bishop Watson, 
and William Wilberforoe, received a part of their education. It has also a Tri- 
nity House, and a number of charitable institutions^ a large and well-selected 
subscription library, a good museum, a theatre, &c The ancient gates of the 
town still remain, and the approaches to it are defended by batteries. The late 
Mr. Wilberforoe was a native o^ and for many years member for HulL A 
column to his memory was erected Aug. 1, 1834. Two MJ». Pop. 1861, 84^690- 
Hornsea is the bathing-plaoe of HulL 

CXXX. LONDON TO KENDAL THROUGH BEDFORD, NOTTINGHAM. 
HUDDERSFIELD, HALIFAX, AND KIRKBY LONSDALE. 



ON BIGHT rtuoa umn. 



Danesbury, W. Blake, 
Esq. 

Knebworth, Sir E. L. 
Bulwer Lytton, Bart 



8 miki east is Wt- 
mondle^ Hoiue, formerly 
an Acaaeonr for the edu- 
cation of Diaaenting mi- 
nisten. 

To Baldook, 6 miles. 



lokleford. 

Arleaey Bnry, S. B. 
Edwards, Esq. 

Henlow Grange. 

1 m. dist. Southill Ho., 
W. H. Whitbread, Esq.; 
beyond Old warden, 
Lord Ongley, 

lokwellBary. 



239i From London to Welwyn, 
Eerts, (p. 370.) 



284£ Langley: 



230i HITCHIN, 

a large and ancient town, 
pleasantly situated in a val- 
ley. The church is suppos- 
to have been built in the 
tfane of Henry VI., and con- 
tains numerous monuments, 
several curious brasses of 
the 16th and 16th centuries, 
and a fine altar-piece by Ru- 
bens. Fop. 1861, 6258. 



223i SHEFFORD, Be^ardsh, 



4 
25 



29i 



34 



41 



on LBTT ntOH LOUD. 



Ayott St Lawrence, 
C. C. W. Dering, Esq. 
and Lamer Ho. 

Codicote Lo., and be- 
rond, the Hoo^ Lord 



y(md, 
Dacre. 



Paulswoldcn (Earl 6t 
Strathmore). 

Stagenhoe. 

King's Walden Park, 
W. Hale. Esq. 

Temple Dinsley. 

Hunsdon House. 

Hitchm Priory, F.P, 
D. Baddiffe, Esq. 



High Down, F. P. D. 
Radoliffe, Esq. 

In the distance. Wrest 
Park (Earl de Grey). 

Chicksand Priory, Sir 
G. R. Osbom. Bart. 

Hawnes Place (Lady 
Oarterel), and b^ond 
AmpthiU (Lord Hoi- 



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LONDON TO KSNDAL, THAOTJGH BEDFORD, ttc^^^ConHnued. 



361 





^t 




ai 




ON BIGHT VBOX UOMD, 


S fl 

*i2 


Cardington. 


46 


OH LBR noH Loim. 


Cardiiigtoo,S.C.Wliit- 


218J 




brcad,E8q. 




In the church is a monu- 
ment by Bacon, in memory 
of 8. Whitbread, Esq., and a 
tablet in honour of Howard,' 














Cople House. 
















Kempston. 












To Himtmgdon. S8} 
m., St. Ncots, 12 miles. 
8 m. dietant Howbury 


214J 


BEDFORD, (p. 864.) 


50 


To St. Albans, 80 m. 
AmpthUl,8mUes. 
Bromham HalL 


Park, J, PoUiillf Esq. 








Oakley Park, Duke of 
Bedford. 




200J 


Milton Ernest 


55 


Milton House, and, 4 
m. distant, Odell Castle. 




2071 


Bletsoe. 


56J 


2 m. distant Cdworth 
House. 




204i 


Knotting, Fox Alehouse. 


60 


Shambrook House. 

Here a road leads 
over Ditchford Bridge 
through KnedoD, and 


Melchboiinie Park, 
Lord St. John. 








Burton-Latimer, to Ket- 
tering, 2 m. nearer than 




200f 


Rnshden, Northampton' 
shire. 


63i 


Knuston Hall. 
Rnshden Hall, J. Wil- 


To Kimbolton, 8 m. 


199i 


HI6HAM FERBEBS. 

(p. 865.) 
:^cr. river Nen. 


641 


liams, Esq. 




195J 


Finedon. 


68f 


Finedon HalL 




im 




71 




Barton Scagrave Hall. 
2 miles distant Cranford 


191i 


Barton Seagrave. 


72} 




HaU, Ber. Sir 6. S. 


189| 


KETTERING, (p. 865.) 


74J 


To Market Har- 


Robinson, Bart. 


1 






borough, 11 miles. 


Bonghton, Dnke of 








8 m. distant Crandey. 


Buccleoch and Queens- 
berry. 








Thorpe Malsor, T. P. 








Maunsell, Esq. 










Glendon HaU, J. 
Booth, Esq. 


Oakley Hall, Sir A. De 
Ci^eU Broke, Bart. 








Carlton, Sir J. H. 


In the distance Kirby, 
Earl of Winchilsea and 


181 


ROCKINGHAM (p. 865.) 


881 


Palmer, Bart. 

Rockingham Castle, 
Lord Sondes. 


Nottingham, and Deene 
Park, Earl of Cardigan; 
andbeTond,LaxtonHaU, 
Lord Caibery. 




^^ cr. river Welland, 






and enter Butlandshire. 








17H 


UPPINGHAM (p. 866.) 


88i 


2 m. distant Stocker- 


iyndon. 








ston House. 










AystonHall,G.Flud- 
yer,Esq. 



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368 



LONIXMi TO KENDAL THROUGH BEDFORD, ac&— OmliiMMtf. 



OR BMST nOM LORD. 



▲t a distance, Nor- 
maaton Park, Sir 6. J. 
HeatheoCcBart 

Barley Park, £ail of 
Winehiliea and Notting- 
ham, and beyond, Eztoa, 
Earl of Gainiboroogh. 

Tt> Stamford, 11 miles. 

Gnmtham, SI miles. 

SUplefocd Hall, Earl 
of Harixunra^ adoned 
vidi seroal 
ofscolptare. 



To Grantham, 16 miles. 



8 m. distaat, Goadby 
Ha., and beyond, Orox- 
ton Park (Doke of Bat- 
land). 

9 m. beyond, wtborpe 
Hall (Sir R. H. Brom- 
ley, Bart.), formerly the 
seat of the celebrated 
Cd. Hntdiiastm, temp. 
Charles I. 

Tollerton HalL 

Colwick Hall, and on 
the ri^t bank of the 
Trent, Holme Pierrepont, 
Earl Mamrcrt. 

Mapperioy, I* Wright, 
Esq. 



To Newark, 19| miles. 

Worksop and Worksop 
Manor CDoko of New- 
castle), 12 miles. 

1 nule dist. Berry Hill, 
SirE. S. Walker; 4 m. 
Clipstone Park. 



Pleasley Park. 



il 



im 



16H 



159 



166 



146i 



1401 



126i 



Bo 

h 



OAKHAM, p. 866. 95 

Enter Ldoeetenhire. 100 

J^ cr. liyer Eye. 

MELTON MOWBRAY, 106} 
the great resort of those who 
love the chase. Pop., 1861, 
4391. The sorroondiikg coun- 
try is celebrated for sporting. 

Kettleby. i06i 

Broughtoii, NoUt. mi 

Flnmtree. 118 

^^ cr. river Trent 

NOTTINGHAM (p. 448.) 
Enter Sherwood Forest 

MANSnELD(p.866). 

Pleaslev (D&^shire). 
About half-armile from this 
place, is a romantic dell of 
great beauty, leading to the 
cotton-work*, called Pleasley 
Works. 



1231 



138 
141 



oil LBIT VKOM LOUS. 



Braunston. 



2|j:l dist. Odd Over, 
ton Hall, C. H. ITreweo, 



yHalL 
Leesthorpe Hall. 
Lit. Dalby Hall, E.E 
HartoppiEsq. 
Thorpe Satchville. 



To Leicester, 16 miles. 

^rsonby Lodge (Earl 
of Bessborongh). 

Asfordby, and bqrond, 
Eagdale House. 



Wartnaby HalL 
Dalby Old HaU. 



Clifton HaD, Sir B. J. 
Clifton, Bart 

Lenton Grore; Len- 

>n HaU, P. Wright, 
Esq.; Lenton Priory. 

Wollaton HaU, Lord 
Middleton. 

StreUev Hall, and be- 
yond, NuttaU Temple, 
W. Holden, Esq. 

To Alfreton, 16 mCes, 
Derby, 16 m., A8hby-de< 
la-Zonche, 19^ miles. 

To Alfireton, 9 miles, 
Matlock, 16 miles. 

Papplewick HaQ. 

Newstead Abbey (Col. 
Wildman), once the pro- 
perty of the Byron far 
milT, and beyond, An- 
nesley Ha. 

8mfle8di8tantisHard- 
wicke Hall, one of th< 
seats of the Duke of "^ 
Tonahire. 



s: 



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LOinX)N TO KENDAL THBOUGH BEDFORD, ke.^CmdnMed. 



363 



ON BIOHT VBOX LOKD. 



ScarelifF. 

Langwitli, and beytmd 
Langwitii Lodge, Earl 
Bal^unt. 

To Worksop andWork- 
lap Manor, Duke of 
Newcastle, 6 m^ and be* 
Tond Welbeck Abbey, 
Doke of Portland. 



Aston HalL 



To Doneaster, 12 m, 

Clifton House, H. 
Walker, Esq, and East- 
wood Honse. 

Aldwarke Hall, G. S. 
Foljambe, Esq. 

Thrybergh HaU, J. 
Follerton, Esq. 

To Doneaster, 15 m. 
Wakefield, 10|iniles. 
BirthwaxteHall. 



To Wakefield, 6|m. 

Denby Grange, Sir J. 
Lister Kaye, Bart. 

WhHley Hall, B. H. 
BeaxuMmt, Esq. 

On the road to Man- 
chester, 7 m. from Hud- 
dersfield, may be seen 
the stupendous tunnel, 
9\ miles long, through 
which the canal is 1m, 
made at the expense of 
£800,000. 

To Wakefield, 18 n 



fixby Hall, and be- 
yond Kirklees Hall, Sir 
e. Aimytage, Bart. 

To Leeds, by Birstal, 
16 mUes; Bradford, 9 m. 

Harden Grange, W. 
B. Ferraud. Esq. 

To Bradford, 10 m. 



ij 

1221 

116i 

115 
llli 

llOi 
lOH 



92 

S9 
85i 
82 
79i 

76i 



67i 
65i 



Stoney Houghton. 



Gown. 

Enitacre. 
Enter Torkshire. 

Anghton. 
Whiston. 

BOTHEBHAM (p. 866.) 



■^^ cr. river Don. 

BABNSLEY(p.864) 
Darton» 

Bretton. 

Flockton. 

Lepton. 

^^ cr. river Coin. 

HUDDERSFIELD 
is a large and populous town, 
carrying on a very extensive 
manufacture of serges, ker- 
seymeres, and broad and nar- 
row cloths. It has chvrdies 
and chapels. 2 miles south of 
the town, on Castle Hill, are 
the remains of the ancient 

7 of Cambodunum. Fop. 

;i, 80,880. OneM.F. See 
also p. 846. 

.^ cr. river Calder. 
HALIFAX (see p. 848.) 

KEIGHLET 
on the Aire carries on a con- 
siderable trade in cottoo, 
linen, and worsted goods. 
Pop. 1851, 18,060. See also 
p. 847. 



il 

n 

14U 

147i 

149} 
162| 

168| 
1671 

159} 



172} 
176} 

1781 
182} 
184} 

1S9 



OH IMWS wmoM LOin>. 



To Chesterfield, 9 m. 

Glapwell Hall, at a 
distance^ Sutton Park. 

Bolsover Castle, Doke 
of Portland. 

To Sheflleld, 12} m. 

Barlborough Hall,BeT 
C. H. B. Bodes, and be- 
yond, Beinshaw, Sir G. 
Sitwell, Bart 

To Sheffield, 7 miles. 

Anghton Hall. 



To Sheffield, 6 miles. 
The Grange, Earl of 



197 
309 



Wentworth House, 
Earl Fitzwilliam. 

Wentworth Castle. F. 
W.T.V. Wentworth, Esq. 

Worsborough Hall, W. 
B. Martin. Esq. 

To Stockport, 88 m. 

2 m. distant. Cannon 
Hall, J. S. Stanhope, 

Bretton HaU, W." B. 
Beaumont, Esq. 



Springwood. 
Spring GroTe. 



To Chapel-en-le-Frith, 
28 miles. 

To Stockport, 28 m. 
Manchester, 26} miles. 



To Bochdale, 16} m. 
Burnley, 21} miles. 

Knowle Ho., F. Green* 
wood, Esq. 



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364 



LONDON TO KENDAL THSOUGH BEDfOBD, kc-CoiUinued. 



09 BISH* VBOM LOITD. 


il 


i|^ cton river Aire. 


|| 


OH LER FBOM LOND. 






Cononle7Hal],£eT.J. 


ToOtiey.Um.,— Hit- 








Swire. 
ToC(dne,10|nules. 
Tb CUtheroe, 19 miles. 


Skipton Caitte, Sir B. 
TaftomBwt,a]idinthe 


45i 


SKIFTON, (pp. 847 and 868.) 


219 




diiunce, Bolton Abbey, 


iOi 


Gargrave. 


2282 




Duke of Deronshire. 








C. R. Tempest, Bart.) 
yond, Ingthorpe Orange. 


Garinrave Home. 

SmneadirtanttEshton 
Hall, M. Wilson, Eiq^ 
•iidFlMbyHaU,C. Pres- 
















ton, Esq. 


m 


Cold Coniston. 


226i 






Helimeld. 


2282 


Hdlifidd Peel, and. 










H m. distant, Halton 










Place. 




8H 


Long Preston. 


2802 






29i 


SETTLE, (p. 869.) 
J^ cross river Ribble. 


235 


Lawkland HidL 


Anstwick. 








CiowNest. 




22} 


Glapbam. 


242 




ToA8kiigK,20imle8. 


19 


INGLETON,(p.870.) 


246 


To Lancaster, 182 m. 




1^ 


Thornton. 


246 


HaUtead. 


fiipmng Hs. B. Tk- 
thanCW Leek Ho. 




Enter Lancashire. 




At a distance, Thnr- 




^i^ cross river Lune. 




landCasUe. 


To Sedbergh,U miles. 


12 


KIRKBY LONSDALE, (p. 


262 


To Lancaster, 16 milea. 

2 m. distant, \niitting- 

ton Hall, T.Greene, Esq. 

Sommerfield HalTE. 










Underley Hall, W. 
Thompson, Esq. 


•h 


Eeastwick. 
Old Button. 

J^ cross river Kent 
KENDAL, (p. 269). 


2541 
260 

26H 


Tatham,Esq. 



Bedfobd is sitoated on both sides of the river Oose^ which is navigable to 
the German Ocean. It is a place of great antiquity, and is supposed to be 
the Bedicanford of the Saxon Chronicle. It possessed an ancient castle^ 
of which, however, no part at present remains. Bedford carries on an exten- 
sive trade in com, malt, timber, coals, and iron. Lace and straw-plait mak- 
ing afford employment to a great number of poor females and chil- 
dren. There are in Bedford numerous churches and chapels. The 
church 0^ St Peter has a curious old Norman door, a fine antique 



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BEDFOBD-HIGHAM FEBHEBS-KETTESING—BOCKmOHAM, 8cc. 365 

font, and some old stained glass in the windows. There are several meeting- 
honses ; and it is calculated that abont half of the inhabitants of the (own are Dis- 
senters. There is probably no English town of similar extent, equal to Bedford 
m the variety and magnitude of its charitable and educational establishments. 
For these }t is chiefly indebted to Sir W. Harpur, Alderman of London in the 
reign of Edward YI. The income arising from his charity now amounts to upr 
wards of £17,000 a-year. John fiunyan was pastor of an Independent oongie* 
gation in this town, and his Pilgrim's Progress was compel in the county gaoL 
About a mile from the town is Elstow, his birth-place. The cottage in whieh 
he was bom is still standing, but it has lately received a new fh)nt. Bedford 
returns two members to Parliament Pop. 1851, 11,698. 

fiiOHAM Fbbrbbs. — The church is a fine building, and rich in brasses and 
other monuments. Here is also a free school, which once formed part of a col- 
lege founded by Archbishop Chichele. Pop. of par. 1851, 1140. The borough 
formerly returned one M.P., but is now disfranchised. 

Kbtibbino, an ancient town, standing on a rising ground. The church con- 
tains a few interesting monuments. Dr. John Gill, the commentator, was a 
native of this place; and Andrew Fuller, another well-known Baptist minister, 
was pastor of a congregation here. The trade of Kettering consists chiefly of 
wool-combing and shoemaking. Pop. 1851, 5125. 

In the church at Warkton, two miles from Kettering, are the monuments of 
the Montagu family by RoubiUiac and Yangelder. 

About 2 miles from Kettering is Boughton House, a seat of the Duke of Buc- 
cleuch, containing a fine collection of paintings. It was formerly the seat of the 
Dukes of Montagu, now extinct. 

BoGKraGHAM is situated in the midst of Bockingham Forest, which was at an 
eariy period noted for its extensive iron-works ; and in the reign of Edward I. is 
desoibed as being 80 miles long by 8 miles broad. The church, which was partially 
destroyed by Oliver Cromwell, contains some fine monuments. Here are the 
remains of a strong fortress, erected by William the Ckmqueror. Within the 
court is the spacious mansion of Lord Sondes. 

IJppmGHAM.— The church is a fine Gothic structure, containing some hand- 
some monuments. Here are also several chapels, a free grammar-school, and an 
hospital. These institutions, which are well endowed, were, as well as the gram- 
mar-school at Oakham, founded by B. Johnson, Archdeacon of Leicester, a. d. 
1584. Pop. 1851, 2068. 

Oakham, the county-town of Butland, is situated in the rich vale of Catmos. 
It had an ancient castle, supposed to have been erected by WalcheUne de Fer- 
rers, a younger scion of the family De Ferrers, to whom Henry H. had granted 
the manor. Among the possessors of the manor and castle were, Bichard King 
of the Bomans, brother of Henry III. ; Edmund Earl of Kent, brother of Ed- 
ward II. ; De Vere, Earl of Oxford and Duke of Ireland, favourite of Bichard II. ; 
Thomas of Woodstock, undo to the same King; Humphrey Duke of Buck- 



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566 OAXHAM-MANSFEBLD. 

ingham, tlw supporter aad viotim <^ Richaid IIL; Thomas Oomwdl, Bail of 
Essex ; and Greorge TUliers, second Dnke of Buckingham, the fiiTonrite of Chaiks 
IL The remains <^ the castle consist principally of the hall used £»> the bosfaieiB 
of the oomity. Oakham is remarkable for an ancient costom,— the first thne ai^ 
peer of the realm passes throogh the lordship, he forfeits, to the lord of the manor, 
a shoe firom the horse on which he rides, unless he commutes iorit A nmnber 
of these shoes are nailed to the gate of the castleyard and the interior of the 
Gonntj' halL Some of them are gilt and stamped with the donor's name. 
Among them are shoes given by Queen Elizabedi, by the laJte Duke of York, 
and by George lY. when Prince Begent Pop. 1851, 2800. 

About two miles from Oakham is Burky-on-the-Hill, the magnificent seat of 
t^ Earl of Winchilsea, one of the finest mansions in England. In the leign of 
James L this estate was the property of George YiUlers first DukeofBuckingfaam, 
who had the h(«our of entertaining his royal master within its walk, when Ben 
Johnson's masque of the Gipsies was first performed. During the civil wars, 
this mansion was destroyed by the Parliamentary forces, and lay in ruins many 
years^ till it was rebuilt by Daniel Itnch, Earl of Nottingham, ancestor of the 
present proprietor. The architecture is of the Dmnc order, oombining great splen- 
dour and elegance with simplicity. On the south side there is a terrace 900 feet 
long by 36 feet broad, commanding views of remarkable beauty. The interior is 
adorned with numerous portraits, pictures of the Italian school, a yaluable li- 
brary, &c. The park is about 6 miles in ckcumference. A short way beyond 
Burley is Exton Park, the fine mansion of the Earl of Gainsborough. 6 m. dis- 
tant is Cottesmore Paric, belonging to the Earl of Lonsdale. 

Mansfield is seated in a valley near the little river Man, fh>m idiich it pro- 
bably takes its name, and is surrounded by the ancient forest of Sherwood, the 
scene of Robin Hood's chief ezpldtB. It is an ancient town, with a Gothic church 
containing numerous monuments. The prindpal manufectures are those of 
stockings and gloves. Here are also several cotton-mills, fiutories of double 
pointr-net, and an iron-foundry. A railway, seven miles in length, oonnecting 
Mansfield with the Cromford Canal, has been constructed at an expense of 
£30,000. It has proved very advantageous to the trading interests ci the place. 
There is a free-grammar school, which was founded by royal charter in the reign 
of Queen Mizabetii. A handsome cross has lately been erected in the market- 
place to the memory of Lord George Bentinck. Pop. 1851, 10,012. About 1| 
mile fh)m the town, in the neighbourhood of a village called Mansfield Wood- 
house, two Boman villas were discovered in 1786^ and in the vicinity of Mans- 
field numerous Boman coins have been found. 

Sherwood Forest, (so intimately associated with the name and exploits 
of Robin Hood) in which Mansfield is situated, andently extended from 
the town of Nottingham to Whitby in Yorkshire. Even so late as the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, it contained a space equal to the present dimensions of die 
New Forest It was a fevourite resort of the Idngs of the Norman race, who 
had a summer palace at Clipstone built by Henry II. The mark of King John 



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8HEKW00D lOEEST. 9ffJ 

upon the forest trees here has been repeatedlj found of late jears in cuttmg them 
np for timber. The extensiye demesnes which this forest contamed have all been 
bestowed in grants by different monarchs^ and repeated enclosures have reduced 
the open forest to that part which formerly went by the name of the Hye Fo- 
rest, a tract of land about ten miles long by three or four wide, extending from 
the Nottingham road near Mansfield on the west, to Clipstone Park on the 
east This tract is for the most part bare of trees. ** Near Mansfield, there re- 
mains a considerable wood, Harlowe Wood, and a fine scattering of old oaks 
near Berry-hill, in the same neighbourhood, but the greater part is now an open 
waste, stretching in a succession of low hills and long-winding valleys, dark with 
heather. A few solitary and battered oaks standing here and there, the last me- 
lancholy remnants of these vast and ancient woods, the beautifid springs, swift 
and ciystalUue brooks, and broad sheets of water lying abroad amid the dark 
heath, and haunted by nimibers of wild ducks and the heron, still remain. But 
at the Clipstone extremity of the forest, a renmant of its ancient woodlands 
remains, unrifled, except of its deer, — a specimen of what the whole once was, 
and a specunen of consimmiatd beauty and interest Birkland and Bilhaghe 
taken together form a tract of land extending from Ollerton along the side of 
Thoresby Park, the seat of Earl Manvers, to Clipstone Park, of about five miles 
in length, and one or two in width. Bilhaghe is a forest of oaks, and is clothed 
with the most impressive aspect of age that can perhaps be presented to the 
eye in these kingdoms. * * * A thousand years, ten thousand tempests, 
lightnings, winds, and wintry violence have all flimg their utmost force on these 
trees, and there they stand, trunk after trunk, scathed, hollow, gray, and gnarlr 
ed, stretching out their bare sturdy arms on their mingled foUage and ruin — a 
life in death. All is grey and old. The ground is grey,— beneath the trees are 
grey with clinging lichens, — ^the very heather and fern that spring b^ieath them 
have a character of the past 

" But Bilhaghe is only half of the forest-remains here ; in a contumoos line 
with it lies Birkland — ^a tract which bears its character in its name — the land of 
hirches. It is a forest perfectly unique. It is equally ancient with Bilhaghe, 
but it has a less dilapidated air. It is a region of grace and poetry. I have seen 
many a wood, and many a wood of birches, and some of them amaringly beau- 
tiful, too, in one quarter or another of this foir island, but in England nothing 
that can compare with this. * * On all sides, standing in their solemn stead- 
fostness, you see huge, gnarled, strangely-coloured, and mossed oaks, some riven 
and laid bare from summit to root with the thunderbolts of past tempests. An 
immense tree is called the Shamble-Oak, being said to be the one in which Ro- 
bin Hood himg his slaughtered deer, but which was more probably used by the 
keq>erB for that purpose. By whomsoever it was so used, howevei^ theie still 
semain the hooks within its vast hollow.*** 
Between Mansfield and Nottingham is Newstead Abbey, the seat of Colonel 

• HowiTT'8 Rural Life in England, p. 380-8b 



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368 NEW8IEAD-WOBX80P. 

WQdmaii, formerly the mansion of the Byron ftmily. Here was a priory of 
Black CanonS) founded by Henry II., about a. d. 1170. At the dissolution, it 
was granted to Sir John Byron, who fitted up part of the edifice as a residence, 
but allowed the chapel to go to decay. Its front is an exceedingly beautiful spe- 
cimen of early English architecture, scarcely equalled by any other specimen 
in elegance <^ composition and delicacy of execution. An apartment b shown 
in which Edward III. slept. The place has undergone great alterations and ad- 
ditions since it came into the possession of its present owner. The grounds before 
the new firont have been much improved, but the old gardens have been suffered 
to retain their ancient character. An oak planted by Lord Byron is shown. In 
the lake below the Abbey there is an artificial rock, formed at a great expense 
by the poet's grandfather. It is fortunate that a place, so interesting from its 
connection with Lord Byron, should have fallen into the hands of a gentleman 
who affords the utmost fSadlity for the inspection of it by strangers. In the vici- 
nity is a curious hollow rock, called Bobin Hood's Stable. Beyond Newstead, 
and about nine miles firom Nottingham, is Annesley Hall, famous as tlie birth- 
place and patrimony of Mary Chaworth, the object of Lord Byron's early attach- 
ment And at a short distance is Hucknall church, where he rests among his 
ancestors. Hucknall is seven miles from Nottingham. 

About 12 miles firom Mansfield, and 26 frx>m Nottingham, is the town of Work- 
sop, delightfully situated near the northern extremity of Sherwood Forest, in what 
is generally called the Dukery, from there having been at one time no less than 
four ducal seats within a few miles. A priory was founded here in the time of 
Henry I., but little now remains of it except the abbey gate. The principal ob- 
ject of curiosity is the Abbey Church, which once belonged to the priory, and 
affords fine specimens of the Norman, pointed, and early English styles. The 
western door is a beautiful Norman composition; at the east end is the tower 
which was central, while the whole of the church was standing. The interior is 
highly ornamented, and contains a number of curious effigies. Pop. 1851, 6058. 
Near Worksop stood Worksop Manor, a magnificent mansion, surrounded by an 
extensive and finely wooded park. The ancient manor-house was erected by the 
celebrated Bess <^ Hardwicl^ and was accidentally destroyed by fire in 1761. 
The modem mansion was fSormerly a seat of the Dukes of Norfolk, but was purchased 
by the late Duke of Newcastle. In the neighbourhood are the following interesting 
mansions : Gumber Park, the splendid residence of the|>ukes of Newcastle, con- 
taming a fine collection of paintings. The park is about 11 miles in drcnm- 
ference, and includes two ancient woods, from the largest of which Clumber Park 
derives its name, — Welbeck Abbey, the seat of the Duke of Portland, comprising 
some remains of the original building, which was founded for the Premonstraten- 
sian canons, a. d. 1153. The park is celebrated for the age and thaaize of its trees^ 
— ^Thoresby, the seat of Earl Manvers, the representative of the Dukes of King- 
ston. The old mansion was consumed by fire in the year 1745. The park, which 



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8KIPT0N. 369 

indades an area of about thirteen miles, contains several sheets of water, and 
abounds with sylvan scenery. Thoresby was the birth-place of Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu. Rufford Abbey, a seat of the Earl of Scarborough, formerly 
the mansion of the patriotic Sir Gleorge Savile, an ancestor of the present pro- 
prietor. In the year 1148, an abbey was founded here for Cistercian monks, and 
some remains of it are included in the present immense structure. 

Seven and a^half miles from Mansfield is Bolsover, the church of which con- 
tains a costly tomb, in honour of Henry, second Duke of Newcastle, as well as se- 
veral monuments of the Cavendish Ceunily. Bolsover Castle is a noble building, 
belonging to the Duke of Portland. 

Skipton, in the district called Craven, on the banks of the Aire, is noted for 
the sale of com, cattle, and sheep. The trade of the town is greatly benefited 
by its proximity to the Leeds and Liverpool canal. The church contains several 
monuments of the Clifibrd family. There is also a good grammar school. The 
vale of Skipton is much admired for its picturesque beauty and fertility. Pop, 
1851,4962. 

Skipton Castle was erected shortly after the conquest by Robert de Romeli, 
liOrd of the honour of Skipton, and was long the property of the celebrated fa- 
mily of the Clifibrds. It was garrisoned for the king in the lime of the civil 
wars, and withstood a siege in the year 1645, but was ultimately obliged to sur- 
render to the Parliament It was the birth-place of the celebrated Anne Clifford, 
Countess of Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomery, who repaired it and made it one 
of her principal residences. It contains ancient tapestries, and is now the pro- 
perty of Sir R. Tufton, Bart, the representative of her descendant, the last Earl 
of Thanet 

About six miles from Skipton are the ruins of Bolton priory, situated in one 
of the most delightful spots in England. The nave of the priory church is now 
osed for a parochial chapel. Opposite to the western entrance the Duke of De- 
vonshire has a small hunting seat formed out of the original gateway of the priory. 
The walks through the woods, and the views of the river, ruins, and surrounding 
scenery, are remarkably beautiful. About a mile from the priory is the cele- 
brated Strid, a narrow passage torn by the Wharfe through its bed of solid rock, 
where it rushes with tremendous fury. This Was the scene of the catastrophe 
(tf the boy Egrement, who, in attempting to overleap the chasm, fell in and was 
drowned. (See Wordsworth's poem entiUed the " Force of Prayer.*^ In this 
^dnity is Barden tower, a ruined fortress of the Cliffords. Here the famous 
Shepherd Lord pursued his studies, under the tuition of some of the monks of 
Bolton. 

Skttlb, on the Bibble, is remarkable for its situation at the foot of a lofty 
limestone rock, the summit of whidi commands a fine view. Great numbers of 
cattle are sold at its fiGurs. The parish church is about three quarters of a milQ 
distant;, at the village of Giggleswick; which has a riehly-endowed grammar 
sdiool, fSranded in the reign of Edward YI. Paley was educated here^ In tha 
SMighboarhood are several slate and stone quarries. Pop» 2041. 

2a 



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370 



IN6LET0N— KI&KBT U)MSDALE, Ice. 



In the Tkiiiity of IiroLvroN are the Ingleboroiigfa moantaina, 2360 feet high; 
Wkarnside, 2884 feet ; Pennigant, 2270 feet, all commanding extensive prospects ; 
Thornton Scar, 800 feet in height ; Thornton Force, a beantifol cascade, fidling 
about 90 feet ; and two romantic caves, called Tordas and Weatheroote. 

EliRKBT LoNSDALB is a neat town on the west side of the Lnne^ over irbk^ 
there is an elegant bridge. It has an ancient church, and the chnrdiyaid 
contains a remarkably fine prospect. The mills belonging to thb place are 
worked bj a small brook, the waters of which set in motion seven wheels, one 
above the other. Fop. of township^ 1851, 1675^ and of parish* 4184. 



GXXXI. LONDON TO CARLISLE THROUGH HATFIELD, STAMFORD, NEWARK. 
1X)NCASTER» BOROUGHBREDGE, AND APPLEBY, 8002 Milei. 



ow mioHT nox loho. 



Ctmfleld (Baron Dimi> 
dtl^. 

BedweU Park, Sir C. 
E. Eardley, Bart. 

Hatfield Ho, Marquis 
ofSaliibory. 

To Hertford, 7} miles. 

Bosh Hall 

Dinwell Hottie, and 
bear It, Tewin Water. 

Loekley. 

Panahanger (Earl Cow- 
per). 

ShephaU Bory. 



(^veafleld Lodge. 



Stratton Pa., C Bar- 
nett Esq., and, at a dia. 
tanee, Sutton Park, Sir 
J. M. Borgoyne, Bart. 

Shortmead House. 



8 m. dist STflrfcoa Ho. 



asof 



28U 



276| 



S89| 



M8| 



London to Bamely 

Herts. 
Re-enter Middlesex 

Re-enter Herts. 
HATFIELD, (p. 872.) 
■^^ cross river Lea. 

4S^ cross rf ver Maran. 

WELWYN. 
(Dr. Young, author of the 
Night Thonghta. was rector 
of this place, and is buried in 
the church.) 

STEVENAGE. 
To the south of this place, 
but on the east side of the 
road, are six barrows, said to 
be of Danirii origin. 

BALDOCK 
cafries on a eoniiderable 
trade in c(nii and malt. The 
church contains some curious 



2682 



Enter Bedibrdshin. 
BIGGLESWADE, 
a neat town on the Ivel, by 
means oi which it carries on 
a coDsiderable trade in tim- 
ber, coals, and oats. Its 
chief manufectures are of 
straw-plait and lace. Pop. 
1861, 8976. 
JTO cross river IveL 
Lower Caldeoote. 
Beeston Gross. 



19J 



25 



3U 



87i 



Wrotham Park, Earl 
ofSlraftird. 
Gobiona. 

Brookman*8 Park. 



OK LXR raOM LOUD. 



To St. Alban's, 6 miles. 
Brocket Hall, late Vis- 
count Melbourne. 

Danesbury, W. Blake, 
Esq. ; and, 8 miles dis- 
tant, Ayott St Laurenee, 
C. C. W. Deling, Esq. 

Knebworth Houses Sir 
E. L. Bulwer Lrttoo. 
Bart. ; and, bey<ma, thr 
Hoo (Lord Dacre), and 
Paulswolden (Eail of 
Stmthmore). 

Elm Wood. 

Rocksley House. 



RadweU. 

a miles distant. Old 
Warden, Lord Ongley; 
Southill, W. Whitbrcad, 
Esq.; and IckweUbury, 
J. Miunrey, Esq. 



ToHiteUUflSurilss. 
Tto Bedford 8 " 



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LG^fDON TO GiBUSLB THBOUQH HATFIBU), 



871 



OH BMHT FBOX IMSD. 



11 



Sandy Place; and, at 
a diptanoe. the Hasells, 
F. Pym, E«q. 

Tempeford Hall, and 
Tempaford House. 



TbStNeotVimU«- 



Pazton Place, and 
Paxton HalL 

Diddington House, 
UteG.Thonilim,£8q. 

Stirtloe House. 

Bockden Palace, one 
of tbe Episcopal resi- 
dences of the Bishop of 
Lincoln. 

To Huntingdon, 4 m. 

Brampton Park, Duke 
of Mandiester, and be- 
yond it, Hhichinbrooke. 
Bitfl of Sandwioh. 

Great Stukeley. 



To York, 17 m.; to 
iddborouKh, 1 mile. 

Borough Bridge Hall, 
A. Lawson, Esq. 

Aldborough Lodge, 
and Aldboioa^ HalL 

Newb7Pa(ic,6.Hud. 
dODtSaq. 



Kiplin Parte )tte Earl 
ofTyroonnel. 

To BaittDgtoD, B m. 

Middleton Lodge, and 
beyond Halnaby Hall, 
8lrJ.R.MUbanke,Bart. 

Stanwick Park, Duke 
of NorthumberlaBd. 



261| 



247 

2462 
244^ 

248 

241 

2S82 



2S7i 

284| 
233 

94} 



est 

87| 
82i 
80} 
79} 

72} 



.^8 cr. river IveL 
Girtford. 

Tempsford- 

•^^ cross r^ver Oiise. 

Wiboston. 

Eaton Sooon. 

Cross H»ll. 

Enter Huntingdonshire. 

Little Paxton. 

' Diddington. 



. Bnckden. 
The parish ohurch is a very 
handsome structure, and 
contains numerous monu' 



49 
51 

53} 

55 

56| 

57} 

59} 

61 



Brampton Hnt. 

Alconbury. 

Alconbury Hffl. 

For Ihe route from this place 

to BOROUGH-BRIDGE * 

(Bee p. 882-S.) 

^6 cr. river Ure. 

KirkbyHilL 

YoriL Gate Ion. 
LeemingLane. 
Londondeny. 



68} 



OK UlT nOM LOND. 



At a distance Mogger 
hanger House. 



Boxton House, C. J. 
Metcalfe, Esq. 

Bushmead Priory, W. 
H.W. Geiy, Esq. 



Sonthoe Rectory. 



Catterick, 
A place of great antiqidty. 

.^ cr. river Swale. 

Scotch Comer. 



67} 
206 

207 

213 
218 
220 
221i 



tSil 



Alc<mbury Lodge. 



Newby Hall, Earl de 
Qrey, and 8 miles dis- 
tant Copgrove House, 
T. Duncombe, Esq. 

To Bipon, 6 miles. 



2 m. dis. Norton Con- 
vers. Sir B. R. Graham, 
Bart. 

CampHilL 

FkbyHaU. 

Thorp Perrow, M. Mil- 
banke,Esq. 

"nieaksUme. 

Holtby. 

Hornby Castle, Duke 
of Leeds. 

Bioui^ Hall, Sir Wm. 
Lawson, Bart 

To Richmond, 8|m. 

Alike HaU, Earl of 
IZeUand. 



• TWs route is (bur miles longer than the rMito deserJbed at pag«s380.386. 



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372 LOimOM TO CABUSLB THBOUGH BAXFIELD, kc-Comtimui, 



ON XIOHT nOX lANB. 


i| 




ij 


OH LBR TEOX LOUD. 


Foreott Pwk. 








60i 


SmaSlwajB. 


2401 


Bamiogha]n,M.Mil- 




681 


Greta Bridge. 


242} 


banke,£Mi. 


Sokeby Park, late J. 




J^cr. branch of the 






B. S. Morritt, £iq^ the 
Mend of Sir Walter 




Tees. 






Soott 










Berond Ghreta Bridge 
ia a fine view of the town 


m 


Bowes 


248} 




of Barnard CaaUe; 8m. 








beyond ia Streatlam 




veatigeaofacaatle. 






Caatle, J. Bowe8,£8q.i 


47 


Spittal House. 

Bear Gross. 

Enter Westmorland. 


25S| 




and in the diatance, 
Raby Cattle, Duke of 
Clereland. 


m 


254} 






3ai 


BR0U6H. 


261} 






29 


Crackenthorpe. 


2711 






18 


Kirkby Thore. 


274} 




Crackenthoipe, Eaq. 


Temple Sowerby. 
1^ cr. the river Eden. 


276 






18i 


Brougham Castle. 


282 


Brougham Hall, Lord 

Lowther Castle, Earl Of 
Lonadale. 


SkiragOL 




J^ cr. river Emont, and 








enter Cumberland. 






8m.di8tant£denHaIl, 


18i 


PENKITH. 


282} 


In the distance. 


Sir G. Mnanraye, Bart. 








Greyatoke Park, H. 


Corby Caatic, P. H. 
Howard, Eaq. 




CABIISLE. 


8001 


Howard, Eaq. 



Hatfield, remarkable for the adjacent mansion, called Hatfield House (Mar- 
quis of Salisbury), erected at the commencement of the seventeenth centmy. The 
old house was the residence of Prince Edward, afterwards Edward VI., immedi- 
ately before his accession. Queen Elizabeth lived here as a sort of prisoner 
during the latter part of the reign of her sister Mary. Hatfield was, soon after 
the accession of James I., made over, in exchange for Theobalds, to Sir B. Cecily 
afterwards Earl of Salisbury, youngest son of the Lord-Treasurer Burghley, in 
whose fanuly it has ever since continued. The gateway and end of the old i>alace 
are still standing. The present building was erected by Sir R. CeciL In Novem- 
ber 1835, the left wing was destroyed by fire, on which occasion the Dowager 
Marchioness of Salisbury perished in the flames. The grounds are beautifully 
laid out. Charles I. was a prisoner at Hatfield. Pop. of par. 1851, 3862. 

Brough, situated in the wild district of Stainmoor. It is supposed to occupy 
the site of the VertersB of the Bomans. Here are the ruins of a castle which was 
erected before the Conquest. The church is a spacious ancient fabric, and the 
pulpit is formed out of a single stone. To the east of the town is a pillar which 
denotes the boundary of Yorkshire and Cumberland. Pop. of par. 1851, 1533. 



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LONDON TO THIBSK« THBOTTOH LOUGHBOBOtJGH, flte. 



373 



About eight miles farther on is Applebt, the county town of Westmorland, si- 
tuated on the Eden. It was a place of some importance before the Conquest, 
bat in the reign of Henry II. it was utterly destroyed by the Scots. In the time 
of Richard II. it met with a similar £Eite, and the greater part of it still lay in 
rams in the time of Queen Mary. The castle stands on a lofty height rising from 
the river. It was founded previous to the Norman Conquest, but was almost re- 
built in 1686 by the then Earl of Thanet. It is now the property of Sir K. 
Tafton, Bart. It contains a large collection of curious and valuable family por->> 
traits, some valuable MSS., and among other relics, the magnificent suit of ar- 
mour worn in the tiltyard by Greorge Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, as champion 
to Queen Elizabeth. This castle anciently belonged to the Clifford family, and 
was fortified for King Charles by Lady Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset, Pem- 
broke^ and Montgomery, but it was forced to surrender after the battle of Marston 
Moor. The church contains the monuments of Margaret, Cotmtess of Cumber- 
land, and of the celebrated Lady Anne, Countess of Dorset, Pembroke, &c, her 
daughter. Appleby formerly sent two M.P., but was disfranchised by the Re- 
form Bill. Pop. of borough and township, 1851, 883. 



CXXXn. LONDON TO THIR8K, THROUOH LOUGHBOROUGH, NOTTINGHAM, 
CHESTERilELD, SHEFFIELD, BARNSLEY, LEEDS, WAKEFIELD. AND 
RIPON, 235i Maes. 




GlaiiweU Hall, and, at 
a distance, Bolsoyer Cas- 
tle (Dake of Portland). 

Midland Railway. 

Sutton Hall. 



To Worksop, 16 miles. 



On Whittington Moor 
was a pablio-honae called 
the Revolution House, 
fimn its having been the 
place where the Earl of 
Danbjr, the Earl of De- 
vonslure, and others as- 
lembled to concert meap 
mures for effecting the 
Revolution of 1688. 



Norton Hall 



90} 
86} 

86i 



83i 
79| 



77f 
76 



From Hicks's Hall to 

Pleasley, Derbyshire, 

(p. 362.) 

Grlapwell. 

Heath. 
Hasland. 



CHESTERFIELD. 
(See p. 863.) 

Whittington Common. 



Dronfield. 
The church has a fine tower 
and spire. The chancel con- 
tains three rich stone stalls, 
the foliage of which is very 
beautiful. 

Little Norton. 
•^^ cr. the river Shea^ 
' and enter Torkshire* 



^l 

141 
148 

146 
149 

I6I| 
1661 



167| 
160} 



ON LETT FBOM LOND. 



Hasland House, and, 
two miles distant. Win- 

ffworth HaU, Sir H. J 
Hunloke, Bart. 
To Tideswell, 16 miles 
— BUkewell, 13— Win- 
ster, 12— Matlock, 9^— 
to the Buths, 10^. 



Beauchieff Abbey, 
founded in 1163 forWhite 
Canons, by Robert Fitz< 
Ranulph, said to have 
been one of the murder- 



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374 LONDOH 10 THIR8K THB0U6H LOVOHBOSOUGH, ka^CMHnued. 





ToWor1ciop,ldimaes. 

The Gnnge, Evl of 
Efllngham; and Went, 
worth House, Earl Fitz- 



To DonoMter, 16 mfles. 



Chevet, Sir T. E. Pil- 
kingtOD, Bart. 
Woodthorpt. 



To Selby, 23 miles. 

Newland Park, Sir C. 
Dodsworth, Bart. 

Hatfield Ha. 

Methley Hall, Earl of 
Bfexborongh. 



To Selby, 90^ miles; 
to Tadcaster, 14t miles. 

8 miles distant, Temple 
Newsam, containing an 
excellent collection of 
paintings. 



To Tadcaster, 11 miles. 



67} 



09| 
69 



56} 

52} 
51i 



SHEFFTELD, (p.876.) 

^^ cross the river Don. 

Pitsmoor. 

Cha;pei Town. 

HoodHilL 
Worsborooglu 



BABliSLEr(seep.S54.) 

Old Mm Inn. 

■^^ cr. Deame and Dove 

Canal and river Dearae. 

Staincross. 

New Miller Dam. 
Sandal Magna. 



49i 
48} 

45} 

41} 

40} 



•^^ cross river Oalder. 
, WAKEFIELD, (p. 856.) 

Newton. 

Lofthouse. 

Hunslet. 
•I^ cross river Aire. 

LEEDS, (p. 866.) 



Chapel Allerton. 
Moor Allerton. 

Alwoodley Gates. 
Harewood. 
The chnrch is a venerable 
structure, and contaiuini^, 
amongst other tombs, that 
of Judge Crascoigue, who 
committed Henry V. when 
Prince of Wales, to prison, 
for insulting him whilst ad< 



168^ 
1681 

169 

178 



176J 
176i 

179J 



184^ 

1861 
187^ 

190 

194 

196i 



198 
199} 

200i 
20^ 



era of Thomas k Beckett 
in ezpiatioD of whooe 
murder the abbey was 
built. 
ToHmddenfiel^aeim. 

8 miles distanVWort- 
ley HaU, Lord Whara- 
d&fe. ^ 

Tankeraley. 

Worsborough Hall,W. 
B. Martin, Esq. 

Onslethwaite Hovum, 
W. ElmhirstEsq.; and 
WentworthCfastlei P.W. 
T. y. Wentworth, Esq. 

To Stoclqport, 28 miles, 



Woolley Park, G. 
Wentworth, Esq. 

3 miles distant, Bret- 
ton Hall, W. B. Beau- 
mont, Esq. 

Pledwiek — Kettle- 
thorpe. 

Lupset Hall, D. Gas- 
keU. Esq. 

Thomes House, J. M. 
Gaskell, Esq. 

To Huddersfield, 13 
m.; to Halifia, 16 Bulea. 



Lofthouse Han. 
Middleton Lodge. 



To Halifax by Brad. 
ford,18m.; toOtley.lO 

2} miles distant, ATm< 
ley House. 
Potter Newton HaB. 



To Otley, 8 miles. 

Harewood House, Earl 
of Harewood, a noble 
mansion, with gardens 
and pleasure grounds 
laid out by the celebrated I 
Capability Browa. | 



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LONDON TO THIBdK THE0U6H LOUGHBOROUGH, Ac—ConHnued. 376 



ON EIGHT FBOH LOMD. 



Rnddhiff Park, Sir J. 
Radcliffe,Bart. 

Bilton Park, and be- 
yond, Scriven Park, Sir 
C. Slingaby, Bart. 

NiddHiai,J.Baw8on, 
Esq. 



Newby Hall, Earl Be 
Grey. 



Newby Park, 6. Hnd. 
on, Esq. 



Thirkieby Hill, 3 m. 



18 
12f 

4 
2i 



minlsteringr justice. Here 
are also the remains of Hare- 
wood Castle. 

.^^ cross river Whart 
Duokeswick. 
Spacey House. 
HARROWGATE (p. 877.) 
Killinghall. 
-^ cr. river Nidd. 
RIPLEY, 
a small town, which was 
neatly rebuilt in the Tudor 
style by Sir W. Ingflby in 
1829-80. The church con- 
tains several monuments of 
the Ingilby family, and in 
the church-yard is the pedes- 
tal of an ancient cross. 
South Stainley. 
RIPON (p. 878.) 
J^^ cr. the river Ure. 
The Leeming Road. 
Baldersbv. 
Skipton Bridge. 
j^^ cr. river Swale. 
Bushby Stoop. 
Carlton Miniott 
THIRSK (p. 880.) 



11 

^3 



ao6| 

208i 
211 
21S| 

215 



217J 
222i 

227 
228} 
230 

231} 
233 




R^;ton. 



PannaL 



Bridge, 



To Pateley 
9i miles. 

Ripley Castle, Sir W 
A. Ingilby, Bart. The 
gardens, which are very 
fine, are open to the pub- 
lic on Frioays. 



Studlev Royal, Earl De 
Grey, ancl beyond. Grant- 
ley Hall, Lord Grantley. 

Norton Conyers, Sir B. 
R. Graham, Bart. 



M a short distance from Glapwell (p. 373) on the left, is Hardwick Hall, Dnke 
of Devonshire, a most interesting specimen of the Elizabethan style of domestic 
architecture. It stands on the brow of a bold and commanding eminence, over- 
looking a vale of great beauty. This fine old mansion was erected by the cele- 
brated Conntess of Shrewsbury, daughter of John Hardwick of Hardwick, and 
heiress of this estate. She married four times, always contriving to get the power 
over her husband's estates by direct devise, or by intermarrying the children of 
their former marriages, so that she brought together immense estates, and laid the 
foundation of four dukedoms. Her first husband was Sir William Cavendish, the 
secretary and biographer of Wolsey, her last the Earl of Shrewsbury, to whose 
custody Mary Queen of Scots was consigned.* The most remarkable apart- 
ments in this interesting edifice are the state-room and the gallery. At one 
end of the former is a canopy of state, and in another part a bed, the hangings 
of which are very ancient. The gallery, which is about 170 feet long, 
and 26 wide, extends the whole length of the eastern side of the house, 
and is hung with tapestry, on a part of which is the date of 1478. In 
the chapel there is a very rich and curious altar doth, 80 feet long, hung 
ronnd the raUs of the altar, with figures of saints under canopies wrought in 
needle-work. The house has, with very few exceptions, been kept exactly in the 
* HowiTT*8 Rural Life in EngUnd, 2d edit. p. 257-267. 



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376 HABDWICK aALL.-8HEFFIJtLl>. 

fltate in which its builder left it as to ftiroitiire and arrangement The Duke of 
Devonshire has brought hither his familj pictures from Chaisworth. There are 
tktailj 200 portraits in this gallery, the most interesting being those of ** Bess 
of Hardwick," Queen Elizabeth, Mary Queen of Scots, Lady Jane Grey, Cardinal 
Pole, Bishop Gardiner, Sir Thomas More, Sir WiUiam Cavendish, William, first 
Duke of Devonshire, Hobbes the philosopher, &c. The furniture is in many 
instances older than the house, and was removed from the old halL Some of 
the needle-work was wrought by Mary Queen of Scots, and in the entrance hall 
there is a statue of her by Westmacott 

At about 100 yards from the hall stand the remains of the old baronial resi- 
dence where Queen Mary and Arabella Stuart were confined. In the reign of 
Henry VII. it was the residence of the Hardwick fiunily, but the whole pile is 
now but a splendid ruin luxuriantly mantled with ivy. 

Hardwick is in the parish of Ault Hucknall, and Hobbes the philosopher is 
buried in the church. About four miles to the west is the Tupton station of 
the North Midland Railway. 

Sheffield is situated near the confluence of the Don and the Sheaf, at the 
eastern foot of that extensive range of hills which runs along the centre of the 
island from Staffordshire to Westmorland. With the exception of a single 
outlet towards Doncaster, it is encompassed and overlooked by an amphitheatre 
of hills» and the neighbourhood presents a remarkable variety and beauty of 
prospect Hallamshire, which includes the parish of Sheffield, and the adjoin- 
ing parishes of Handsworth andEcclesfield, forms a district, the origin of which 
may be traced back to Saxon, Roman, and even British times, but the town of 
Sheffield has more recently risen into importance. In the reign of Henry I. the 
manor of Sheffield belonged to the fiunily of De Lovetot, who founded an hos-" 
pital called St Leonards, established a corn-mill, and erected a bridge over the 
river Don ; and themanor afterwards successivelydescendedbymarriage to the Fuiv 
uivalSjTalbots, and ultimately to the Howards, in whose possession it still remains.' 
Maiy Queen of Scots spent nearly fourteen years of her imprisonment in Shef- 
field manor-house, which stood on an eminence, a little distance from the town, 
and was dismantled in 1706 by the order of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk. A cas- 
tle was erected at Sheffield at a very early period. During the civil wars. Sir 
John Gell took possession of the castle and town for the parliament ; but on the 
approach of the Marquis of Newcastle, he retreated into Derbyshire. Sheffield 
Castle continued in the possession of the Royalists till after the battle of Mars- 
ton Moor, when it was obliged to capitulate after a siege of some days. It was 
then demolished by order of the parliament, and no vestiges of it now remain. 

So early as the thirteenth . century, Sheffield had acquired a reputation for 
iron manufiictures* especially for a kind of knives called ''whittles.'*' The great 
abundance of iron-ore, stone, and coal which are found in the vicinity might na- 
ta rally have been expected to give rise to such manufactures, and the several 
monntain streams which unite near the town Airmsh an extent of water-power 



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SHEFFIELD— HARROWaATE. 377 

which probably few other localities could command. In the rdgn of Queen 
Elisabeth many artisans emigrated from the Netherlands into England, in con- 
sequence of the cruelties of the Duke of Alva ; and the workers in iron having 
been settled in a body at Sheffield, the neighboorhood from this time became 
known for the manufacture of shears, sickles, knives, and scissars. The princi- 
pal manufacture of Sheffield is cutlery in all its branches. The vast buildings 
used for grinding by steam form one of the curiosities of the town. Silver-plate 
and plated goods form also one of its staple manufectures. Brass-foundries are 
also numerous, and the manufacture of Britannia metal and Grerman silver oc- 
cupies many hands. Optical instruments, brushes, buttons, and combs are also 
made here to a considerable extent, and there are various other manufactures 
which arise out of, or are connected with, the staple commodities of the town. 

The public buildings consist of the Town Hall, the Cutler's Hall, the Com 
Exchange, erected by one of the Dukes of Norfolk, whose fiunily own the 
ground upon which no inconsiderable part of the town is built, the Assembly 
Booms» and Theatre, the Music Hall, two News-rooms, and the Public Baths, the 
Cemetery, Botanical Gardens, General Infirmary, the Dispensary, and the 
Shrewsbury Hospital, established and munificently endowed by an Earl of 
Shrewsbury. Sheffield has numerous churches and meeting-houses, and esta- 
blishments for education, several Banks, a Literary and Philosophical Society, 
a Mechanics' Institution. Two M.P. Population, 1851, 135,310. 

Habrowoatb is celebrated for its mineral springs, which are annually visited 
by about 2000 persons. It consists of two scattered villages, known by the 
names of High and Low Harrowgate, situated about a mile from each other, 
and possessing ample accommodation for visitors. Harrowgate possesses both 
chalybeate and sulphurous springs. Of the former the oldest is the Tewit 
Well, which was discovered about the year 1576. The Old Spa, situated on 
the Stray, was discovered, by Dr. Stanhope, previous to 1681. The Starbeck 
chalybeate is about midway between Harrowgate and Knaresborough. The sa- 
line chalybeate is situated at Low Harrowgate, and was discovered in 1819. The 
solphurous springs are, the Old Sulphur Wells, situated at Low Harrowgate, close 
by the Leeds and Ripon road ; the Crown Sulphur Well, situated in the plea* 
sure-grounds belonging to the Crown Hotel ; and the Knaresborough or Star- 
beck Spa, situated nearly midway between Harrowgate and Knaresborough* 
Harrowgate possesses a considerable number of hotels, several boarding-houses, 
public baths, promenade-rooms, ball and billiard-rooms, circulating libraries and 
reading-rooms, four places of worship, &c Population of High and Low Har- 
rowgate in 1851, 3678. 

About three miles from Harrowgate is the town of Knarbsbobouoh, delight* 
fully situated on the banks of the Nidd, which flows through a most romantic 
ralley below precipitous rocks. The church of St John the Baptist is old, and 
oontains monuments to the Slingsbys, &c. Here are the remains of a castle which 
was erected soon after the conquest It belonged at one time to Piers Gavaston 
•the favourite of Edward II. In the year 1331 this castle was granted by Edward 



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378 KNASESBOBOUGH-BIFON. 

in. tohlB son, the celebrated John of Gaunt, and was afterwards one of tiie jAam 
in which Bicfaard IL was imprieoned. Doling the civil wars it sustained a nege 
from the parliamentary forces nnder Lord Fairfso, and at last surrendered upon 
hottonrable terms. It was afterwards dismantled by order of the parliament. Part 
of the principal tower is still remaining. In the walk along the bank of the 
Nidd, opposite ^e rains of the castle, is a cdebrated petrifying or dropping weB, 
springing in a declivity at the foot of a limestone rock. Near it is a curioot 
excavation called St Robert's Chapel, hollowed oat of the solid rock ; its roof is 
groined, and the altar adorned with Gothic ornaments. About half a mile lower 
down the river are the remains of a priory founded by Richard Plantag^iet A 
mile to the east is St Robertti Cave, remarkable on account of the discovery of 
a skeleton here in 1759, which led to the conviction and execution of the cele- 
brated Eugene Aram.* Knaresboroagh has manufoctories of linen and cotton, 
and its corn-market is one of the largest in the county. Two M.P. Pop. 1851, 
5536. Knaresborough was the birth-place of the famous blind guide John 
Metcalf. He had loet his sight in infoncy, and yet frequently acted as a guide 
t>ver the forest during the night, or when the paths were covered with snow,— 
contracted for making roads, building bridges, &e. He died 1810, aged ninety- 
three years. 

RiPON is a town of considerable antiquity, situated between the rivers Ure 
and Skell, over the former of which there is a handsome stone bridge of seven* 
teen arches. At an early period it was pillaged and burnt by the Danes, and 
here they defeated an army <^ the Saxons. A conical tumulus called Ellshaw 
or Ailcey Hill, near the cathedral, is supposed to cover the remains of those who 
fell in the battle. In 1695, several Saxon coins were found on digging into thil 
hiU. Ripon tafSered severely from the plague in 1534^ and again in 1635. 
Here in 1640, commissioners were deputed by Charles I. to meet with the Soots 
to treat with them, and endeavour to obtain a peaoe. In 1643, Sir Thomas 
Mauleverer, with a detachment of the parliamentary army, took possession of 
the town, and committed many outrages on the inhabitants, but was put to 
flight by a detachment of Ro3ralists under Sir John Mallory of Studley, then 
governor of Sldpton Castle. 

The most interesting building in Ripon is the cathedral, the first stone of 
which was laid in 1331, but the choir was probably not finished till 1494. The 
chapter house, however, with the crypts beneath, are supposed to be much more 
andotit It is said to be one of the best proportioned churches in the kingdom. 
It has two uniform towers at the west end, each 110 feet high, besides the greet 
tower called St Wilfred's tower; each of these towers originally supported a spire 
of wood covered with lead. Under the chapter house is a vaulted chamel 
house, which contains an immense collection of human remains in good preser- 
vation, piled in regular order round the walls. 

Trinity church was built and endowed in 1826, at a cost of £13,000, by its 
first incumbent, the Rev. Edward Kilvington. Ripon contains several DissentiDg 
* See Sir £. Bolwer Lytton's Eugene Aram. 



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MPOW-SnfDLBT BOYAL. 379 

duipela, and hospitals, a free grammar school, foonded in 1647, by Edwaid YI« 
a mechanics' institate, &c. The bishopric of Ripon was created in 1836, 
oat of the large dioceses of York and Chester. The bishop's palace is situated 
on a slight eminence, about a mile north-west of the city. The foundation stone 
was laid on the Ist of October 1838. The market-place is a spadoos square^ 
in the centre of which stands an obelisk, 90 feet high, which is surmounted by 
the arms of Ripon. This obelisk was erected by William Aislaby, Esq. of Stud« 
ley, who represented the borough for sixty years in Parliament On the south 
side of the market-place is die town-haU, built in 1801 by Mrs Allanson of Stud- 
ley. Ripon was once noted for the excellence of its ^urs ; it was also oele* 
brated for its woollen manufitctures. The present manufacture is chiefly 
saddle-trees,— it also produces linens and malt The Ure navigation was 
brought up to the town by means of a short canal in 1767. Ripon sends 
two members to Parliament Bishop Porteous was a native of this town. Pop. 
1851, 6080. 

Ripon is 208 miles north north-west of London, 27 north of Leeds, and 24 norths 
west by west of York. It affords the title of Earl to the Robinsixi family. 

About three miles firom Ripon is Studley Royal, the seat of Earl de Grey, 
adorned with a good collection of paintings. The principal object of attraction 
however, is the celebrated pleasure grounds, which include the venerable remains 
of Fountains Abbey, said to be the most perfect monastic building in England. 
The site of this monastery was granted in 1132, by Thurstan, Archbishop of 
York, to, certain monks who resolved to adopt the Cistercian order. Eight years 
after it was burnt down, but was speedily rebuilt The foundation of the church 
was laid in 1204. This abbey became, in the course of time, one of the wealthi- 
est monasteries in the kingdom, and its possessions extended over a tract of 
thirty miles. At the dissolution the abbey and part of the estates were sold to 
Sir Richard Gresham, father of Sir Thomas. It originally covered about ten 
acres of ground, but scarcely more than two are now covered with the ruins. 
*^ No depredation has been committed on the sacred pile ; time alone has brought 
it to its present state ; it has fallen by a gentle decay without any violent convul- 
sion. Built in the most elegant style of Grothic architecture, the tower and all the 
walls are yet standing, the roof alone being gone to ruins." The late Bliss Law- 
rence, who was owner of the abbey, evinced a most praiseworthy regard for these 
interesting remains of antiquity, and from time to time expended considerable 
sums in their preservation. A short distance west of the abbey stands the fine 
old mansion of Fountains Hall, built by Sir Stephen Proctor in 1611, with 
materials taken from the ruins of the monastery. On an eminence opposite the 
hall stand some large old yew trees, under which the monks are said to havis 
obtained shelter while engaged in building the abbey. They were originally seven 
in number, but three of them have been blown down. 

The domain of Studley is open to the pubUc every day except Sunday, until 
five o'clock in the evening. Harrowgate is fourteen miles distant 

About four miles from Ripon, and thirteen from Harrowgate, is Newby Hall, 



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380 



THIRSKflce. 



the mansion of Earl de Grey, situated on the northern bank of the river Ure, 
and commanding beautifol and extensive views of the surrounding country. It 
is supposed to contain the best private collection of statuary in the kingdom. 
The drawing-room is hung with tapestry of the celebrated Grobelin m